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Special Issue "Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2008)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Stefano Mariani

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +39-0223994279
Fax: +39-0223994300
Interests: MEMS; structural sensors; Kalman filtering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) are devices on a millimeter scale, with micro-resolution. Each MEMS is given by the integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators and electronics on a common silicon substrate, obtained through micro-fabrication technology.

MEMS are often designed to work in mobile devices, and are therefore subject during their life to accidental mechanical loadings. Because of the MEMS size, multi-scale analyses are sometimes required in reliability analysis. Furthermore, also thermal, electrical, magnetic and environmental actions should be accounted for in a fully coupled multi-physics modelling of the devices.

As for packaging, some technical problems caused to the devices are not yet thoroughly understood and solved. Since standards do not necessarily apply to packaged MEMS, new knowledge-based testing methodologies need to be proposed.

The aim of this special issue is to collect high quality research results on all these aspects of MEMS engineering.

Dr. Stefano Mariani
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • micro-electro-mechanical-systems
  • multi-scale and multi-physics modelling
  • micro-fluidics
  • failure analysis
  • reliability analysis
  • package engineering

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (46 papers)

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Open AccessArticle Nonlinear-Based MEMS Sensors and Active Switches for Gas Detection
Sensors 2016, 16(6), 758; doi:10.3390/s16060758
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 13 May 2016 / Accepted: 17 May 2016 / Published: 25 May 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3284 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of a MOF thin film on electrostatically actuated microstructures to realize a switch triggered by gas and a sensing algorithm based on amplitude tracking. The devices are based on the nonlinear response of
[...] Read more.
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of a MOF thin film on electrostatically actuated microstructures to realize a switch triggered by gas and a sensing algorithm based on amplitude tracking. The devices are based on the nonlinear response of micromachined clamped-clamped beams. The microbeams are coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), namely HKUST-1, to achieve high sensitivity. The softening and hardening nonlinear behaviors of the microbeams are exploited to demonstrate the ideas. For gas sensing, an amplitude-based tracking algorithm is developed to quantify the captured quantity of gas. Then, a MEMS switch triggered by gas using the nonlinear response of the microbeam is demonstrated. Noise analysis is conducted, which shows that the switch has high stability against thermal noise. The proposed switch is promising for delivering binary sensing information, and also can be used directly to activate useful functionalities, such as alarming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Large Out-of-Plane Displacement Bistable Electromagnetic Microswitch on a Single Wafer
Sensors 2016, 16(5), 634; doi:10.3390/s16050634
Received: 29 March 2016 / Revised: 27 April 2016 / Accepted: 27 April 2016 / Published: 5 May 2016
PDF Full-text (6449 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a bistable microswitch fully batch-fabricated on a single glass wafer, comprising of a microactuator, a signal transformer, a microspring and a permanent magnet. The bistable mechanism of the microswitch with large displacement of 160 μm depends on the balance of
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a bistable microswitch fully batch-fabricated on a single glass wafer, comprising of a microactuator, a signal transformer, a microspring and a permanent magnet. The bistable mechanism of the microswitch with large displacement of 160 μm depends on the balance of the magnetic force and elastic force. Both the magnetic force and elastic force were optimized by finite-element simulation to predict the reliable of the device. The prototype was fabricated and characterized. By utilizing thick laminated photoresist sacrificial layer, the large displacement was obtained to ensure the insulation of the microswitch. The testing results show that the microswitch realized the bistable mechanism at a 3–5 V input voltage and closed in 0.96 ms, which verified the simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Top-Down CMOS-NEMS Polysilicon Nanowire with Piezoresistive Transduction
Sensors 2015, 15(7), 17036-17047; doi:10.3390/s150717036
Received: 21 May 2015 / Revised: 1 July 2015 / Accepted: 3 July 2015 / Published: 14 July 2015
PDF Full-text (2793 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A top-down clamped-clamped beam integrated in a CMOS technology with a cross section of 500 nm × 280 nm has been electrostatic actuated and sensed using two different transduction methods: capacitive and piezoresistive. The resonator made from a single polysilicon layer has a
[...] Read more.
A top-down clamped-clamped beam integrated in a CMOS technology with a cross section of 500 nm × 280 nm has been electrostatic actuated and sensed using two different transduction methods: capacitive and piezoresistive. The resonator made from a single polysilicon layer has a fundamental in-plane resonance at 27 MHz. Piezoresistive transduction avoids the effect of the parasitic capacitance assessing the capability to use it and enhance the CMOS-NEMS resonators towards more efficient oscillator. The displacement derived from the capacitive transduction allows to compute the gauge factor for the polysilicon material available in the CMOS technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Development of a Portable Non-Invasive Swallowing and Respiration Assessment Device
Sensors 2015, 15(6), 12428-12453; doi:10.3390/s150612428
Received: 9 March 2015 / Accepted: 18 May 2015 / Published: 27 May 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4462 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dysphagia is a condition that happens when a person cannot smoothly swallow food from the mouth to the stomach. It causes malnourishment in patients, or can even cause death due to aspiration pneumonia. Recently, more and more researchers have focused their attention on
[...] Read more.
Dysphagia is a condition that happens when a person cannot smoothly swallow food from the mouth to the stomach. It causes malnourishment in patients, or can even cause death due to aspiration pneumonia. Recently, more and more researchers have focused their attention on the importance of swallowing and respiration coordination, and the use of non-invasive assessment systems has become a hot research trend. In this study, we aimed to integrate the timing and pattern monitoring of respiration and swallowing by using a portable and non-invasive approach which can be applied at the bedside in hospitals or institutions, or in a home environment. In this approach, we use a force sensing resistor (FSR) to detect the motions of the thyroid cartilage in the pharyngeal phase. We also use the surface electromyography (sEMG) to detect the contraction of the submental muscle in the oral phase, and a nasal cannula to detect nasal airflow for respiration monitoring during the swallowing process. All signals are received and processed for swallowing event recognition. A total of 19 volunteers participated in the testing and over 57 measurements were made. The results show that the proposed approach can effectively distinguish the swallowing function in people of different ages and genders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle An Adaptive Compensation Algorithm for Temperature Drift of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Gyroscopes Using a Strong Tracking Kalman Filter
Sensors 2015, 15(5), 11222-11238; doi:10.3390/s150511222
Received: 7 February 2015 / Revised: 13 April 2015 / Accepted: 29 April 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1818 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present an adaptive algorithm for a system integrated with micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) gyroscopes and a compass to eliminate the influence from the environment, compensate the temperature drift precisely, and improve the accuracy of the MEMS gyroscope. We use a simplified drift model
[...] Read more.
We present an adaptive algorithm for a system integrated with micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) gyroscopes and a compass to eliminate the influence from the environment, compensate the temperature drift precisely, and improve the accuracy of the MEMS gyroscope. We use a simplified drift model and changing but appropriate model parameters to implement this algorithm. The model of MEMS gyroscope temperature drift is constructed mostly on the basis of the temperature sensitivity of the gyroscope. As the state variables of a strong tracking Kalman filter (STKF), the parameters of the temperature drift model can be calculated to adapt to the environment under the support of the compass. These parameters change intelligently with the environment to maintain the precision of the MEMS gyroscope in the changing temperature. The heading error is less than 0.6° in the static temperature experiment, and also is kept in the range from 5° to −2° in the dynamic outdoor experiment. This demonstrates that the proposed algorithm exhibits strong adaptability to a changing temperature, and performs significantly better than KF and MLR to compensate the temperature drift of a gyroscope and eliminate the influence of temperature variation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle A PDMS-Based 2-Axis Waterproof Scanner for Photoacoustic Microscopy
Sensors 2015, 15(5), 9815-9826; doi:10.3390/s150509815
Received: 22 March 2015 / Revised: 20 April 2015 / Accepted: 20 April 2015 / Published: 27 April 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3680 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is an imaging tool to provide in vivo optically sensitive images in biomedical research. To achieve a small size, fast imaging speed, wide scan range, and high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in a water environment, we introduce a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based
[...] Read more.
Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is an imaging tool to provide in vivo optically sensitive images in biomedical research. To achieve a small size, fast imaging speed, wide scan range, and high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in a water environment, we introduce a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based 2-axis scanner for a flexible and waterproof structure. The design, theoretical background, fabrication process and performance of the scanner are explained in details. The designed and fabricated scanner has dimensions of 15 × 15 × 15 mm along the X, Y and Z axes, respectively. The characteristics of the scanner are tested under DC and AC conditions. By pairing with electromagnetic forces, the maximum scanning angles in air and water are 18° and 13° along the X and Y axes, respectively. The measured resonance frequencies in air and water are 60 and 45 Hz along the X axis and 45 and 30 Hz along the Y axis, respectively. Finally, OR-PAM with high SNRs is demonstrated using the fabricated scanner, and the PA images of micro-patterned samples and microvasculatures of a mouse ear are successfully obtained with high-resolution and wide-field of view. OR-PAM equipped with the 2-axis PDMS based waterproof scanner has lateral and axial resolutions of 3.6 μm and 26 μm, respectively. This compact OR-PAM system could potentially and widely be used in preclinical and clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Heat Transfer and Friction Characteristics of the Microfluidic Heat Sink with Variously-Shaped Ribs for Chip Cooling
Sensors 2015, 15(4), 9547-9562; doi:10.3390/s150409547
Received: 10 February 2015 / Revised: 1 April 2015 / Accepted: 13 April 2015 / Published: 22 April 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2967 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper experimentally and numerically investigated the heat transfer and friction characteristics of microfluidic heat sinks with variously-shaped micro-ribs, i.e., rectangular, triangular and semicircular ribs. The micro-ribs were fabricated on the sidewalls of microfluidic channels by a surface-micromachining micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) process
[...] Read more.
This paper experimentally and numerically investigated the heat transfer and friction characteristics of microfluidic heat sinks with variously-shaped micro-ribs, i.e., rectangular, triangular and semicircular ribs. The micro-ribs were fabricated on the sidewalls of microfluidic channels by a surface-micromachining micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) process and used as turbulators to improve the heat transfer rate of the microfluidic heat sink. The results indicate that the utilizing of micro-ribs provides a better heat transfer rate, but also increases the pressure drop penalty for microchannels. Furthermore, the heat transfer and friction characteristics of the microchannels are strongly affected by the rib shape. In comparison, the triangular ribbed microchannel possesses the highest Nusselt number and friction factor among the three rib types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle A Wafer Level Vacuum Encapsulated Capacitive Accelerometer Fabricated in an Unmodified Commercial MEMS Process
Sensors 2015, 15(4), 7349-7359; doi:10.3390/s150407349
Received: 23 January 2015 / Revised: 2 March 2015 / Accepted: 10 March 2015 / Published: 25 March 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present the design and fabrication of a single axis low noise accelerometer in an unmodified commercial MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) process. The new microfabrication process, MEMS Integrated Design for Inertial Sensors (MIDIS), introduced by Teledyne DALSA Inc. allows wafer level vacuum encapsulation at
[...] Read more.
We present the design and fabrication of a single axis low noise accelerometer in an unmodified commercial MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) process. The new microfabrication process, MEMS Integrated Design for Inertial Sensors (MIDIS), introduced by Teledyne DALSA Inc. allows wafer level vacuum encapsulation at 10 milliTorr which provides a high Quality factor and reduces noise interference on the MEMS sensor devices. The MIDIS process is based on high aspect ratio bulk micromachining of single-crystal silicon layer that is vacuum encapsulated between two other silicon handle wafers. The process includes sealed Through Silicon Vias (TSVs) for compact design and flip-chip integration with signal processing circuits. The proposed accelerometer design is sensitive to single-axis in-plane acceleration and uses a differential capacitance measurement. Over ±1 g measurement range, the measured sensitivity was 1fF/g. The accelerometer system was designed to provide a detection resolution of 33 milli-g over the operational range of ±100 g. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle An Analytical Model for Squeeze-Film Damping of Perforated Torsional Microplates Resonators
Sensors 2015, 15(4), 7388-7411; doi:10.3390/s150407388
Received: 7 January 2015 / Revised: 16 March 2015 / Accepted: 19 March 2015 / Published: 25 March 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (999 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Squeeze-film damping plays a significant role in the performance of micro-resonators because it determines their quality factors. Perforations in microstructures are often used to control the squeeze-film damping in micro-resonators. To model the perforation effects on the squeeze-film damping, many analytical models have
[...] Read more.
Squeeze-film damping plays a significant role in the performance of micro-resonators because it determines their quality factors. Perforations in microstructures are often used to control the squeeze-film damping in micro-resonators. To model the perforation effects on the squeeze-film damping, many analytical models have been proposed, however, most of the previous models have been concerned with the squeeze-film damping due to the normal motion between the perforated vibrating plate and a fixed substrate, while there is a lack of works that model the squeeze-film damping of perforated torsion microplates, which are also widely used in MEMS devices. This paper presents an analytical model for the squeeze-film damping of perforated torsion microplates. The derivation in this paper is based on a modified Reynolds equation that includes compressibility and rarefaction effects. The pressure distribution under the vibrating plate is obtained using the double sine series. Closed-form expressions for the stiffness and the damping coefficients of the squeeze-film are derived. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing its results with the finite element method (FEM) results and the experimental results available in the literature. The regime of validity and limitations of the present model are assessed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Improving the Precision and Speed of Euler Angles Computation from Low-Cost Rotation Sensor Data
Sensors 2015, 15(3), 7016-7039; doi:10.3390/s150307016
Received: 5 January 2015 / Revised: 19 February 2015 / Accepted: 17 March 2015 / Published: 23 March 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (6395 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article compares three different algorithms used to compute Euler angles from data obtained by the angular rate sensor (e.g., MEMS gyroscope)—the algorithms based on a rotational matrix, on transforming angular velocity to time derivations of the Euler angles and on unit quaternion
[...] Read more.
This article compares three different algorithms used to compute Euler angles from data obtained by the angular rate sensor (e.g., MEMS gyroscope)—the algorithms based on a rotational matrix, on transforming angular velocity to time derivations of the Euler angles and on unit quaternion expressing rotation. Algorithms are compared by their computational efficiency and accuracy of Euler angles estimation. If attitude of the object is computed only from data obtained by the gyroscope, the quaternion-based algorithm seems to be most suitable (having similar accuracy as the matrix-based algorithm, but taking approx. 30% less clock cycles on the 8-bit microcomputer). Integration of the Euler angles’ time derivations has a singularity, therefore is not accurate at full range of object’s attitude. Since the error in every real gyroscope system tends to increase with time due to its offset and thermal drift, we also propose some measures based on compensation by additional sensors (a magnetic compass and accelerometer). Vector data of mentioned secondary sensors has to be transformed into the inertial frame of reference. While transformation of the vector by the matrix is slightly faster than doing the same by quaternion, the compensated sensor system utilizing a matrix-based algorithm can be approximately 10% faster than the system utilizing quaternions (depending on implementation and hardware). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle A Three-Dimensional Microdisplacement Sensing System Based on MEMS Bulk-Silicon Technology
Sensors 2014, 14(11), 20533-20542; doi:10.3390/s141120533
Received: 28 August 2014 / Revised: 21 October 2014 / Accepted: 22 October 2014 / Published: 30 October 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For the dimensional measurement and characterization of microsized and nanosized components, a three-dimensional microdisplacement sensing system was developed using the piezoresistive effect in silicon. The sensor was fabricated using microelectromechanical system bulk-silicon technology, and it was validated using the finite element method. A
[...] Read more.
