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Special Issue "State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "State-of-the-Art Sensors Technologies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2009)

Special Issue Editor

Editorial Advisor
Dr. Stefano Mariani

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +39-0223994279
Fax: +39-0223994300
Interests: MEMS; structural sensors; Kalman filtering

Special Issue Information

Summary

The aim of this special issue is to provide a comprehensive view on the state-of-the-art sensors technology in Italy. Research articles are solicited which will provide a consolidated state-of-the-art in this area. The Special Issue will publish those full research, review and high rated manuscripts addressing the above topic.

Related papers published in 2007 and 2008

Luca De Stefano1,*, Paolo Arcari2, Annalisa Lamberti2, Carmen Sanges2, Lucia Rotiroti1, Ilaria Rea1 and Ivo Rendina1
Article: DNA Optical Detection Based on Porous Silicon Technology: from Biosensors to Biochips
Sensors 2007, 7, 214-221 (PDF Format, 130K)

Domenico Caputo1,*, Gianpiero de Cesare1, Corrado Fanelli2, Augusto Nascetti1, Alessandra Ricelli3 and Riccardo Scipinotti1
Communication: Innovative Detection System of Ochratoxin A by Thin Film Photodiodes
Sensors 2007, 7, 1317-1322 (PDF Format, 143K)

Stefano Mariani1,*, Aldo Ghisi1, Alberto Corigliano1 and Sarah Zerbini2
Article: Multi-scale Analysis of MEMS Sensors Subject to Drop Impacts
Sensors 2007, 7, 1817-1833 (PDF Format, 1199K)

Carlo Camerlingo1, Flora Zenone2, Ines Delfino4, Nadia Diano3, Damiano G. Mita3,* and Maria Lepore3
Article: Investigation on Clarified Fruit Juice Composition by Using Visible Light Micro-Raman Spectroscopy
Sensors 2007, 7, 2049-2061 (PDF Format, 267K)

Paola De Luca1, Maria Lepore1, Marianna Portaccio1, Rosario Esposito3, Sergio Rossi4, Umberto Bencivenga4 and Damiano G. Mita1,*
Article: Glucose Determination by Means of Steady-state and Time-course UV Fluorescence in Free or Immobilized Glucose Oxidase
Sensors 2007, 7, 2612-2625 (PDF Format, 279K)

Vittorio M. Passaro1,*, Francesco Dell’Olio1 and Francesco De Leonardis2
Article: Ammonia Optical Sensing by Microring Resonators
Sensors 2007, 7, 2741-2749 (PDF Format, 529K)

Giorgio Verrelli1,*, Larisa Lvova1, Roberto Paolesse1, Corrado Di Natale2 and Arnaldo D'Amico2
Article: Metalloporphyrin - based Electronic Tongue: an Application for the Analysis of Italian White wines
Sensors 2007, 7, 2750-2762 (PDF Format, 268K)

Alberto Ballestra1, Aurelio Somà1,* and Renato Pavanello2
Article: Experimental-Numerical Comparison of the Cantilever MEMS Frequency Shift in presence of a Residual Stress Gradient
Sensors 2008, 8, 767-783 (PDF Format, 683K)

Simone Pascucci1,*, Cristiana Bassani2, Angelo Palombo1, Maurizio Poscolieri3 and Rosa Cavalli2
Article: Road Asphalt Pavements Analyzed by Airborne Thermal Remote Sensing: Preliminary Results of the Venice Highway
sensors 2008, 8, 1278-1296 (PDF Format, 1159K)

Michele Meroni1, Micol Rossini1, Valentina Picchi2,3, Cinzia Panigada1, Sergio Cogliati1, Cristina Nali3 and Roberto Colombo1
Article: Assessing Steady-state Fluorescence and PRI from Hyperspectral Proximal Sensing as Early Indicators of Plant Stress: The Case of Ozone Exposure
Sensors 2008, 8, 1740-1754 PDF Format, 246K)

