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Toxins 2018, 10(9), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10090369

Malting of Fusarium Head Blight-Infected Rye (Secale cereale): Growth of Fusarium graminearum, Trichothecene Production, and the Impact on Malt Quality

1
Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, P.O. Box 6050, Dept. 7670, Fargo, ND 58108, USA
2
Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, Crookston, MN 56716, USA
3
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
4
Carrington Research Extension Center, North Dakota State University, P.O. Box 219, Carrington, ND 58421, USA
5
Department of Plant Pathology, North Dakota State University, P.O. Box 6050, Dept. 7660, Fargo, ND 58108, USA
6
School of Integrative Plant Science, Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology Section, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Fusarium Toxins – Relevance for Human and Animal Health)
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Abstract

This project was initiated with the goal of investigating the malt quality of winter rye cultivars and hybrids grown in the United States in 2014 and 2015, but high levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) were subsequently found in many of the malt samples. DON levels in 75% of the investigated rye samples (n = 117) were actually below 1.0 mg/kg, as quantified by a gas chromatography combined with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). However, 83% of the samples had DON in excess of 1.0 mg/kg following malting, and the average DON level in malted rye was 10.6 mg/kg. In addition, relatively high levels of 3-acetate DON (3-ADON), 15-acetate DON (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), and DON-3-glucoside (D3G) were observed in some rye malts. Our results show that rye grain DON is likely a poor predicator of type B trichothecenes in malt in practice, because high levels of malt DON, 15-ADONm and D3G were produced, even when the rye samples with DON levels below 0.50 mg/kg were processed. Fusarium Tri5 DNA content in rye was highly associated with malt DON levels (r = 0.83) in a small subset of samples (n = 55). The impact of Fusarium infection on malt quality was demonstrated by the significant correlations between malt DON levels and wort viscosity, β-glucan content, wort color, wort p-coumaric acid content, and total phenolic content. Additional correlations of rye Fusarium Tri5 DNA contents with malt diastatic power (DP), wort free amino nitrogen (FAN) content, and arabinoxylan content were observed. View Full-Text
Keywords: rye; variety; environment; type B trichothecenes; Tri5 DNA; malting quality; viscosity; phenolics rye; variety; environment; type B trichothecenes; Tri5 DNA; malting quality; viscosity; phenolics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Jin, Z.; Gillespie, J.; Barr, J.; Wiersma, J.J.; Sorrells, M.E.; Zwinger, S.; Gross, T.; Cumming, J.; Bergstrom, G.C.; Brueggeman, R.; Horsley, R.D.; Schwarz, P.B. Malting of Fusarium Head Blight-Infected Rye (Secale cereale): Growth of Fusarium graminearum, Trichothecene Production, and the Impact on Malt Quality. Toxins 2018, 10, 369.

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