For the dimensional measurement and characterization of microsized and nanosized components, a three-dimensional microdisplacement sensing system was developed using the piezoresistive effect in silicon. The sensor was fabricated using microelectromechanical system bulk-silicon technology, and it was validated using the finite element method. A precise data acquisition circuit with an accuracy of 20 μV was designed to obtain weak voltage signals. By calibration, the sensing system was shown to have a sensitivity of 17.29 mV/μm and 4.59 mV/μm in the axial and lateral directions, respectively; the nonlinearity in these directions was 0.8% and 1.0% full scale, respectively. A full range of 4.6 μm was achieved in the axial direction. Results of a resolution test indicated that the sensing system had a resolution of 5 nm in the axial direction and 10 nm in the lateral direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessCommunication Multifrequency Excitation Method for Rapid and Accurate Dynamic Test of Micromachined Gyroscope Chips
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19507-19516; doi:10.3390/s141019507
Received: 18 August 2014 / Revised: 25 September 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1395 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel multifrequency excitation (MFE) method is proposed to realize rapid and accurate dynamic testing of micromachined gyroscope chips. Compared with the traditional sweep-frequency excitation (SFE) method, the computational time for testing one chip under four modes at a 1-Hz frequency resolution and
[...] Read more.
A novel multifrequency excitation (MFE) method is proposed to realize rapid and accurate dynamic testing of micromachined gyroscope chips. Compared with the traditional sweep-frequency excitation (SFE) method, the computational time for testing one chip under four modes at a 1-Hz frequency resolution and 600-Hz bandwidth was dramatically reduced from 10 min to 6 s. A multifrequency signal with an equal amplitude and initial linear-phase-difference distribution was generated to ensure test repeatability and accuracy. The current test system based on LabVIEW using the SFE method was modified to use the MFE method without any hardware changes. The experimental results verified that the MFE method can be an ideal solution for large-scale dynamic testing of gyroscope chips and gyroscopes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Attitude Heading Reference System Using MEMS Inertial Sensors with Dual-Axis Rotation
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 18075-18095; doi:10.3390/s141018075
Received: 14 August 2014 / Revised: 22 September 2014 / Accepted: 23 September 2014 / Published: 29 September 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1459 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a low cost and small size attitude and heading reference system based on MEMS inertial sensors. A dual-axis rotation structure with a proper rotary scheme according to the design principles is applied in the system to compensate for the attitude
[...] Read more.
This paper proposes a low cost and small size attitude and heading reference system based on MEMS inertial sensors. A dual-axis rotation structure with a proper rotary scheme according to the design principles is applied in the system to compensate for the attitude and heading drift caused by the large gyroscope biases. An optimization algorithm is applied to compensate for the installation angle error between the body frame and the rotation table’s frame. Simulations and experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of the AHRS. The results show that the proper rotation could significantly reduce the attitude and heading drifts. Moreover, the new AHRS is not affected by magnetic interference. After the rotation, the attitude and heading are almost just oscillating in a range. The attitude error is about 3° and the heading error is less than 3° which are at least 5 times better than the non-rotation condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle A Finite Element Model of a MEMS-based Surface Acoustic Wave Hydrogen Sensor
Sensors 2010, 10(2), 1232-1250; doi:10.3390/s100201232
Received: 15 December 2009 / Revised: 31 December 2009 / Accepted: 23 January 2010 / Published: 2 February 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (524 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hydrogen plays a significant role in various industrial applications, but careful handling and continuous monitoring are crucial since it is explosive when mixed with air. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors provide desirable characteristics for hydrogen detection due to their small size, low fabrication
[...] Read more.
Hydrogen plays a significant role in various industrial applications, but careful handling and continuous monitoring are crucial since it is explosive when mixed with air. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors provide desirable characteristics for hydrogen detection due to their small size, low fabrication cost, ease of integration and high sensitivity. In this paper a finite element model of a Surface Acoustic Wave sensor is developed using ANSYS12© and tested for hydrogen detection. The sensor consists of a YZ-lithium niobate substrate with interdigital electrodes (IDT) patterned on the surface. A thin palladium (Pd) film is added on the surface of the sensor due to its high affinity for hydrogen. With increased hydrogen absorption the palladium hydride structure undergoes a phase change due to the formation of the β-phase, which deteriorates the crystal structure. Therefore with increasing hydrogen concentration the stiffness and the density are significantly reduced. The values of the modulus of elasticity and the density at different hydrogen concentrations in palladium are utilized in the finite element model to determine the corresponding SAW sensor response. Results indicate that with increasing the hydrogen concentration the wave velocity decreases and the attenuation of the wave is reduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle A Reduced Three Dimensional Model for SAW Sensors Using Finite Element Analysis
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9945-9964; doi:10.3390/s91209945
Received: 4 November 2009 / Revised: 27 November 2009 / Accepted: 27 November 2009 / Published: 8 December 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (650 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A major problem that often arises in modeling Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) such as Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is the extensive computational capacity required. In this study a new approach is adopted to significantly reduce the
[...] Read more.
A major problem that often arises in modeling Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) such as Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is the extensive computational capacity required. In this study a new approach is adopted to significantly reduce the computational capacity needed for analyzing the response of a SAW sensor using the finite element (FE) method. The approach is based on the plane wave solution where the properties of the wave vary in two dimensions and are uniform along the thickness of the device. The plane wave solution therefore allows the thickness of the SAW device model to be minimized; the model is referred to as a Reduced 3D Model (R3D). Various configurations of this novel R3D model are developed and compared with theoretical and experimental frequency data and the results show very good agreement. In addition, two-dimensional (2D) models with similar configurations to the R3D are developed for comparison since the 2D approach is widely adopted in the literature as a computationally inexpensive approach to model SAW sensors using the FE method. Results illustrate that the R3D model is capable of capturing the SAW response more accurately than the 2D model; this is demonstrated by comparison of centre frequency and insertion loss values. These results are very encouraging and indicate that the R3D model is capable of capturing the MEMS-based SAW sensor response without being computationally expensive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Sputtered Encapsulation as Wafer Level Packaging for Isolatable MEMS Devices: A Technique Demonstrated on a Capacitive Accelerometer
Sensors 2008, 8(11), 7438-7452; doi:10.3390/s8117438
Received: 11 October 2008 / Revised: 11 November 2008 / Accepted: 14 November 2008 / Published: 19 November 2008
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1192 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper discusses sputtered silicon encapsulation as a wafer level packaging approach for isolatable MEMS devices. Devices such as accelerometers, RF switches, inductors, and filters that do not require interaction with the surroundings to function, could thus be fully encapsulated at the wafer
[...] Read more.
This paper discusses sputtered silicon encapsulation as a wafer level packaging approach for isolatable MEMS devices. Devices such as accelerometers, RF switches, inductors, and filters that do not require interaction with the surroundings to function, could thus be fully encapsulated at the wafer level after fabrication. A MEMSTech 50g capacitive accelerometer was used to demonstrate a sputtered encapsulation technique. Encapsulation with a very uniform surface profile was achieved using spin-on glass (SOG) as a sacrificial layer, SU-8 as base layer, RF sputtered silicon as main structural layer, eutectic gold-silicon as seal layer, and liquid crystal polymer (LCP) as outer encapsulant layer. SEM inspection and capacitance test indicated that the movable elements were released after encapsulation. Nanoindentation test confirmed that the encapsulated device is sufficiently robust to withstand a transfer molding process. Thus, an encapsulation technique that is robust, CMOS compatible, and economical has been successfully developed for packaging isolatable MEMS devices at the wafer level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Nano-Scale Characterization of a Piezoelectric Polymer (Polyvinylidene Difluoride, PVDF)
Sensors 2008, 8(11), 7359-7368; doi:10.3390/s8117359
Received: 9 October 2008 / Revised: 6 November 2008 / Accepted: 12 November 2008 / Published: 18 November 2008
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (551 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The polymer polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) has unique piezoelectric properties favorable for Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS) applications. In the present research, we conducted nanometer-length scale characterization of this material using several high-resolution techniques. Specifically, we used an atomic force microscope (AFM)
[...] Read more.
