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Toxins 2016, 8(11), 306; doi:10.3390/toxins8110306

Determination of Deoxynivalenol in the Urine of Pregnant Women in the UK

1
Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Brocklehurst Building, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull HU3 2RW, UK
2
Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, LICAMM, School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
3
Department of Environmental Medicine, Hainan Medical University, 3 Xueyuan Road, Haikou 571199, China
4
Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, GMO and Mycotoxins Unit, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, 299,00161 Rome, Italy
5
Department of Statistical Sciences, Piazzale Aldo Moro, Università degli studi di Roma “La Sapienza”, 5,00185 Roma, Italy
6
Echuca Regional Health, Service Street, Echuca 3564, Australia
7
Centre for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, Hull York Medical School, Hertford Building, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX, UK
8
Weill Cornell Medicine in Qatar, Education City, P.O. Box 24144, Qatar
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sven Dänicke
Received: 13 April 2016 / Revised: 6 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 September 2016 / Published: 25 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Fusarium Toxins – Relevance for Human and Animal Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [613 KB, uploaded 25 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most commonly occurring trichothecenes, produced mainly by Fusarium graminearum. Little is known about the effect of DON exposure or the levels of DON exposure that occur during pregnancy. The project aimed to provide data on levels of total DON and de-epoxi Deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) in pregnant human urine samples analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Morning urine samples were collected over two consecutive days from 42 volunteers and associated food consumption was recorded for the 24 h prior to the sample. Spearman’s rho non-parametric test for correlation was used to assess the data. Levels of DON did not differ significantly between day 1 (mean 29.7 ng/mL urine or 40.1 ng DON/mg creatinine) and day 2 (mean 28.7 ng/mL urine or 38.8 ng DON/mg creatinine ng/mL/day) urine samples. The only significant positive correlation was found between total ng DON/mg creatinine and parity (rho = 0.307, n = 42, p < 0.005 two-tailed) and total ng DON/mg creatinine with baked goods on day 1 (rho = 0.532, n = 42, p < 0.0005 two-tailed). This study provides data on the DON levels in pregnancy in this suburban population and reassurance that those levels are within acceptable limits. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; Deoxynivalenol; pregnancy; vomitoxin mycotoxins; Deoxynivalenol; pregnancy; vomitoxin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wells, L.; Hardie, L.; Williams, C.; White, K.; Liu, Y.; De Santis, B.; Debegnach, F.; Moretti, G.; Greetham, S.; Brera, C.; Rigby, A.; Atkin, S.; Sathyapalan, T. Determination of Deoxynivalenol in the Urine of Pregnant Women in the UK. Toxins 2016, 8, 306.

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