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Special Issue "Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering 2011"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Stefano Mariani

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +39-0223994279
Fax: +39-0223994300
Interests: MEMS; structural sensors; Kalman filtering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) are devices on a millimeter scale, with micro-resolution. Each MEMS is given by the integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators and electronics on a common silicon substrate, obtained through micro-fabrication technology.

MEMS are often designed to work in mobile devices, and are therefore subject during their life to accidental mechanical loadings. Because of the MEMS size, multi-scale analyses are sometimes required in reliability analysis. Furthermore, also thermal, electrical, magnetic and environmental actions should be accounted for in a fully coupled multi-physics modelling of the devices.

As for packaging, some technical problems caused to the devices are not yet thoroughly understood and solved. Since standards do not necessarily apply to packaged MEMS, new knowledge-based testing methodologies need to be proposed.

The aim of this special issue is to collect high quality research results on all these aspects of MEMS engineering.

Dr. Stefano Mariani
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • micro-electro-mechanical-systems
  • multi-scale and multi-physics modeling
  • micro-fluidics
  • failure analysis
  • reliability analysis
  • package engineering

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Analysis and Design of a 3rd Order Velocity-Controlled Closed-Loop for MEMS Vibratory Gyroscopes
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12564-12580; doi:10.3390/s130912564
Received: 11 June 2013 / Revised: 30 July 2013 / Accepted: 27 August 2013 / Published: 18 September 2013
PDF Full-text (577 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The time-average method currently available is limited to analyzing the specific performance of the automatic gain control-proportional and integral (AGC-PI) based velocity-controlled closed-loop in a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) vibratory gyroscope, since it is hard to solve nonlinear functions in the time domain when
[...] Read more.
The time-average method currently available is limited to analyzing the specific performance of the automatic gain control-proportional and integral (AGC-PI) based velocity-controlled closed-loop in a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) vibratory gyroscope, since it is hard to solve nonlinear functions in the time domain when the control loop reaches to 3rd order. In this paper, we propose a linearization design approach to overcome this limitation by establishing a 3rd order linear model of the control loop and transferring the analysis to the frequency domain. Order reduction is applied on the built linear model’s transfer function by constructing a zero-pole doublet, and therefore mathematical expression of each control loop’s performance specification is obtained. Then an optimization methodology is summarized, which reveals that a robust, stable and swift control loop can be achieved by carefully selecting the system parameters following a priority order. Closed-loop drive circuits are designed and implemented using 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and experiments carried out on a gyroscope prototype verify the optimization methodology that an optimized stability of the control loop can be achieved by constructing the zero-pole doublet, and disturbance rejection capability (D.R.C) of the control loop can be improved by increasing the integral term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering 2011)
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Open AccessArticle The Performance Analysis of a Real-Time Integrated INS/GPS Vehicle Navigation System with Abnormal GPS Measurement Elimination
Sensors 2013, 13(8), 10599-10622; doi:10.3390/s130810599
Received: 29 June 2013 / Revised: 1 August 2013 / Accepted: 12 August 2013 / Published: 15 August 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1120 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The integration of an Inertial Navigation System (INS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) is common in mobile mapping and navigation applications to seamlessly determine the position, velocity, and orientation of the mobile platform. In most INS/GPS integrated architectures, the GPS is considered
[...] Read more.