The polymer polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) has unique piezoelectric properties favorable for Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS) applications. In the present research, we conducted nanometer-length scale characterization of this material using several high-resolution techniques. Specifically, we used an atomic force microscope (AFM) to study the nanoand microstructures of the PVDF under stress and to measure their nanoscale conductivity and piezoelectricity. We found that the surface morphology, electronic structure, and microstructure are profoundly affected under electrical potential. Such a behavior is important for the properties and performance of MEMS and NEMS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Dynamic Characteristics of Vertically Coupled Structures and the Design of a Decoupled Micro Gyroscope
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3706-3718; doi:10.3390/s8063706
Received: 21 March 2008 / Revised: 24 May 2008 / Accepted: 2 June 2008 / Published: 3 June 2008
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (574 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In a vertical type, vibratory gyroscope, the coupled motion between reference (driving) and sensing vibrations causes the zero-point output, which is the unwanted sensing vibration without angular velocity. This structural coupling leads to an inherent discrepancy between the natural frequencies of the reference
[...] Read more.
In a vertical type, vibratory gyroscope, the coupled motion between reference (driving) and sensing vibrations causes the zero-point output, which is the unwanted sensing vibration without angular velocity. This structural coupling leads to an inherent discrepancy between the natural frequencies of the reference and the sensing oscillations, causing curve veering in frequency loci. The coupled motion deteriorates sensing performance and dynamic stability. In this paper, the dynamic characteristics associated with the coupling phenomenon are theoretically analyzed. The effects of reference frequency and coupling factor on the rotational direction and amplitude of elliptic oscillation are determined. Based on the analytical studies on the coupling effects, we propose and fabricate a vertically decoupled vibratory gyroscope with the frequency matching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Error and Performance Analysis of MEMS-based Inertial Sensors with a Low-cost GPS Receiver
Sensors 2008, 8(4), 2240-2261; doi:10.3390/s8042240
Received: 14 November 2007 / Accepted: 26 March 2008 / Published: 29 March 2008
Cited by 49 | PDF Full-text (303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), have been widely utilized and their applications are becoming popular, not only in military or commercial applications, but also for everyday life. Although GPS measurements are the essential information for currently
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Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), have been widely utilized and their applications are becoming popular, not only in military or commercial applications, but also for everyday life. Although GPS measurements are the essential information for currently developed land vehicle navigation systems (LVNS), GPS signals are often unavailable or unreliable due to signal blockages under certain environments such as urban canyons. This situation must be compensated in order to provide continuous navigation solutions. To overcome the problems of unavailability and unreliability using GPS and to be cost and size effective as well, Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) based inertial sensor technology has been pushing for the development of low-cost integrated navigation systems for land vehicle navigation and guidance applications. This paper will analyze the characterization of MEMS based inertial sensors and the performance of an integrated system prototype of MEMS based inertial sensors, a low-cost GPS receiver and a digital compass. The influence of the stochastic variation of sensors will be assessed and modeled by two different methods, namely Gauss-Markov (GM) and AutoRegressive (AR) models, with GPS signal blockage of different lengths. Numerical results from kinematic testing have been used to assess the performance of different modeling schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Three-Dimensional Transport Modeling for Proton Exchange Membrane(PEM) Fuel Cell with Micro Parallel Flow Field
Sensors 2008, 8(3), 1475-1487; doi:10.3390/s8031475
Received: 30 January 2008 / Accepted: 27 February 2008 / Published: 3 March 2008
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (592 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in micro channel are beingused extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of thefundamental processes and to optimize fuel cell designs before building a prototype forengineering application. In this study, we used
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Modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in micro channel are beingused extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of thefundamental processes and to optimize fuel cell designs before building a prototype forengineering application. In this study, we used a single-phase, fully three dimensionalsimulation model for PEMFC that can deal with both anode and cathode flow field forexamining the micro flow channel with electrochemical reaction. The results show thathydrogen and oxygen were solely supplied to the membrane by diffusion mechanism ratherthan convection transport, and the higher pressure drop at cathode side is thought to becaused by higher flow rate of oxygen at cathode. And it is found that the amount of water incathode channel was determined by water formation due to electrochemical reaction pluselectro-osmotic mass flux directing toward the cathode side. And it is very important tomodel the back diffusion and electro-osmotic mass flux accurately since the two flux wasclosely correlated each other and greatly influenced for determination of ionic conductivityof the membrane which directly affects the performance of fuel cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Biochips with Micro Fluidic Channels by Micro End-milling and Powder Blasting
Sensors 2008, 8(2), 1308-1320; doi:10.3390/s8021308
Received: 15 February 2008 / Accepted: 21 February 2008 / Published: 22 February 2008
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (6644 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For microfabrications of biochips with micro fluidic channels, a large number of microfabrication techniques based on silicon or glass-based Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technologies were proposed in the last decade. In recent years, for low cost and mass production, polymer-based microfabrication techniques by microinjection
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For microfabrications of biochips with micro fluidic channels, a large number of microfabrication techniques based on silicon or glass-based Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technologies were proposed in the last decade. In recent years, for low cost and mass production, polymer-based microfabrication techniques by microinjection molding and micro hot embossing have been proposed. These techniques, which require a proper photoresist, mask, UV light exposure, developing, and electroplating as a preprocess, are considered to have some problems. In this study, we propose a new microfabrication technology which consists of micro end-milling and powder blasting. This technique could be directly applied to fabricate the metal mold without any preprocesses. The metal mold with micro-channels is machined by micro end-milling, and then, burrs generated in the end-milling process are removed by powder blasting. From the experimental results, micro end-milling combined with powder blasting could be applied effectively for fabrication of the injection mold of biochips with micro fluidic channels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle A Perturbation Method for the 3D Finite Element Modeling of Electrostatically Driven MEMS
Sensors 2008, 8(2), 994-1003; doi:10.3390/s8020994
Received: 14 September 2007 / Accepted: 8 February 2008 / Published: 19 February 2008
PDF Full-text (1247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a finite element (FE) procedure for modeling electrostatically actu-ated MEMS is presented. It concerns a perturbation method for computing electrostatic fielddistortions due to moving conductors. The computation is split in two steps. First, an un-perturbed problem (in the absence of
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In this paper, a finite element (FE) procedure for modeling electrostatically actu-ated MEMS is presented. It concerns a perturbation method for computing electrostatic fielddistortions due to moving conductors. The computation is split in two steps. First, an un-perturbed problem (in the absence of certain conductors) is solved with the conventional FEmethod in the complete domain. Second, a perturbation problem is solved in a reduced re-gion with an additional conductor using the solution of the unperturbed problem as a source.When the perturbing region is close to the original source field, an iterative computation maybe required. The developed procedure offers the advantage of solving sub-problems in re-duced domains and consequently of benefiting from different problem-adapted meshes. Thisapproach allows for computational efficiency by decreasing the size of the problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Effects of van der Waals Force and Thermal Stresses on Pull-in Instability of Clamped Rectangular Microplates
