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Toxins 2017, 9(9), 264; doi:10.3390/toxins9090264

Sinapic Acid Affects Phenolic and Trichothecene Profiles of F. culmorum and F. graminearum Sensu Stricto

1
Department of Botany and Nature Protection, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Plac Łódzki 1, 10-727 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Department of Chemistry, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 75, 60-637 Poznan, Poland
3
Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Production, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Plac Łódzki 3, 10-727 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sven Dänicke
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Fusarium Toxins – Relevance for Human and Animal Health)
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Abstract

Plant-derived compounds for reducing the mycotoxin load in food and feed have become a rapidly developing research field of importance for plant breeding efforts and in the search for natural fungicides. In this study, toxigenic strains of Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum sensu stricto were exposed to sinapic acid on solid YES media at levels close to those reported in wheat bran. Fusaria produced phenolic acids, whose accumulation was decreased by exogenous sinapic acid. Strains exposed to the lowest doses of sinapic acid showed more efficient reduction of phenolic acid production than fungi kept at higher concentrations of this compound. Fungi reduced exogenous sinapic acid, leading to the formation of syringic aldehyde. Treatment with sinapic acid led to a dramatic accumulation of its parent compound ferulic acid, presumably due to inhibition of the further conversion of this phenolic compound. Exogenous sinapic acid decreased the production of trichothecenes by fungi. Higher doses of sinapic acid resulted in more efficient reduction of mycotoxin accumulation in the media. Gene expression studies of Tri genes responsible for trichothecene biosynthesis (Tri4, Tri5 and Tri10) proved that the inhibition of mycotoxin production by sinapic acid occurred at the transcriptional level. Fusaria respond to sinapic acid by stimulation of ergosterol biosynthesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium; trichothecenes; sinapic acid Fusarium; trichothecenes; sinapic acid
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kulik, T.; Stuper-Szablewska, K.; Bilska, K.; Buśko, M.; Ostrowska-Kołodziejczak, A.; Załuski, D.; Perkowski, J. Sinapic Acid Affects Phenolic and Trichothecene Profiles of F. culmorum and F. graminearum Sensu Stricto. Toxins 2017, 9, 264.

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