The integration of an Inertial Navigation System (INS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) is common in mobile mapping and navigation applications to seamlessly determine the position, velocity, and orientation of the mobile platform. In most INS/GPS integrated architectures, the GPS is considered to be an accurate reference with which to correct for the systematic errors of the inertial sensors, which are composed of biases, scale factors and drift. However, the GPS receiver may produce abnormal pseudo-range errors mainly caused by ionospheric delay, tropospheric delay and the multipath effect. These errors degrade the overall position accuracy of an integrated system that uses conventional INS/GPS integration strategies such as loosely coupled (LC) and tightly coupled (TC) schemes. Conventional tightly coupled INS/GPS integration schemes apply the Klobuchar model and the Hopfield model to reduce pseudo-range delays caused by ionospheric delay and tropospheric delay, respectively, but do not address the multipath problem. However, the multipath effect (from reflected GPS signals) affects the position error far more significantly in a consumer-grade GPS receiver than in an expensive, geodetic-grade GPS receiver. To avoid this problem, a new integrated INS/GPS architecture is proposed. The proposed method is described and applied in a real-time integrated system with two integration strategies, namely, loosely coupled and tightly coupled schemes, respectively. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, field tests with various scenarios are conducted and the results are compared with a reliable reference system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering 2011)
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Open AccessArticle Prediction of Gap Asymmetry in Differential Micro Accelerometers
Sensors 2012, 12(6), 6857-6868; doi:10.3390/s120606857
Received: 16 April 2012 / Revised: 13 May 2012 / Accepted: 22 May 2012 / Published: 25 May 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (641 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gap asymmetry in differential capacitors is the primary source of the zero bias output of force-balanced micro accelerometers. It is also used to evaluate the applicability of differential structures in MEMS manufacturing. Therefore, determining the asymmetry level has considerable significance for the design
[...] Read more.
Gap asymmetry in differential capacitors is the primary source of the zero bias output of force-balanced micro accelerometers. It is also used to evaluate the applicability of differential structures in MEMS manufacturing. Therefore, determining the asymmetry level has considerable significance for the design of MEMS devices. This paper proposes an experimental-theoretical method for predicting gap asymmetry in differential sensing capacitors of micro accelerometers. The method involves three processes: first, bi-directional measurement, which can sharply reduce the influence of the feedback circuit on bias output, is proposed. Experiments are then carried out on a centrifuge to obtain the input and output data of an accelerometer. Second, the analytical input-output relationship of the accelerometer with gap asymmetry and circuit error is theoretically derived. Finally, the prediction methodology combines the measurement results and analytical derivation to identify the asymmetric error of 30 accelerometers fabricated by DRIE. Results indicate that the level of asymmetry induced by fabrication uncertainty is about ±5 × 10−2, and that the absolute error is about ±0.2 µm under a 4 µm gap. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering 2011)
Open AccessArticle A High Sensitivity Three-Dimensional-Shape Sensing Patch Prepared by Lithography and Inkjet Printing
Sensors 2012, 12(4), 4172-4186; doi:10.3390/s120404172
Received: 28 February 2012 / Revised: 16 March 2012 / Accepted: 16 March 2012 / Published: 28 March 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1425 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A process combining conventional photolithography and a novel inkjet printing method for the manufacture of high sensitivity three-dimensional-shape (3DS) sensing patches was proposed and demonstrated. The supporting curvature ranges from 1.41 to 6.24 ´ 10−2 mm−1 and the sensing patch has
[...] Read more.
A process combining conventional photolithography and a novel inkjet printing method for the manufacture of high sensitivity three-dimensional-shape (3DS) sensing patches was proposed and demonstrated. The supporting curvature ranges from 1.41 to 6.24 ´ 10−2 mm−1 and the sensing patch has a thickness of less than 130 μm and 20 ´ 20 mm2 dimensions. A complete finite element method (FEM) model with simulation results was calculated and performed based on the buckling of columns and the deflection equation. The results show high compatibility of the drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjet printing with photolithography and the interferometer design also supports bi-directional detection of deformation. The 3DS sensing patch can be operated remotely without any power consumption. It provides a novel and alternative option compared with other optical curvature sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering 2011)
Open AccessArticle Improving Planetary Rover Attitude Estimation via MEMS Sensor Characterization
Sensors 2012, 12(2), 2219-2235; doi:10.3390/s120202219
Received: 8 December 2011 / Revised: 31 January 2012 / Accepted: 7 February 2012 / Published: 15 February 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (2109 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are currently being considered in the space sector due to its suitable level of performance for spacecrafts in terms of mechanical robustness with low power consumption, small mass and size, and significant advantage in system design and accommodation. However,
[...] Read more.
Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are currently being considered in the space sector due to its suitable level of performance for spacecrafts in terms of mechanical robustness with low power consumption, small mass and size, and significant advantage in system design and accommodation. However, there is still a lack of understanding regarding the performance and testing of these new sensors, especially in planetary robotics. This paper presents what is missing in the field: a complete methodology regarding the characterization and modeling of MEMS sensors with direct application. A reproducible and complete approach including all the intermediate steps, tools and laboratory equipment is described. The process of sensor error characterization and modeling through to the final integration in the sensor fusion scheme is explained with detail. Although the concept of fusion is relatively easy to comprehend, carefully characterizing and filtering sensor information is not an easy task and is essential for good performance. The strength of the approach has been verified with representative tests of novel high-grade MEMS inertia sensors and exemplary planetary rover platforms with promising results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering 2011)
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Open AccessArticle Signal Processing of MEMS Gyroscope Arrays to Improve Accuracy Using a 1st Order Markov for Rate Signal Modeling
Sensors 2012, 12(2), 1720-1737; doi:10.3390/s120201720
Received: 30 December 2011 / Revised: 1 February 2012 / Accepted: 2 February 2012 / Published: 7 February 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (675 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a signal processing technique to improve angular rate accuracy of the gyroscope by combining the outputs of an array of MEMS gyroscope. A mathematical model for the accuracy improvement was described and a Kalman filter (KF) was designed to obtain
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a signal processing technique to improve angular rate accuracy of the gyroscope by combining the outputs of an array of MEMS gyroscope. A mathematical model for the accuracy improvement was described and a Kalman filter (KF) was designed to obtain optimal rate estimates. Especially, the rate signal was modeled by a first-order Markov process instead of a random walk to improve overall performance. The accuracy of the combined rate signal and affecting factors were analyzed using a steady-state covariance. A system comprising a six-gyroscope array was developed to test the presented KF. Experimental tests proved that the presented model was effective at improving the gyroscope accuracy. The experimental results indicated that six identical gyroscopes with an ARW noise of 6.2 °/√h and a bias drift of 54.14 °/h could be combined into a rate signal with an ARW noise of 1.8 °/√h and a bias drift of 16.3 °/h, while the estimated rate signal by the random walk model has an ARW noise of 2.4 °/√h and a bias drift of 20.6 °/h. It revealed that both models could improve the angular rate accuracy and have a similar performance in static condition. In dynamic condition, the test results showed that the first-order Markov process model could reduce the dynamic errors 20% more than the random walk model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering 2011)
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Open AccessArticle A Zinc Oxide Nanorod Ammonia Microsensor Integrated with a Readout Circuit on-a-Chip
Sensors 2011, 11(12), 11112-11121; doi:10.3390/s111211112
Received: 13 October 2011 / Revised: 22 November 2011 / Accepted: 23 November 2011 / Published: 28 November 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1054 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A zinc oxide nanorod ammonia microsensor integrated with a readout circuit on-a-chip fabricated using the commercial 0.35 mm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process was investigated. The structure of the ammonia sensor is composed of a sensitive film and polysilicon electrodes. The ammonia
[...] Read more.
A zinc oxide nanorod ammonia microsensor integrated with a readout circuit on-a-chip fabricated using the commercial 0.35 mm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process was investigated. The structure of the ammonia sensor is composed of a sensitive film and polysilicon electrodes. The ammonia sensor requires a post-process to etch the sacrificial layer, and to coat the sensitive film on the polysilicon electrodes. The sensitive film that is prepared by a hydrothermal method is made of zinc oxide. The sensor resistance changes when the sensitive film adsorbs or desorbs ammonia gas. The readout circuit is used to convert the sensor resistance into the voltage output. Experiments show that the ammonia sensor has a sensitivity of about 1.5 mV/ppm at room temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering 2011)
Open AccessArticle Manufacture and Characterization of High Q-Factor Inductors Based on CMOS-MEMS Techniques
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9798-9806; doi:10.3390/s111009798
Received: 22 August 2011 / Revised: 12 October 2011 / Accepted: 17 October 2011 / Published: 19 October 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (885 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A high Q-factor (quality-factor) spiral inductor fabricated by the CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) process and a post-process was investigated. The spiral inductor is manufactured on a silicon substrate. A post-process is used to remove the underlying silicon substrate in order to reduce
[...] Read more.