Sensors 2008, 8(2), 1048-1069; doi:10.3390/s8021048
Received: 21 December 2007 / Accepted: 14 February 2008 / Published: 15 February 2008
Cited by 50 | PDF Full-text (1400 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We study the influence of von Karman nonlinearity, van der Waals force, and a athermal stresses on pull-in instability and small vibrations of electrostatically actuated mi-croplates. We use the Galerkin method to develop a tractable reduced-order model for elec-trostatically actuated clamped rectangular microplates
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We study the influence of von Karman nonlinearity, van der Waals force, and a athermal stresses on pull-in instability and small vibrations of electrostatically actuated mi-croplates. We use the Galerkin method to develop a tractable reduced-order model for elec-trostatically actuated clamped rectangular microplates in the presence of van der Waals forcesand thermal stresses. More specifically, we reduce the governing two-dimensional nonlineartransient boundary-value problem to a single nonlinear ordinary differential equation. For thestatic problem, the pull-in voltage and the pull-in displacement are determined by solving apair of nonlinear algebraic equations. The fundamental vibration frequency corresponding toa deflected configuration of the microplate is determined by solving a linear algebraic equa-tion. The proposed reduced-order model allows for accurately estimating the combined effectsof van der Waals force and thermal stresses on the pull-in voltage and the pull-in deflectionprofile with an extremely limited computational effort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Micro Dot Patterning on the Light Guide Panel Using Powder Blasting
Sensors 2008, 8(2), 877-885; doi:10.3390/s8020877
Received: 10 January 2008 / Accepted: 6 February 2008 / Published: 8 February 2008
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study is to develop a micromachining technology for a light guidepanel(LGP) mold, whereby micro dot patterns are formed on a LGP surface by a singleinjection process instead of existing screen printing processes. The micro powder blastingtechnique is applied to form micro dot
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This study is to develop a micromachining technology for a light guidepanel(LGP) mold, whereby micro dot patterns are formed on a LGP surface by a singleinjection process instead of existing screen printing processes. The micro powder blastingtechnique is applied to form micro dot patterns on the LGP mold surface. The optimalconditions for masking, laminating, exposure, and developing processes to form the microdot patterns are first experimentally investigated. A LGP mold with masked micro patternsis then machined using the micro powder blasting method and the machinability of themicro dot patterns is verified. A prototype LGP is test- injected using the developed LGPmold and a shape analysis of the patterns and performance testing of the injected LGP arecarried out. As an additional approach, matte finishing, a special surface treatment method,is applied to the mold surface to improve the light diffusion characteristics, uniformity andbrightness of the LGP. The results of this study show that the applied powder blastingmethod can be successfully used to manufacture LGPs with micro patterns by just singleinjection using the developed mold and thereby replace existing screen printing methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Micro Fluidic Channel Machining on Fused Silica Glass Using Powder Blasting
Sensors 2008, 8(2), 700-710; doi:10.3390/s8020700
Received: 14 January 2008 / Accepted: 29 January 2008 / Published: 6 February 2008
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (4962 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, micro fluid channels are machined on fused silica glass via powder blasting, a mechanical etching process, and the machining characteristics of the channels are experimentally evaluated. In the process, material removal is performed by the collision of micro abrasives injected
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In this study, micro fluid channels are machined on fused silica glass via powder blasting, a mechanical etching process, and the machining characteristics of the channels are experimentally evaluated. In the process, material removal is performed by the collision of micro abrasives injected by highly compressed air on to the target surface. This approach can be characterized as an integration of brittle mode machining based on micro crack propagation. Fused silica glass, a high purity synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide, is selected as a workpiece material. It has a very low thermal expansion coefficient and excellent optical qualities and exceptional transmittance over a wide spectral range, especially in the ultraviolet range. The powder blasting process parameters affecting the machined results are injection pressure, abrasive particle size and density, stand-off distance, number of nozzle scanning, and shape/size of the required patterns. In this study, the influence of the number of nozzle scanning, abrasive particle size, and pattern size on the formation of micro channels is investigated. Machined shapes and surface roughness are measured using a 3-dimensional vision profiler and the results are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Experimental-Numerical Comparison of the Cantilever MEMS Frequency Shift in presence of a Residual Stress Gradient
Sensors 2008, 8(2), 767-783; doi:10.3390/s8020767
Received: 19 November 2007 / Accepted: 28 January 2008 / Published: 6 February 2008
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (638 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The dynamic characterization of a set of gold micro beams by electrostatic excitation in presence of residual stress gradient has been studied experimentally. A method to determine the micro-cantilever residual stress gradient by measuring the deflection and curvature and then identifying the residual
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The dynamic characterization of a set of gold micro beams by electrostatic excitation in presence of residual stress gradient has been studied experimentally. A method to determine the micro-cantilever residual stress gradient by measuring the deflection and curvature and then identifying the residual stress model by means of frequency shift behaviour is presented. A comparison with different numerical FEM models and experimental results has been carried out, introducing in the model the residual stress of the structures, responsible for an initial upward curvature. Dynamic spectrum data are measured via optical interferometry and experimental frequency shift curves are obtained by increasing the dc voltage applied to the specimens. A good correspondence is pointed out between measures and numerical models so that the residual stress effect can be evaluated for different configurations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Suitability of MEMS Accelerometers for Condition Monitoring: An experimental study
Sensors 2008, 8(2), 784-799; doi:10.3390/s8020784
Received: 30 November 2007 / Accepted: 31 January 2008 / Published: 6 February 2008
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (599 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With increasing demands for wireless sensing nodes for assets control and condition monitoring; needs for alternatives to expensive conventional accelerometers in vibration measurements have been arisen. Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometer is one of the available options. The performances of three of the
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With increasing demands for wireless sensing nodes for assets control and condition monitoring; needs for alternatives to expensive conventional accelerometers in vibration measurements have been arisen. Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometer is one of the available options. The performances of three of the MEMS accelerometers from different manufacturers are investigated in this paper and compared to a well calibrated commercial accelerometer used as a reference for MEMS sensors performance evaluation. Tests were performed on a real CNC machine in a typical industrial environmental workshop and the achieved results are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Experimental Study on the Effects of Alumina Abrasive Particle Behavior in MR Polishing for MEMS Applications
Sensors 2008, 8(1), 222-235; doi:10.3390/s8010222
Received: 30 November 2007 / Accepted: 8 January 2008 / Published: 21 January 2008
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2930 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, the magnetorheological (MR) polishing process has been examined asa new ultra-precision polishing technology for micro parts in MEMS applications. In theMR polishing process, the magnetic force plays a dominant role. This method uses MRfluids which contains micro abrasives as a polishing media.
