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Toxins 2015, 7(6), 1945-1961; doi:10.3390/toxins7061945

Nivalenol Has a Greater Impact than Deoxynivalenol on Pig Jejunum Mucosa in Vitro on Explants and in Vivo on Intestinal Loops

1
Université de Toulouse, Institut National Polytechnique-Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire (INP-ENVT), Unité Mixte de Recherche UMR 1331 Toxalim, Research Center in Food Toxicology, 23 chemin des Capelles, F-31300 Toulouse, France
2
INRA, UMR 1331 Toxalim, Research Center in Food Toxicology, 180 chemin de tournefeuille F-31027 Toulouse, France
3
Faculty of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Royal University of Agriculture, P.O. box 2696, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
4
Laboratory of Animal Pathology, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, 86057-990 Londrina, Brazil
5
Plate-forme CIRE Chirurgie et Imagerie pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement UMR 085 PRC, INRA, 37380 Nouzilly, France
6
Instruction des Armées, Camp Guézo 01BP517 Cotonou, Benin
7
INP-ENVT, Université de Toulouse, F-31300 Toulouse, France
8
STROMALab UMR5273 UPS EFS INSERM U1031, 1 Avenue Jean Poulhes, 31403 Toulouse, France
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sven Dänicke
Received: 22 March 2015 / Accepted: 20 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Fusarium Toxins – Relevance for Human and Animal Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4083 KB, uploaded 29 May 2015]   |  

Abstract

The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), worldwide cereal contaminants, raise concerns for animal and human gut health, following contaminated food or feed ingestion. The impact of DON and NIV on intestinal mucosa was investigated after acute exposure, in vitro and in vivo. The histological changes induced by DON and NIV were analyzed after four-hour exposure on pig jejunum explants and loops, two alternative models. On explants, dose-dependent increases in the histological changes were induced by DON and NIV, with a two-fold increase in lesion severity at 10 µM NIV. On loops, NIV had a greater impact on the mucosa than DON. The overall proliferative cells showed 30% and 13% decrease after NIV and DON exposure, respectively, and NIV increased the proliferative index of crypt enterocytes. NIV also increased apoptosis at the top of villi and reduced by almost half the proliferative/apoptotic cell ratio. Lamina propria cells (mainly immune cells) were more sensitive than enterocytes (epithelial cells) to apoptosis induced by NIV. Our results demonstrate a greater impact of NIV than DON on the intestinal mucosa, both in vitro and in vivo, and highlight the need of a specific hazard characterization for NIV risk assessment. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; jejunum explant; loops; deoxynivalenol; nivalenol; enterocytes; histomorphology mycotoxins; jejunum explant; loops; deoxynivalenol; nivalenol; enterocytes; histomorphology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cheat, S.; Gerez, J.R.; Cognié, J.; Alassane-Kpembi, I.; Bracarense, A.P.F.L.; Raymond-Letron, I.; Oswald, I.P.; Kolf-Clauw, M. Nivalenol Has a Greater Impact than Deoxynivalenol on Pig Jejunum Mucosa in Vitro on Explants and in Vivo on Intestinal Loops. Toxins 2015, 7, 1945-1961.

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