A high Q-factor (quality-factor) spiral inductor fabricated by the CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) process and a post-process was investigated. The spiral inductor is manufactured on a silicon substrate. A post-process is used to remove the underlying silicon substrate in order to reduce the substrate loss and to enhance the Q-factor of the inductor. The post-process adopts RIE (reactive ion etching) to etch the sacrificial oxide layer, and then TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide) is employed to remove the silicon substrate for obtaining the suspended spiral inductor. The advantage of this post-processing method is its compatibility with the CMOS process. The performance of the spiral inductor is measured by an Agilent 8510C network analyzer and a Cascade probe station. Experimental results show that the Q-factor and inductance of the spiral inductor are 15 at 15 GHz and 1.8 nH at 1 GHz, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering 2011)
Open AccessArticle Genetic Algorithm for the Design of Electro-Mechanical Sigma Delta Modulator MEMS Sensors
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9217-9232; doi:10.3390/s111009217
Received: 4 July 2011 / Revised: 19 August 2011 / Accepted: 22 September 2011 / Published: 27 September 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (574 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes a novel design methodology using non-linear models for complex closed loop electro-mechanical sigma-delta modulators (EMΣΔM) that is based on genetic algorithms and statistical variation analysis. The proposed methodology is capable of quickly and efficiently designing high performance, high order, closed
[...] Read more.
This paper describes a novel design methodology using non-linear models for complex closed loop electro-mechanical sigma-delta modulators (EMΣΔM) that is based on genetic algorithms and statistical variation analysis. The proposed methodology is capable of quickly and efficiently designing high performance, high order, closed loop, near-optimal systems that are robust to sensor fabrication tolerances and electronic component variation. The use of full non-linear system models allows significant higher order non-ideal effects to be taken into account, improving accuracy and confidence in the results. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach, two design examples are presented including a 5th order low-pass EMΣΔM for a MEMS accelerometer, and a 6th order band-pass EMΣΔM for the sense mode of a MEMS gyroscope. Each example was designed using the system in less than one day, with very little manual intervention. The strength of the approach is verified by SNR performances of 109.2 dB and 92.4 dB for the low-pass and band-pass system respectively, coupled with excellent immunities to fabrication tolerances and parameter mismatch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering 2011)
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Open AccessArticle Analytical Modeling for the Bending Resonant Frequency of Multilayered Microresonators with Variable Cross-Section
Sensors 2011, 11(9), 8203-8226; doi:10.3390/s110908203
Received: 18 July 2011 / Revised: 9 August 2011 / Accepted: 16 August 2011 / Published: 25 August 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1741 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multilayered microresonators commonly use sensitive coating or piezoelectric layers for detection of mass and gas. Most of these microresonators have a variable cross-section that complicates the prediction of their fundamental resonant frequency (generally of the bending mode) through conventional analytical models. In this
[...] Read more.
Multilayered microresonators commonly use sensitive coating or piezoelectric layers for detection of mass and gas. Most of these microresonators have a variable cross-section that complicates the prediction of their fundamental resonant frequency (generally of the bending mode) through conventional analytical models. In this paper, we present an analytical model to estimate the first resonant frequency and deflection curve of single-clamped multilayered microresonators with variable cross-section. The analytical model is obtained using the Rayleigh and Macaulay methods, as well as the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. Our model is applied to two multilayered microresonators with piezoelectric excitation reported in the literature. Both microresonators are composed by layers of seven different materials. The results of our analytical model agree very well with those obtained from finite element models (FEMs) and experimental data. Our analytical model can be used to determine the suitable dimensions of the microresonator’s layers in order to obtain a microresonator that operates at a resonant frequency necessary for a particular application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering 2011)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Characterization of Polyaniline/PVA Humidity Microsensors
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 8143-8151; doi:10.3390/s110808143
Received: 27 June 2011 / Revised: 27 July 2011 / Accepted: 18 August 2011 / Published: 19 August 2011
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1116 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study presents the fabrication and characterization of a humidity microsensor that consists of interdigitated electrodes and a sensitive film. The area of the humidity microsensor is about 2 mm2. The sensitive film is polyaniline doping polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) that is
[...] Read more.