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Recently, the magnetorheological (MR) polishing process has been examined asa new ultra-precision polishing technology for micro parts in MEMS applications. In theMR polishing process, the magnetic force plays a dominant role. This method uses MRfluids which contains micro abrasives as a polishing media. The objective of the presentresearch is to shed light onto the material removal mechanism under various slurryconditions for polishing and to investigate surface characteristics, including shape analysisand surface roughness measurement, of spots obtained from the MR polishing process usingalumina abrasives. A series of basic experiments were first performed to determine theoptimum polishing conditions for BK7 glass using prepared slurries by changing the processparameters, such as wheel rotating speed and electric current. Using the obtained results,groove polishing was then performed and the results are investigated. Outstanding surfaceroughness of Ra=3.8nm was obtained on the BK7 glass specimen. The present resultshighlight the possibility of applying this polishing method to ultra-precision micro partsproduction, especially in MEMS applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Application of Design of Experiment Method for Thrust Force Minimization in Step-feed Micro Drilling
Sensors 2008, 8(1), 211-221; doi:10.3390/s8010211
Received: 4 December 2007 / Accepted: 8 January 2008 / Published: 21 January 2008
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (839 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Micro drilled holes are utilized in many of today’s fabrication processes.Precision production processes in industries are trending toward the use of smaller holeswith higher aspect ratios, and higher speed operation for micro deep hole drilling. However,undesirable characteristics related to micro drilling such as
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Micro drilled holes are utilized in many of today’s fabrication processes.Precision production processes in industries are trending toward the use of smaller holeswith higher aspect ratios, and higher speed operation for micro deep hole drilling. However,undesirable characteristics related to micro drilling such as small signal-to-noise ratios,wandering drill motion, high aspect ratio, and excessive cutting forces can be observedwhen cutting depth increases. In this study, the authors attempt to minimize the thrustforces in the step-feed micro drilling process by application of the DOE (Design ofExperiment) method. Taking into account the drilling thrust, three cutting parameters,feedrate, step-feed, and cutting speed, are optimized based on the DOE method. Forexperimental studies, an orthogonal array L27(313) is generated and ANOVA (Analysis ofVariance) is carried out. Based on the results it is determined that the sequence of factorsaffecting drilling thrusts corresponds to feedrate, step-feed, and spindle rpm. Acombination of optimal drilling conditions is also identified. In particular, it is found in thisstudy that the feedrate is the most important factor for micro drilling thrust minimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessCommunication Three Cavity Tunable MEMS Fabry Perot Interferometer
Sensors 2007, 7(12), 3071-3083; doi:10.3390/s7123071
Received: 25 October 2007 / Accepted: 29 November 2007 / Published: 4 December 2007
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (362 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper a four-mirror tunable micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)Fabry Perot Interferometer (FPI) concept is proposed with the mathematical model. Thespectral range of the proposed FPI lies in the infrared spectrum ranging from 2400 to 4018(nm). FPI can be finely tuned by deflecting
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In this paper a four-mirror tunable micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)Fabry Perot Interferometer (FPI) concept is proposed with the mathematical model. Thespectral range of the proposed FPI lies in the infrared spectrum ranging from 2400 to 4018(nm). FPI can be finely tuned by deflecting the two middle mirrors (or by changing the threecavity lengths). Two different cases were separately considered for the tuning. In case one,tuning was achieved by deflecting mirror 2 only and in case two, both mirrors 2 and 3 weredeflected for the tuning of the FPI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Influence of Damping on the Dynamical Behavior of the Electrostatic Parallel-plate and Torsional Actuators with Intermolecular Forces
Sensors 2007, 7(12), 3012-3026; doi:10.3390/s7123012
Received: 5 November 2007 / Accepted: 27 November 2007 / Published: 29 November 2007
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (324 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The influence of damping on the dynamical behavior of the electrostaticparallel-plate and torsional actuators with the van der Waals (vdW) or Casimir force(torque) is presented. The values of the pull-in parameters and the number of theequilibrium points do not change whether there is
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The influence of damping on the dynamical behavior of the electrostaticparallel-plate and torsional actuators with the van der Waals (vdW) or Casimir force(torque) is presented. The values of the pull-in parameters and the number of theequilibrium points do not change whether there is damping or not. The ability ofequilibrium points is varied with the appearance of damping. One equilibrium point is anunstable saddle with a different damping coefficient, the other equilibrium point is astable node when the damping coefficient is greater than some critical value, andotherwise it is a stable focus. Then there are two heteroclinic orbits passing from theunstable saddle point to the stable node or focus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Electrical Contact on the Contact Residual Stress of a Microrelay Switch
Sensors 2007, 7(11), 2997-3011; doi:10.3390/s7112997
Received: 12 October 2007 / Accepted: 14 November 2007 / Published: 26 November 2007
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper investigates the effect of electrical contact on the thermal contactstress of a microrelay switch. A three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element model withcontact elements is used to simulate the contact behavior between the microcantilever beamand the electrode. A model with thermal-electrical coupling and
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This paper investigates the effect of electrical contact on the thermal contactstress of a microrelay switch. A three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element model withcontact elements is used to simulate the contact behavior between the microcantilever beamand the electrode. A model with thermal-electrical coupling and thermal-stress coupling isused in the finite element analysis. The effects of contact gap, plating film thickness andnumber of switching cycles on the contact residual stress, contact force, plastic deformation,and temperature rise of the microrelay switch are explored. The numerical results indicatethat the residual stress increases with increasing contact gap or decreasing plating filmthickness. The results also show that the residual stress increases as the number of switchingcycles increases. A large residual stress inside the microcantilever beam can decrease thelifecycle of the microrelay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Quantitative Accelerated Life Testing of MEMS Accelerometers
Sensors 2007, 7(11), 2846-2859; doi:10.3390/s7112846
Received: 27 September 2007 / Accepted: 14 November 2007 / Published: 20 November 2007
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (602 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Quantitative Accelerated Life Testing (QALT) is a solution for assessing thereliability of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS). A procedure for QALT is shownin this paper and an attempt to assess the reliability level for a batch of MEMSaccelerometers is reported. The testing plan
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Quantitative Accelerated Life Testing (QALT) is a solution for assessing thereliability of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS). A procedure for QALT is shownin this paper and an attempt to assess the reliability level for a batch of MEMSaccelerometers is reported. The testing plan is application-driven and contains combinedtests: thermal (high temperature) and mechanical stress. Two variants of mechanical stressare used: vibration (at a fixed frequency) and tilting. Original equipment for testing at tiltingand high temperature is used. Tilting is appropriate as application-driven stress, because thetilt movement is a natural environment for devices used for automotive and aerospaceapplications. Also, tilting is used by MEMS accelerometers for anti-theft systems. The testresults demonstrated the excellent reliability of the studied devices, the failure rate in the“worst case” being smaller than 10-7h-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Modeling and Fabrication of Micro FET Pressure Sensor with Circuits
Sensors 2007, 7(12), 3386-3398; doi:10.3390/s7123386
Received: 19 November 2007 / Accepted: 18 December 2007 / Published: 19 November 2007
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (2328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the simulation, fabrication and characterization of a microFET (field effect transistor) pressure sensor with readout circuits. The pressure sensorincludes 16 sensing cells in parallel. Each sensing cell that is circular shape is composed ofan MOS (metal oxide semiconductor) and a
