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Toxins 2016, 8(10), 295; doi:10.3390/toxins8100295

Pentahydroxyscirpene—Producing Strains, Formation In Planta, and Natural Occurrence

Center for Analytical Chemistry and Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mycotoxin Metabolism, Department of Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 20, Tulln 3430, Austria
Department of Applied Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 24, Tulln 3430, Austria
Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology (VUT), Getreidemarkt 9/163, Vienna 1060, Austria
Institute for Biotechnology in Plant Production, Department of Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 20, Tulln 3430, Austria
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sven Dänicke
Received: 9 September 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Fusarium Toxins – Relevance for Human and Animal Health)
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Trichothecenes are a class of structurally diverse mycotoxins with more than 200 naturally occurring compounds. Previously, a new compound, pentahydroxyscirpene (PHS), was reported as a byproduct of a nivalenol producing Fusarium strain, IFA189. PHS contains a hydroxy group at C-8 instead of the keto group of type B trichothecenes. In this work, we demonstrate that IFA189 belongs to the species Fusarium kyushuense using molecular tools. Production of PHS in vitro was also observed for several isolates of other Fusarium species producing nivalenol. Furthermore, we report the formation of 4-acetyl-PHS by F. kyushuense on inoculated rice. Wheat ears of the variety Remus were infected with IFA189 and the in planta production of PHS was confirmed. Natural occurrence of PHS was verified in barley samples from the Czech Republic using a liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method validated for this purpose. Toxicity of PHS to wheat ribosomes was evaluated with a coupled in vitro transcription and translation assay, which showed that PHS inhibits protein biosynthesis slightly less than nivalenol and deoxynivalenol. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; LC-MS/MS; taxonomy; toxicity; cereals mycotoxins; LC-MS/MS; taxonomy; toxicity; cereals

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Varga, E.; Wiesenberger, G.; Fruhmann, P.; Malachová, A.; Svoboda, T.; Lemmens, M.; Adam, G.; Berthiller, F. Pentahydroxyscirpene—Producing Strains, Formation In Planta, and Natural Occurrence. Toxins 2016, 8, 295.

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