Mauro Bacci*, Costanza Cucci, Andrea A. Mencaglia and Anna G. Mignani
Review: Innovative Sensors for Environmental Monitoring in Museums
Sensors 2008, 8, 1984-2005 (PDF Format, 368K)

Massimo Arattano1,* and Lorenzo Marchi2
Review: Systems and Sensors for Debris-flow Monitoring and Warning
Sensors 2008, 8, 2436-2452 (PDF Format, 757K)

Dario Papale1,*, Claudio Belli1,2, Beniamino Gioli3, Franco Miglietta3, Cesare Ronchi4, Francesco P. Vaccari3 and Riccardo Valentini1
Article: ASPIS, A Flexible Multispectral System for Airborne Remote Sensing Environmental Applications
Sensors 2008, 8, 3240-3256 (PDF Format, 324K)

Carlo Camerlingo1, Flora Zenone2, Giuseppe Perna3, Vito Capozzi3, Nicola Cirillo4, Giovanni M. Gaeta4 and Maria Lepore5,*
Article: An Investigation on Micro-Raman Spectra and Wavelet Data Analysis for Pemphigus Vulgaris Follow-up Monitoring
Sensors 2008, 8, 3656-3664 (PDF Format, 170K)

Nazzareno Pierdicca, Marco Chini*, Luca Pulvirenti and Flavia Macina
Article: Integrating Physical and Topographic Information Into a Fuzzy Scheme to Map Flooded Area by SAR
Sensors 2008, 8, 4151-4164 (PDF Format, 1675K)

Eros Agosto1, Andrea Ajmar2,*, Piero Boccardo1, Fabio Giulio Tonolo3 and Andrea Lingua1
Article: Crime Scene Reconstruction Using a Fully Geomatic Approach
Sensors 2008, 8, 6280-6302 (PDF Format, 1434)

Edoardo De Tommasi1,*, Luca De Stefano1, Ilaria Rea1,2, Valentina Di Sarno1,2, Lucia Rotiroti1,3, Paolo Arcari4, Annalisa Lamberti4, Carmen Sanges4 and Ivo Rendina1
Article: Porous Silicon Based Resonant Mirrors for Biochemical Sensing
Sensors 2008, 8, 6549-6556 (PDF Format, 282K)

Diego Ghezzi1,2, Rebeca M. Vazquez3, Roberto Osellame3,*, Flavia Valtorta4,5, Alessandra Pedrocchi1, Giuseppe D. Valle3, Roberta Ramponi3, Giancarlo Ferrigno1 and Giulio Cerullo3
Article: Femtosecond Laser Microfabrication of an Integrated Device for Optical Release and Sensing of Bioactive Compounds
Sensors 2008, 8, 6595-6604 (PDF Format, 1902)

Luigi Campanella, Dalina Lelo, Elisabetta Martini and Mauro Tomassetti*
Article: Immunoglobulin G Determination in Human Serum and Milk Using an Immunosensor of New Conception Fitted with an Enzyme Probe as Transducer
Sensors 2008, 8, 6727-6746 (PDF Format 219K)

Francesco Congestri, Francesca Formenti, Viviana Sonntag, Gael Hdou and Francesco Crespi*
Article: Selective D3 Receptor Antagonist SB-277011-A Potentiates the Effect of Cocaine on Extracellular Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens: a Dual Core-Shell Voltammetry Study in Anesthetized Rats
Sensors 2008, 8, 6936-6951 (PDF Format, 107K)

Antonino Parisi1, Alfonso C. Cino1,2,*, Alessandro C. Busacca2, Matteo Cherchi2 and Stefano Riva-Sanseverino1,2
Article: Integrated Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance Measurements in a Borosilicate Glass Substrate
Sensors 2008, 8, 7113-7124 (PDF Format, 806K)

Keywords

  • biosensors
  • chemical sensors
  • physical sensors
  • remote sensing sensors