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This paper presents the simulation, fabrication and characterization of a microFET (field effect transistor) pressure sensor with readout circuits. The pressure sensorincludes 16 sensing cells in parallel. Each sensing cell that is circular shape is composed ofan MOS (metal oxide semiconductor) and a suspended membrane, which the suspendedmembrane is the movable gate of the MOS. The CoventorWare is used to simulate thebehaviors of the pressure sensor, and the HSPICE is employed to evaluate the characteristicsof the circuits. The pressure sensor integrated with circuits is manufactured using thecommercial 0.35 μm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) process and apost-process. In order to obtain the suspended membranes, the pressure sensor requires apost-CMOS process. The post-process adopts etchants to etch the sacrificial layers in thepressure sensors to release the suspended membranes, and then the etch holes in the pressuresensor are sealed by LPCVD (low pressure chemical vapor deposition) parylene. Thepressure sensor produces a change in current when applying a pressure to the sensing cells.The circuits are utilized to convert the current variation of the pressure sensor into thevoltage output. Experimental results show that the pressure sensor has a sensitivity of 0.032mV/kPa in the pressure range of 0-500 kPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Modeling and Manufacturing of Micromechanical RF Switch with Inductors
Sensors 2007, 7(11), 2660-2670; doi:10.3390/s7112670
Received: 18 October 2007 / Accepted: 7 November 2007 / Published: 9 November 2007
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (618 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study presents the simulation, fabrication and characterization ofmicromechanical radio frequency (RF) switch with micro inductors. The inductors areemployed to enhance the characteristic of the RF switch. An equivalent circuit model isdeveloped to simulate the performance of the RF switch. The behaviors of
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This study presents the simulation, fabrication and characterization ofmicromechanical radio frequency (RF) switch with micro inductors. The inductors areemployed to enhance the characteristic of the RF switch. An equivalent circuit model isdeveloped to simulate the performance of the RF switch. The behaviors of themicromechanical RF switch are simulated by the finite element method software,CoventorWare. The micromechanical RF switch is fabricated using the complementarymetal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and a post-process. The post-process employs a wetetching to etch the sacrificial layer, and to release the suspended structures of the RF switch.The structure of the RF switch contains a coplanar waveguide (CPW), a suspendedmembrane, eight springs and two inductors in series. Experimental results reveal that theinsertion loss and isolation of the switch are 1.7 dB at 21 GHz and 19 dB at 21 GHz,respectively. The driving voltage of the switch is about 13 V. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Magnetostrictive Micro Mirrors for an Optical Switch Matrix
Sensors 2007, 7(10), 2174-2182; doi:10.3390/s7102174
Received: 18 July 2007 / Accepted: 27 September 2007 / Published: 9 October 2007
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (394 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have developed a wireless-controlled compact optical switch by siliconmicromachining techniques with DC magnetron sputtering. For the optical switchingoperation, micro mirror is designed as cantilever shape size of 5mm×800μm×50μm.TbDyFe film is sputter-deposited on the upper side of the mirror with the condition as:
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We have developed a wireless-controlled compact optical switch by siliconmicromachining techniques with DC magnetron sputtering. For the optical switchingoperation, micro mirror is designed as cantilever shape size of 5mm×800μm×50μm.TbDyFe film is sputter-deposited on the upper side of the mirror with the condition as: Argas pressure below 1.2×10-9 torr, DC input power of 180W and heating temperature of up to250°C for the wireless control of each component. Mirrors are actuated by externallyapplied magnetic fields for the micro application. Applied beam path can be changedaccording to the direction and the magnitude of applied magnetic field. Reflectivity changes,M-H curves and X-ray diffractions of sputtered mirrors are measured to determine magneto-optical, magneto-elastic properties with variation in sputtered film thickness. The deflectedangle-magnetic field characteristics of the fabricated mirror are measured. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle The Investigation of a Shape Memory Alloy Micro-Damper for MEMS Applications
Sensors 2007, 7(9), 1887-1900; doi:10.3390/s7091887
Received: 6 August 2007 / Accepted: 10 September 2007 / Published: 11 September 2007
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Some shape memory alloys like NiTi show noticeable high damping property inpseudoelastic range. Due to its unique characteristics, a NiTi alloy is commonly used forpassive damping applications, in which the energy may be dissipated by the conversion frommechanical to thermal energy. This study
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Some shape memory alloys like NiTi show noticeable high damping property inpseudoelastic range. Due to its unique characteristics, a NiTi alloy is commonly used forpassive damping applications, in which the energy may be dissipated by the conversion frommechanical to thermal energy. This study presents a shape memory alloy based micro-damper, which exploits the pseudoelasticity of NiTi wires for energy dissipation. Themechanical model and functional principle of the micro-damper are explained in detail.Moreover, the mechanical behavior of NiTi wires subjected to various temperatures, strainrates and strain amplitudes is observed. Resulting from those experimental results, thedamping properties of the micro-damper involving secant stiffness, energy dissipation andloss factor are analyzed. The result indicates the proposed NiTi based micro-damper exhibitsgood energy dissipation ability, compared with conventional materials damper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Multi-scale Analysis of MEMS Sensors Subject to Drop Impacts
Sensors 2007, 7(9), 1817-1833; doi:10.3390/s7081817
Received: 30 August 2007 / Accepted: 6 September 2007 / Published: 7 September 2007
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (1199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of accidental drops on MEMS sensors are examined within the frame-work of a multi-scale finite element approach. With specific reference to a polysilicon MEMSaccelerometer supported by a naked die, the analysis is decoupled into macro-scale (at dielength-scale) and meso-scale (at MEMS
[...] Read more.
The effect of accidental drops on MEMS sensors are examined within the frame-work of a multi-scale finite element approach. With specific reference to a polysilicon MEMSaccelerometer supported by a naked die, the analysis is decoupled into macro-scale (at dielength-scale) and meso-scale (at MEMS length-scale) simulations, accounting for the verysmall inertial contribution of the sensor to the overall dynamics of the device. Macro-scaleanalyses are adopted to get insights into the link between shock waves caused by the impactagainst a target surface and propagating inside the die, and the displacement/acceleration his-tories at the MEMS anchor points. Meso-scale analyses are adopted to detect the most stresseddetails of the sensor and to assess whether the impact can lead to possible localized failures.Numerical results show that the acceleration at sensor anchors cannot be considered an ob-jective indicator for drop severity. Instead, accurate analyses at sensor level are necessary toestablish how MEMS can fail because of drops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Reliability of a MEMS Actuator Improved by Spring Corner Designs and Reshaped Driving Waveforms
Sensors 2007, 7(9), 1720-1730; doi:10.3390/s7091720
Received: 19 July 2007 / Accepted: 31 August 2007 / Published: 3 September 2007
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (758 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we report spring corner designs and driving waveforms to improve the reliability for a MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) actuator. In order to prevent the stiction problems, no stopper or damping absorber is adopted. Therefore, an actuator could travel long distance by
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In this paper, we report spring corner designs and driving waveforms to improve the reliability for a MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) actuator. In order to prevent the stiction problems, no stopper or damping absorber is adopted. Therefore, an actuator could travel long distance by electromagnetic force without any object in moving path to absorb excess momentum. Due to long displacement and large mass, springs of MEMS actuators tend to crack from weak points with high stress concentration and this situation degrades reliability performance. Stress distribution over different spring designs were simulated and a serpentine spring with circular and wide corner design was chosen due to its low stress concentration. This design has smaller stress concentration versus displacement. Furthermore, the resonant frequencies are removed from the driving waveform based on the analysis of discrete Fourier transfer function. The reshaped waveform not only shortens actuator switching time, but also ensures that the spring is in a small displacement region without overshooting so that the maximum stress is kept below 200 MPa. The experimental results show that the MEMS device designed by theses principles can survive 500 g (gravity acceleration) shock test and pass 150 million switching cycles without failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Micro Machining of Injection Mold Inserts for Fluidic Channel of Polymeric Biochips
Sensors 2007, 7(8), 1643-1654; doi:10.3390/s7081643
Received: 11 June 2007 / Accepted: 24 August 2007 / Published: 27 August 2007
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1374 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, the polymeric micro-fluidic biochip, often called LOC (lab-on-a-chip), has been focused as a cheap, rapid and simplified method to replace the existing biochemical laboratory works. It becomes possible to form miniaturized lab functionalities on a chip with the development of MEMS technologies.
