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Toxins 2017, 9(7), 198; doi:10.3390/toxins9070198

trans-Cinnamic and Chlorogenic Acids Affect the Secondary Metabolic Profiles and Ergosterol Biosynthesis by Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum Sensu Stricto

1
Department of Botany and Nature Protection, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Plac Łódzki 1, Olsztyn 10-727, Poland
2
Department of Chemistry, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 75, 60-637 Poznan, Poland
3
Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Production, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Plac Łódzki 3, Olsztyn 10-727, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sven Dänicke
Received: 15 May 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Fusarium Toxins – Relevance for Human and Animal Health)
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Abstract

Plant-derived compounds limiting mycotoxin contamination are currently of major interest in food and feed production. However, their potential application requires an evaluation of their effects on fungal secondary metabolism and membrane effects. In this study, different strains of Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum sensu stricto were exposed to trans-cinnamic and chlorogenic acids on solid YES media. Fusaria produced phenolic acids, whose accumulation was lowered by exogenous phenolic compounds. In addition, fungi reduced exogenous phenolic acids, leading either to their conversion or degradation. trans-Cinnamic acid was converted to caffeic and ferulic acids, while chlorogenic acid was degraded to caffeic acid. The latter underwent further degradation to protocatechuic acid. Fungal-derived trans-cinnamic acid, as the first intermediate of the shikimate pathway, increased after chlorogenic acid treatment, presumably due to the further inhibition of the conversion of trans-cinnamic acid. Exogenous trans-cinnamic and chlorogenic acid displayed the inhibition of mycotoxin production by Fusaria, which appeared to be largely dependent on the phenolic compound and its concentration and the assayed strain. Exogenous phenolic acids showed different effects on ergosterol biosynthesis by fungi. It was found that the production of this membrane sterol was stimulated by trans-cinnamic acid, while chlorogenic acid negatively impacted ergosterol biosynthesis, suggesting that phenolic acids with stronger antifungal activities may upregulate ergosterol biosynthesis by Fusaria. This paper reports on the production of phenolic acids by Fusaria for the first time. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium culmorum; Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto; trichothecenes; phenolic acids; trans-cinnamic acid; chlorogenic acid; ergosterol Fusarium culmorum; Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto; trichothecenes; phenolic acids; trans-cinnamic acid; chlorogenic acid; ergosterol
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kulik, T.; Stuper-Szablewska, K.; Bilska, K.; Buśko, M.; Ostrowska-Kołodziejczak, A.; Załuski, D.; Perkowski, J. trans-Cinnamic and Chlorogenic Acids Affect the Secondary Metabolic Profiles and Ergosterol Biosynthesis by Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum Sensu Stricto. Toxins 2017, 9, 198.

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