Published Papers (28 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Multi-Aperture CMOS Sun Sensor for Microsatellite Attitude Determination
Sensors 2009, 9(6), 4503-4524; doi:10.3390/s90604503
Received: 31 March 2009 / Revised: 19 May 2009 / Accepted: 26 May 2009 / Published: 9 June 2009
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (753 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes the high precision digital sun sensor under development at the University of Naples. The sensor determines the sun line orientation in the sensor frame from the measurement of the sun position on the focal plane. It exploits CMOS technology and
[...] Read more.
This paper describes the high precision digital sun sensor under development at the University of Naples. The sensor determines the sun line orientation in the sensor frame from the measurement of the sun position on the focal plane. It exploits CMOS technology and an original optical head design with multiple apertures. This allows simultaneous multiple acquisitions of the sun as spots on the focal plane. The sensor can be operated either with a fixed or a variable number of sun spots, depending on the required field of view and sun-line measurement precision. Multiple acquisitions are averaged by using techniques which minimize the computational load to extract the sun line orientation with high precision. Accuracy and computational efficiency are also improved thanks to an original design of the calibration function relying on neural networks. Extensive test campaigns are carried out using a laboratory test facility reproducing sun spectrum, apparent size and distance, and variable illumination directions. Test results validate the sensor concept, confirming the precision improvement achievable with multiple apertures, and sensor operation with a variable number of sun spots. Specifically, the sensor provides accuracy and precision in the order of 1 arcmin and 1 arcsec, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
Open AccessArticle Underwater Acoustic Sensors Based on Fiber Bragg Gratings
Sensors 2009, 9(6), 4446-4454; doi:10.3390/s90604446
Received: 19 May 2009 / Revised: 3 June 2009 / Accepted: 3 June 2009 / Published: 5 June 2009
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (156 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report on recent results obtained with a fiber optic hydrophone based on the intensity modulation of the laser light in a FBG (Fiber Bragg Grating) under the influence of the sound pressure. In order to control the behavior of the hydrophone in
[...] Read more.
We report on recent results obtained with a fiber optic hydrophone based on the intensity modulation of the laser light in a FBG (Fiber Bragg Grating) under the influence of the sound pressure. In order to control the behavior of the hydrophone in terms of sensitivity and bandwidth, FBGs have been coated with proper materials, characterized by different elastic modulus and shapes. In particular, new experiments have been carried out using a cylindrical geometry with two different coating, showing that the sensitivity is not influenced by the shape but by the transversal dimension and the material characteristics of the coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
Open AccessArticle Performance Analysis of the SIFT Operator for Automatic Feature Extraction and Matching in Photogrammetric Applications
Sensors 2009, 9(5), 3745-3766; doi:10.3390/s90503745
Received: 21 April 2009 / Revised: 12 May 2009 / Accepted: 18 May 2009 / Published: 18 May 2009
Cited by 70 | PDF Full-text (669 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the photogrammetry field, interest in region detectors, which are widely used in Computer Vision, is quickly increasing due to the availability of new techniques. Images acquired by Mobile Mapping Technology, Oblique Photogrammetric Cameras or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles do not observe normal acquisition
[...] Read more.
In the photogrammetry field, interest in region detectors, which are widely used in Computer Vision, is quickly increasing due to the availability of new techniques. Images acquired by Mobile Mapping Technology, Oblique Photogrammetric Cameras or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles do not observe normal acquisition conditions. Feature extraction and matching techniques, which are traditionally used in photogrammetry, are usually inefficient for these applications as they are unable to provide reliable results under extreme geometrical conditions (convergent taking geometry, strong affine transformations, etc.) and for bad-textured images. A performance analysis of the SIFT technique in aerial and close-range photogrammetric applications is presented in this paper. The goal is to establish the suitability of the SIFT technique for automatic tie point extraction and approximate DSM (Digital Surface Model) generation. First, the performances of the SIFT operator have been compared with those provided by feature extraction and matching techniques used in photogrammetry. All these techniques have been implemented by the authors and validated on aerial and terrestrial images. Moreover, an auto-adaptive version of the SIFT operator has been developed, in order to improve the performances of the SIFT detector in relation to the texture of the images. The Auto-Adaptive SIFT operator (A2 SIFT) has been validated on several aerial images, with particular attention to large scale aerial images acquired using mini-UAV systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