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Recently, the polymeric micro-fluidic biochip, often called LOC (lab-on-a-chip), has been focused as a cheap, rapid and simplified method to replace the existing biochemical laboratory works. It becomes possible to form miniaturized lab functionalities on a chip with the development of MEMS technologies. The micro-fluidic chips contain many micro-channels for the flow of sample and reagents, mixing, and detection tasks. Typical substrate materials for the chip are glass and polymers. Typical techniques for micro-fluidic chip fabrication are utilizing various micro pattern forming methods, such as wet-etching, micro-contact printing, and hot-embossing, micro injection molding, LIGA, and micro powder blasting processes, etc. In this study, to establish the basis of the micro pattern fabrication and mass production of polymeric micro-fluidic chips using injection molding process, micro machining method was applied to form micro-channels on the LOC molds. In the research, a series of machining experiments using micro end-mills were performed to determine optimum machining conditions to improve surface roughness and shape accuracy of designed simplified micro-channels. Obtained conditions were used to machine required mold inserts for micro-channels using micro end-mills. Test injection processes using machined molds and COC polymer were performed, and then the results were investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Investigations of Slip Effect on the Performance of Micro Gas Bearings and Stability of Micro Rotor-Bearing Systems
Sensors 2007, 7(8), 1399-1414; doi:10.3390/s7081399
Received: 27 June 2007 / Accepted: 2 August 2007 / Published: 3 August 2007
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1542 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Incorporating the velocity slip effect of the gas flow at the solid boundary, theperformance and dynamic response of a micro gas-bearing-rotor system are investigated inthis paper. For the characteristic length scale of the micro gas bearing, the gas flow in thebearing resides in
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Incorporating the velocity slip effect of the gas flow at the solid boundary, theperformance and dynamic response of a micro gas-bearing-rotor system are investigated inthis paper. For the characteristic length scale of the micro gas bearing, the gas flow in thebearing resides in the slip regime rather than in the continuum regime. The modifiedReynolds equations of different slip models are presented. Gas pressure distribution and loadcarrying capacity are obtained by solving the Reynolds equations with finite differentmethod (FDM). Comparing results from different models, it is found that the second orderslip model agrees reasonably well with the benchmarked solutions obtained from thelinearized Boltzmann equation. Therefore, dynamic coefficients derived from the secondorder slip model are employed to evaluate the linear dynamic stability and vibrationcharacteristics of the system. Compared with the continuum flow model, the slip effectreduces dynamic coefficients of the micro gas bearing, and the threshold speed for stableoperation is consequently raised. Also, dynamic analysis shows that the system responseschange with variation of the operating parameters including the eccentricity ratio, therotational speed, and the unbalance ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Integrated Inductors for RF Transmitters in CMOS/MEMS Smart Microsensor Systems
Sensors 2007, 7(8), 1387-1398; doi:10.3390/s7081387
Received: 21 June 2007 / Accepted: 30 July 2007 / Published: 31 July 2007
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (7464 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the integration of an inductor by complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible processes for integrated smart microsensorsystems that have been developed to monitor the motion and vital signs of humans invarious environments. Integration of radio frequency transmitter (RF) technology withcomplementary metal-oxide-semiconductor/micro electro
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This paper presents the integration of an inductor by complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible processes for integrated smart microsensorsystems that have been developed to monitor the motion and vital signs of humans invarious environments. Integration of radio frequency transmitter (RF) technology withcomplementary metal-oxide-semiconductor/micro electro mechanical systems (CMOS/MEMS) microsensors is required to realize the wireless smart microsensors system. Theessential RF components such as a voltage controlled RF-CMOS oscillator (VCO), spiralinductors for an LC resonator and an integrated antenna have been fabricated and evaluatedexperimentally. The fabricated RF transmitter and integrated antenna were packaged withsubminiature series A (SMA) connectors, respectively. For the impedance (50 ) matching,a bonding wire type inductor was developed. In this paper, the design and fabrication of thebonding wire inductor for impedance matching is described. Integrated techniques for theRF transmitter by CMOS compatible processes have been successfully developed. Aftermatching by inserting the bonding wire inductor between the on-chip integrated antennaand the VCO output, the measured emission power at distance of 5 m from RF transmitterwas -37 dBm (0.2 μW). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Methods for Solving Gas Damping Problems in Perforated Microstructures Using a 2D Finite-Element Solver
Sensors 2007, 7(7), 1069-1090; doi:10.3390/s7071069
Received: 18 May 2007 / Accepted: 27 June 2007 / Published: 28 June 2007
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (757 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a straightforward method to solve gas damping problems for perfo-rated structures in two dimensions (2D) utilising a Perforation Profile Reynolds (PPR) solver.The PPR equation is an extended Reynolds equation that includes additional terms modellingthe leakage flow through the perforations, and variable
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We present a straightforward method to solve gas damping problems for perfo-rated structures in two dimensions (2D) utilising a Perforation Profile Reynolds (PPR) solver.The PPR equation is an extended Reynolds equation that includes additional terms modellingthe leakage flow through the perforations, and variable diffusivity and compressibility pro-files. The solution method consists of two phases: 1) determination of the specific admittanceprofile and relative diffusivity (and relative compressibility) profiles due to the perforation,and 2) solution of the PPR equation with a FEM solver in 2D. Rarefied gas corrections inthe slip-flow region are also included. Analytic profiles for circular and square holes withslip conditions are presented in the paper. To verify the method, square perforated damperswith 16 – 64 holes were simulated with a three-dimensional (3D) Navier-Stokes solver, a ho-mogenised extended Reynolds solver, and a 2D PPR solver. Cases for both translational (innormal to the surfaces) and torsional motion were simulated. The presented method extendsthe region of accurate simulation of perforated structures to cases where the homogenisationmethod is inaccurate and the full 3D Navier-Stokes simulation is too time-consuming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Stability, Nonlinearity and Reliability of Electrostatically Actuated MEMS Devices
Sensors 2007, 7(5), 760-796; doi:10.3390/s7050760
Received: 13 April 2007 / Accepted: 21 May 2007 / Published: 31 May 2007
Cited by 43 | PDF Full-text (605 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electrostatic micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) is a special branch with a wide range of applications in sensing and actuating devices in MEMS. This paper provides a survey and analysis of the electrostatic force of importance in MEMS, its physical model, scaling effect, stability, nonlinearity
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Electrostatic micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) is a special branch with a wide range of applications in sensing and actuating devices in MEMS. This paper provides a survey and analysis of the electrostatic force of importance in MEMS, its physical model, scaling effect, stability, nonlinearity and reliability in detail. It is necessary to understand the effects of electrostatic forces in MEMS and then many phenomena of practical importance, such as pull-in instability and the effects of effective stiffness, dielectric charging, stress gradient, temperature on the pull-in voltage, nonlinear dynamic effects and reliability due to electrostatic forces occurred in MEMS can be explained scientifically, and consequently the great potential of MEMS technology could be explored effectively and utilized optimally. A simplified parallel-plate capacitor model is proposed to investigate the resonance response, inherent nonlinearity, stiffness softened effect and coupled nonlinear effect of the typical electrostatically actuated MEMS devices. Many failure modes and mechanisms and various methods and techniques, including materials selection, reasonable design and extending the controllable travel range used to analyze and reduce the failures are discussed in the electrostatically actuated MEMS devices. Numerical simulations and discussions indicate that the effects of instability, nonlinear characteristics and reliability subjected to electrostatic forces cannot be ignored and are in need of further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle An Experimental Study on the Fabrication of Glass-based Acceleration Sensor Body Using Micro Powder Blasting Method
Sensors 2007, 7(5), 697-707; doi:10.3390/s7050697
Received: 2 May 2007 / Accepted: 21 May 2007 / Published: 24 May 2007
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (774 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated the feasibility of the micro powder blasting technique for the micro fabrication of sensor structures using the Pyrex glass to replace the existing silicon-based acceleration sensor fabrication processes. As the preliminary experiments, the effects of the blasting pressure, the mass
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This study investigated the feasibility of the micro powder blasting technique for the micro fabrication of sensor structures using the Pyrex glass to replace the existing silicon-based acceleration sensor fabrication processes. As the preliminary experiments, the effects of the blasting pressure, the mass flow rate of abrasive and the number of nozzle scanning times on erosion depth of the Pyrex and the soda lime glasses were examined. From the experimental results, optimal blasting conditions were selected for the Pyrex glass machining. The dimensions of the designed glass sensor was 1.7×1.7×0.6mm for the vibrating mass, and 2.9×0.7×0.2mm for the cantilever beam. The machining results showed that the dimensional errors of the machined glass sensor ranged from 3 μm in minimum to 20 μm in maximum. These results imply that the micro powder blasting method can be applied for the micromachining of glass-based acceleration sensors to replace the exiting method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)

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Open AccessLetter In-Situ Measurement of High-Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack Using Flexible Five-in-One Micro-Sensor
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1731; doi:10.3390/s16101731
Received: 10 June 2016 / Revised: 12 October 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
PDF Full-text (5386 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the chemical reaction that proceeds in a high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack (HT-PEMFC stack), the internal local temperature, voltage, pressure, flow and current nonuniformity may cause poor membrane material durability and nonuniform fuel distribution, thus influencing the performance and lifetime
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In the chemical reaction that proceeds in a high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack (HT-PEMFC stack), the internal local temperature, voltage, pressure, flow and current nonuniformity may cause poor membrane material durability and nonuniform fuel distribution, thus influencing the performance and lifetime of the fuel cell stack. In this paper micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) are utilized to develop a high-temperature electrochemical environment-resistant five-in-one micro-sensor embedded in the cathode channel plate of an HT-PEMFC stack, and materials and process parameters are appropriately selected to protect the micro-sensor against failure or destruction during long-term operation. In-situ measurement of the local temperature, voltage, pressure, flow and current distributions in the HT-PEMFC stack is carried out. This integrated micro-sensor has five functions, and is favorably characterized by small size, good acid resistance and temperature resistance, quick response, real-time measurement, and the goal is being able to be put in any place for measurement without affecting the performance of the battery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
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