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Toxins 2016, 8(6), 186; doi:10.3390/toxins8060186

Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Potential Mycotoxin Production in China

Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement/Cereal Quality Supervision and Testing Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100081, China
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Academic Editor: Sven Dänicke
Received: 28 April 2016 / Revised: 4 June 2016 / Accepted: 8 June 2016 / Published: 21 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Fusarium Toxins – Relevance for Human and Animal Health)
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Abstract

Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B1, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China. View Full-Text
Keywords: maize; ear rot; Fusarium spp.; mycotoxin chemotype; mycotoxin production maize; ear rot; Fusarium spp.; mycotoxin chemotype; mycotoxin production
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Duan, C.; Qin, Z.; Yang, Z.; Li, W.; Sun, S.; Zhu, Z.; Wang, X. Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Potential Mycotoxin Production in China. Toxins 2016, 8, 186.

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