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Toxins 2015, 7(6), 2071-2095; doi:10.3390/toxins7062071

Deoxynivalenol Impairs Weight Gain and Affects Markers of Gut Health after Low-Dose, Short-Term Exposure of Growing Pigs

1
Division of Veterinary Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584-CM Utrecht, The Netherlands
2
Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584-CG Utrecht, The Netherlands
3
Department Immunology, Nutricia Research, Uppsalalaan 12, 3584-CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sven Dänicke
Received: 23 February 2015 / Revised: 26 May 2015 / Accepted: 1 June 2015 / Published: 9 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Fusarium Toxins – Relevance for Human and Animal Health)
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Abstract

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the major mycotoxins produced by Fusarium fungi, and exposure to this mycotoxin requires an assessment of the potential adverse effects, even at low toxin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a short-term, low-dose DON exposure on various gut health parameters in pigs. Piglets received a commercial feed or the same feed contaminated with DON (0.9 mg/kg feed) for 10 days, and two hours after a DON bolus (0.28 mg/kg BW), weight gain was determined and samples of different segments of the intestine were collected. Even the selected low dose of DON in the diet negatively affected weight gain and induced histomorphological alterations in the duodenum and jejunum. The mRNA expression of different tight junction (TJ) proteins, especially occludin, of inflammatory markers, like interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-10 and the oxidative stress marker heme-oxigenase1, were affected along the intestine by low levels of DON in the diet. Taken together, our results indicate that even after low-level exposure to DON, which has been generally considered as acceptable in animal feeds, clinically-relevant changes are measurable in markers of gut health and integrity. View Full-Text
Keywords: deoxynivalenol; intestine; weight gain; histomorphology; tight junctions; cytokines deoxynivalenol; intestine; weight gain; histomorphology; tight junctions; cytokines
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Alizadeh, A.; Braber, S.; Akbari, P.; Garssen, J.; Fink-Gremmels, J. Deoxynivalenol Impairs Weight Gain and Affects Markers of Gut Health after Low-Dose, Short-Term Exposure of Growing Pigs. Toxins 2015, 7, 2071-2095.

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