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Toxins 2016, 8(11), 334; doi:10.3390/toxins8110334

Deoxynivalenol and Its Modified Forms: Are There Major Differences?

1
Division of Veterinary Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584-CM Utrecht, The Netherlands
2
Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584-CG Utrecht, The Netherlands
3
Department Immunology, Nutricia Research, Uppsalalaan 12, 3584-CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sven Dänicke
Received: 4 July 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 16 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Fusarium Toxins – Relevance for Human and Animal Health)
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Abstract

Considering the diverse toxic effects of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON), its common occurrence in wheat-based products, and its stability during processing, DON constitutes an increasing health concern for humans and animals. In addition to the parent compound DON, human and animal exposure encompasses the acetylated fungal metabolites 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3ADON) and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15ADON) as well as the plant-derived DON-glucoside (DON3G) and the bacterial product de-epoxy-DON (DOM-1). In the current study we used the well-established Caco-2 cell model to compare the effects of these naturally occurring forms of DON on cell viability and markers of barrier integrity, as well as on the release of the pro-inflammatory chemokine chemokine CXC motif ligand (CXCL8). Results show that 3ADON is less potent in inducing adverse effects on barrier integrity when compared to DON, whereas 15ADON appears to be slightly more potent than DON. In contrast, DON3G and DOM-1 exerted no measurable adverse effects on the intestinal barrier. It was also demonstrated that galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are able to protect epithelial cells against DON and its acetylated forms, which suggests that GOS are beneficial food additives in the protection of vulnerable segments of the human population against adverse effects of DON and its derivatives. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxin; deoxynivalenol; 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol; 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol; de-epoxy-DON; DON-3-O-glucoside; intestinal barrier; CXCL8 mycotoxin; deoxynivalenol; 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol; 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol; de-epoxy-DON; DON-3-O-glucoside; intestinal barrier; CXCL8
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Alizadeh, A.; Braber, S.; Akbari, P.; Kraneveld, A.; Garssen, J.; Fink-Gremmels, J. Deoxynivalenol and Its Modified Forms: Are There Major Differences? Toxins 2016, 8, 334.

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