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Toxins 2017, 9(2), 56; doi:10.3390/toxins9020056

Metabolism of Zearalenone and Its Major Modified Forms in Pigs

1
Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mycotoxin Metabolism and Center for Analytical Chemistry, Department of Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Konrad-Lorenz-Str. 20, 3430 Tulln, Austria
2
BIOMIN Research Center, Technopark 1, 3430 Tulln, Austria
3
Department of Applied Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Konrad-Lorenz-Str. 24, 3430 Tulln, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sven Dänicke
Received: 15 January 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Fusarium Toxins – Relevance for Human and Animal Health)
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Abstract

The Fusarium mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) can be conjugated with polar molecules, like sugars or sulfates, by plants and fungi. To date, the fate of these modified forms of ZEN has not yet been elucidated in animals. In order to investigate whether ZEN conjugates contribute to the total ZEN exposure of an individual, ZEN (10 µg/kg b.w.) and equimolar amounts of two of its plant metabolites (ZEN-14-O-β-glucoside, ZEN-16-O-β-glucoside) and of one fungal metabolite (ZEN-14-sulfate) were orally administered to four pigs as a single bolus using a repeated measures design. The concentrations of ZEN, its modified forms and its mammalian metabolites ZEN-14-glucuronide, α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) and α-ZEL-14-glucuronide in excreta were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) based methods. The biological recovery of ZEN in urine was 26% ± 10%, the total biological recovery in excreta was 40% ± 8%. Intact ZEN-14-sulfate, ZEN-14-O-β-glucoside and ZEN-16-O-β-glucoside were neither detected in urine nor in feces. After ZEN-14-sulfate application, 19% ± 5% of the administered dose was recovered in urine. In feces, no ZEN metabolites were detected. The total biological recoveries of ZEN-14-O-β-glucoside and ZEN-16-O-β-glucoside in the form of their metabolites in urine were 19% ± 11% and 13% ± 7%, respectively. The total biological recoveries in urine and feces amounted to 48% ± 7% and 34 ± 3%. An explanation for the low biological recoveries could be extensive metabolization by intestinal bacteria to yet unknown metabolites. In summary, ZEN-14-sulfate, ZEN-14-O-β-glucoside, and ZEN-16-O-β-glucoside were completely hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract of swine, thus contributing to the overall toxicity of ZEN. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; masked mycotoxins; plant metabolites; bioavailability; cleavage; enzymatic hydrolysis; gastrointestinal tract; high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry mycotoxins; masked mycotoxins; plant metabolites; bioavailability; cleavage; enzymatic hydrolysis; gastrointestinal tract; high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Binder, S.B.; Schwartz-Zimmermann, H.E.; Varga, E.; Bichl, G.; Michlmayr, H.; Adam, G.; Berthiller, F. Metabolism of Zearalenone and Its Major Modified Forms in Pigs. Toxins 2017, 9, 56.

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