Open AccessArticle Artificial Roughness Encoding with a Bio-inspired MEMS-based Tactile Sensor Array
Sensors 2009, 9(5), 3161-3183; doi:10.3390/s90503161
Received: 3 March 2009 / Revised: 22 April 2009 / Accepted: 24 April 2009 / Published: 27 April 2009
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (1484 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A compliant 2x2 tactile sensor array was developed and investigated for roughness encoding. State of the art cross shape 3D MEMS sensors were integrated with polymeric packaging providing in total 16 sensitive elements to external mechanical stimuli in an area of about 20
[...] Read more.
A compliant 2x2 tactile sensor array was developed and investigated for roughness encoding. State of the art cross shape 3D MEMS sensors were integrated with polymeric packaging providing in total 16 sensitive elements to external mechanical stimuli in an area of about 20 mm2, similarly to the SA1 innervation density in humans. Experimental analysis of the bio-inspired tactile sensor array was performed by using ridged surfaces, with spatial periods from 2.6 mm to 4.1 mm, which were indented with regulated 1N normal force and stroked at constant sliding velocity from 15 mm/s to 48 mm/s. A repeatable and expected frequency shift of the sensor outputs depending on the applied stimulus and on its scanning velocity was observed between 3.66 Hz and 18.46 Hz with an overall maximum error of 1.7%. The tactile sensor could also perform contact imaging during static stimulus indentation. The experiments demonstrated the suitability of this approach for the design of a roughness encoding tactile sensor for an artificial fingerpad. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
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Open AccessArticle Quantum Cascade Laser-Based Photoacoustic Sensor for Trace Detection of Formaldehyde Gas
Sensors 2009, 9(4), 2697-2705; doi:10.3390/s90402697
Received: 6 February 2009 / Revised: 2 April 2009 / Accepted: 16 April 2009 / Published: 16 April 2009
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report on the development of a photoacoustic sensor for the detection of formaldehyde (CH2O) using a thermoelectrically cooled distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser operating in pulsed mode at 5.6 mm. A resonant photoacoustic cell, equipped with four electret microphones, is excited
[...] Read more.
We report on the development of a photoacoustic sensor for the detection of formaldehyde (CH2O) using a thermoelectrically cooled distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser operating in pulsed mode at 5.6 mm. A resonant photoacoustic cell, equipped with four electret microphones, is excited in its first longitudinal mode at 1,380 Hz. The absorption line at 1,778.9 cm-1 is selected for CH2O detection. A detection limit of 150 parts per billion in volume in nitrogen is achieved using a 10 seconds time constant and 4 mW laser power. Measurements in ambient air will require water vapour filters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
Open AccessArticle Non-Contact Detection of Breathing Using a Microwave Sensor
Sensors 2009, 9(4), 2574-2585; doi:10.3390/s90402574
Received: 13 March 2009 / Revised: 7 April 2009 / Accepted: 14 April 2009 / Published: 14 April 2009
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (305 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper the use of a continuous-wave microwave sensor as a non-contact tool for quantitative measurement of respiratory tidal volume has been evaluated by experimentation in seventeen healthy volunteers. The sensor working principle is reported and several causes that can affect its
[...] Read more.
In this paper the use of a continuous-wave microwave sensor as a non-contact tool for quantitative measurement of respiratory tidal volume has been evaluated by experimentation in seventeen healthy volunteers. The sensor working principle is reported and several causes that can affect its response are analyzed. A suitable data processing has been devised able to reject the majority of breath measurements taken under non suitable conditions. Furthermore, a relationship between microwave sensor measurements and volume inspired and expired at quiet breathing (tidal volume) has been found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
