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Toxins 2015, 7(11), 4622-4644; doi:10.3390/toxins7114622

Studies on the Bioavailability of Deoxynivalenol (DON) and DON Sulfonate (DONS) 1, 2, and 3 in Pigs Fed with Sodium Sulfite-Treated DON-Contaminated Maize

1
Institute of Animal Nutrition, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany
2
Biomin Holding GmbH, Biomin Research Center, Technopark 1, 3430 Tulln, Austria
3
Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mycotoxin Metabolism and Center for Analytical Chemistry, Department for Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad Lorenz Str. 20, 3430 Tulln, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Richard A. Manderville
Received: 23 July 2015 / Revised: 26 October 2015 / Accepted: 28 October 2015 / Published: 5 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Fusarium Toxins – Relevance for Human and Animal Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [307 KB, uploaded 5 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

Deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure of pigs might cause serious problems when critical dietary toxin concentrations are exceeded. As DON contamination of agricultural crops cannot be completely prevented, detoxification measures are needed. Wet preservation with sodium sulfite resulted in a significant DON reduction of naturally-contaminated maize in previous experiments. The preserved material had a characteristic DON sulfonates (DONS) pattern. DONS is known to be less toxic than DON but its stability was shown to depend on pH, which gives rise to the question if a back-conversion to DON occurs in vivo. Therefore, the toxicokinetics and bioavailability of DON and DONS were studied in pigs. After the administration of a single oral or intravenous bolus of DON or DONS, serial blood samples were collected and subsequently analyzed. DONS was not detectable after oral administration of DONS mixtures. The results showed further that the bioavailability of DONS as DON in pigs fed maize preserved wet with sodium sulfite was significantly decreased compared to untreated control maize (DON), indicating that DONS obviously did not convert back to DON to a large extent in vivo. Moreover, the fact that DONS was not detectable in systemic blood requires further investigations regarding their ingestive and/or metabolic fate. View Full-Text
Keywords: decontamination; sodium sulfite; deoxynivalenol; deoxynivalenol sulfonates; toxicokinetics; bioavailability; pigs decontamination; sodium sulfite; deoxynivalenol; deoxynivalenol sulfonates; toxicokinetics; bioavailability; pigs
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Paulick, M.; Winkler, J.; Kersten, S.; Schatzmayr, D.; Schwartz-Zimmermann, H.E.; Dänicke, S. Studies on the Bioavailability of Deoxynivalenol (DON) and DON Sulfonate (DONS) 1, 2, and 3 in Pigs Fed with Sodium Sulfite-Treated DON-Contaminated Maize. Toxins 2015, 7, 4622-4644.

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