Next Article in Journal
Host and Cropping System Shape the Fusarium Population: 3ADON-Producers Are Ubiquitous in Wheat Whereas NIV-Producers Are More Prevalent in Rice
Previous Article in Journal
Individual and Combined Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Feed Ingredients and Complete Feeds in China
Previous Article in Special Issue
Assessment of Urinary Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in UK Children and Adolescents
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2018, 10(3), 114; doi:10.3390/toxins10030114

Effects of High Levels of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on Growth Performance, and Hematological and Immunological Parameters in Pigs

Animal Nutritional & Physiology Team, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, (55365)#1500 Kongjwipatjwi-ro, Iseo-myeon, Wanju 55365, Korea
College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Ilsan 54596, Korea
Swine Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Chungnam 31000, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Fusarium Toxins – Relevance for Human and Animal Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [682 KB, uploaded 7 March 2018]   |  


Background: Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are common food contaminants produced by Fusarium sp. Mycotoxins are a potential health hazard because of their toxicological effects on both humans and farmed animals. Methods: We analyzed three groups of pigs: a control group (fed a standard diet), and the DON and ZEN groups, fed a diet containing 8 mg/kg DON and 0.8 mg/kg ZEN respectively, for four weeks. Results: DON and ZEN exposure decreased body weight (BW), average daily feed intake (ADFI), food conversion rate (FCR), and the serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM. The total antioxidant levels significantly decreased in serum and increased in urine samples of both treatment groups. Additionally, DON and ZEN exposure increased serotonin levels in urine. Hematological parameters were not affected by the investigated toxins. Microscopic lesions were evident in sections of kidneys from either treatment group: we found sporadic interstitial nephritis in the DON group and renal glomerulus atrophy in the ZEN group. The expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine marker genes were reduced in tissues from DON- and ZEN-exposed pigs. Conclusions: chronic ingestion of high doses of DON and ZEN alters the immune response and causes organs damage, and might be associated with various diseases in pigs. View Full-Text
Keywords: deoxynivalenol; zearalenone; pig; toxin; antioxidant; serum; immune; diseases deoxynivalenol; zearalenone; pig; toxin; antioxidant; serum; immune; diseases

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Reddy, K.E.; Song, J.; Lee, H.-J.; Kim, M.; Kim, D.-W.; Jung, H.J.; Kim, B.; Lee, Y.; Yu, D.; Kim, D.-W.; Oh, Y.K.; Lee, S.D. Effects of High Levels of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on Growth Performance, and Hematological and Immunological Parameters in Pigs. Toxins 2018, 10, 114.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top