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Toxins 2015, 7(6), 1979-1988; doi:10.3390/toxins7061979

Food Contaminant Zearalenone and Its Metabolites Affect Cytokine Synthesis and Intestinal Epithelial Integrity of Porcine Cells

Laboratory of Animal Biology, National Institute for Research and Development for Biology and Animal Nutrition, Calea Bucuresti No. 1, Balotesti, Ilfov 077015, Romania
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Academic Editor: Sven Dänicke
Received: 18 March 2015 / Accepted: 27 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Fusarium Toxins – Relevance for Human and Animal Health)
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Abstract

The intestinal epithelium is the first barrier against food contaminants. Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogenic mycotoxin that was identified as a common contaminant of cereal grains and food and feedstuffs. In the present study, we have investigated the in vitro effects of ZEN and some of its metabolites (α-ZOL, β-ZOL) in concentrations of 10–100 µM on a swine epithelial cell line: Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-1). We demonstrated that both ZEN metabolites were more toxic for IPEC cells as resulted from the XTT test, while for doses lower than 10 µM, only β-ZOL showed a more pronounced cytotoxicity versus epithelial cells as resulted from neutral red assay. ZEN has no effect on TER values, while α-ZOL significantly decreased the TER values, starting with day 4 of treatment. β-ZOL had a dual effect, firstly it induced a significant increase of TER, and then, starting on day 6, it induced a dramatic decrease of TER values as compared with on day 0. Concerning the cytokine synthesis, our results showed that ZEN has a tendency to increase the synthesis of IL-8 and IL-10. By contrast, α- and β-ZOL decreased the expression of both IL-8 and IL-10, in a dose dependent manner. In conclusion, our results showed that ZEN and its metabolites differently affected porcine intestinal cell viability, transepithelial resistance and cytokine synthesis with important implication for gut health. View Full-Text
Keywords: intestine; zearalenone; metabolites; swine; epithelial cells intestine; zearalenone; metabolites; swine; epithelial cells
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Marin, D.E.; Motiu, M.; Taranu, I. Food Contaminant Zearalenone and Its Metabolites Affect Cytokine Synthesis and Intestinal Epithelial Integrity of Porcine Cells. Toxins 2015, 7, 1979-1988.

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