This study presents the fabrication and characterization of a humidity microsensor that consists of interdigitated electrodes and a sensitive film. The area of the humidity microsensor is about 2 mm2. The sensitive film is polyaniline doping polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) that is prepared by the sol-gel method, and the film has nanofiber and porous structures that help increase the sensing reaction. The commercial 0.35 mm Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) process is used to fabricate the humidity microsensor. The sensor needs a post-CMOS process to etch the sacrificial layer and to coat the sensitive film on the interdigitated electrodes. The sensor produces a change in resistance as the polyaniline/PVA film absorbs or desorbs vapor. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the humidity sensor is about 12.6 kΩ/%RH at 25 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering 2011)
Open AccessArticle A Celestial Assisted INS Initialization Method for Lunar Explorers
Sensors 2011, 11(7), 6991-7003; doi:10.3390/s110706991
Received: 8 May 2011 / Revised: 24 June 2011 / Accepted: 26 June 2011 / Published: 4 July 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (486 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The second and third phases of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP) are planning to achieve Moon landing, surface exploration and automated sample return. In these missions, the inertial navigation system (INS) and celestial navigation system (CNS) are two indispensable autonomous navigation systems
[...] Read more.
The second and third phases of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP) are planning to achieve Moon landing, surface exploration and automated sample return. In these missions, the inertial navigation system (INS) and celestial navigation system (CNS) are two indispensable autonomous navigation systems which can compensate for limitations in the ground based navigation system. The accurate initialization of the INS and the precise calibration of the CNS are needed in order to achieve high navigation accuracy. Neither the INS nor the CNS can solve the above problems using the ground controllers or by themselves on the lunar surface. However, since they are complementary to each other, these problems can be solved by combining them together. A new celestial assisted INS initialization method is presented, in which the initial position and attitude of the explorer as well as the inertial sensors’ biases are estimated by aiding the INS with celestial measurements. Furthermore, the systematic error of the CNS is also corrected by the help of INS measurements. Simulations show that the maximum error in position is 300 m and in attitude 40″, which demonstrates this method is a promising and attractive scheme for explorers on the lunar surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering 2011)
Open AccessArticle Two-Scale Simulation of Drop-Induced Failure of Polysilicon MEMS Sensors
Sensors 2011, 11(5), 4972-4989; doi:10.3390/s110504972
Received: 15 March 2011 / Revised: 28 April 2011 / Accepted: 3 May 2011 / Published: 4 May 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (947 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, an industrially-oriented two-scale approach is provided to model the drop-induced brittle failure of polysilicon MEMS sensors. The two length-scales here investigated are the package (macroscopic) and the sensor (mesoscopic) ones. Issues related to the polysilicon morphology at the micro-scale are
[...] Read more.
In this paper, an industrially-oriented two-scale approach is provided to model the drop-induced brittle failure of polysilicon MEMS sensors. The two length-scales here investigated are the package (macroscopic) and the sensor (mesoscopic) ones. Issues related to the polysilicon morphology at the micro-scale are disregarded; an upscaled homogenized constitutive law, able to describe the brittle cracking of silicon, is instead adopted at the meso-scale. The two-scale approach is validated against full three-scale Monte-Carlo simulations, which allow for stochastic effects linked to the microstructural properties of polysilicon. Focusing on inertial MEMS sensors exposed to drops, it is shown that the offered approach matches well the experimentally observed failure mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering 2011)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Measurements of True Leak Rates of MEMS Packages
Sensors 2012, 12(3), 3082-3104; doi:10.3390/s120303082
Received: 13 January 2012 / Revised: 24 February 2012 / Accepted: 24 February 2012 / Published: 6 March 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1021 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
: Gas transport mechanisms that characterize the hermetic behavior of MEMS packages are fundamentally different depending upon which sealing materials are used in the packages. In metallic seals, gas transport occurs through a few nanoscale leak channels (gas conduction) that are
[...] Read more.
: Gas transport mechanisms that characterize the hermetic behavior of MEMS packages are fundamentally different depending upon which sealing materials are used in the packages. In metallic seals, gas transport occurs through a few nanoscale leak channels (gas conduction) that are produced randomly during the solder reflow process, while gas transport in polymeric seals occurs through the bulk material (gas diffusion). In this review article, the techniques to measure true leak rates of MEMS packages with the two sealing materials are described and discussed: a Helium mass spectrometer based technique for metallic sealing and a gas diffusion based model for polymeric sealing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering 2011)

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