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Open AccessArticle Biotelemetric Monitoring of Brain Neurochemistry in Conscious Rats Using Microsensors and Biosensors
Sensors 2009, 9(4), 2511-2523; doi:10.3390/s90402511
Received: 3 March 2009 / Revised: 8 April 2009 / Accepted: 14 April 2009 / Published: 14 April 2009
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study we present the real-time monitoring of three key brain neurochemical species in conscious rats using implantable amperometric electrodes interfaced to a biotelemetric device. The new system, derived from a previous design, was coupled with carbon-based microsensors and a platinum-based biosensor
[...] Read more.
In this study we present the real-time monitoring of three key brain neurochemical species in conscious rats using implantable amperometric electrodes interfaced to a biotelemetric device. The new system, derived from a previous design, was coupled with carbon-based microsensors and a platinum-based biosensor for the detection of ascorbic acid (AA), O2 and glucose in the striatum of untethered, freely-moving rats. The miniaturized device consisted of a single-supply sensor driver, a current-to-voltage converter, a microcontroller and a miniaturized data transmitter. The redox currents were digitized to digital values by means of an analog-to-digital converter integrated in a peripheral interface controller (PIC), and sent to a personal computer by means of a miniaturized AM transmitter. The electronics were calibrated and tested in vitro under different experimental conditions and exhibited high stability, low power consumption and good linear response in the nanoampere current range. The in-vivo results confirmed previously published observations on striatal AA, oxygen and glucose dynamics recorded in tethered rats. This approach, based on simple and inexpensive components, could be used as a rapid and reliable model for studying the effects of different drugs on brain neurochemical systems Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
Open AccessArticle Electrochemical Direct Determination of Catecholamines for the Early Detection of Neurodegenerative Diseases
Sensors 2009, 9(4), 2437-2445; doi:10.3390/s90402437
Received: 26 February 2009 / Revised: 1 April 2009 / Accepted: 7 April 2009 / Published: 7 April 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (129 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Smart (Nano) materials with biosensing functions posses enormous potential in development of new generation of stable biosensors, chemical sensors, and actuators. Recently, there is a considerable interest in using TiO2 nanostructured materials as a film-forming material since they have high surface area,
[...] Read more.
Smart (Nano) materials with biosensing functions posses enormous potential in development of new generation of stable biosensors, chemical sensors, and actuators. Recently, there is a considerable interest in using TiO2 nanostructured materials as a film-forming material since they have high surface area, optical transparency, high bio-compatibility, and relatively good conductivity. In this work, TiO2 nanostructured films were used as nanoporous electrodes to study the electron transfer mechanisms of dopamine. epinephrine and norepinephrine, in order to develop a new generation of chemical sensors. The interesting results obtained are described herein and the analytical characterization of these neurotransmitter sensors is reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
Open AccessArticle Determination of Lactoferrin and Immunoglobulin G in Animal Milks by New Immunosensors
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 2202-2221; doi:10.3390/s90302202
Received: 29 December 2008 / Revised: 20 March 2009 / Accepted: 24 March 2009 / Published: 26 March 2009
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (289 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two different immunosensors, recently developed for the determination of antibacterial proteins (lactoferrin and immunoglobulin G) in buffalo milk and in other commercial animal milks samples, were used in the present study. The aim was to propose these immunosensor methods for routine control of
[...] Read more.
Two different immunosensors, recently developed for the determination of antibacterial proteins (lactoferrin and immunoglobulin G) in buffalo milk and in other commercial animal milks samples, were used in the present study. The aim was to propose these immunosensor methods for routine control of important diet products, such as cow and goat milks, and in particular buffalo milk. To this end we employed two different kinds of immunosensors: one for the analysis of immunoglobulin G (IgG), the other was a new amperometric immunosensor for lactoferrin analysis. Lactoferrin and IgG immunosensors were also used for the determination of lactoferrin and immunoglobulin G in buffalo milk on different days of lactation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
Open AccessArticle Modeling Impact-induced Failure of Polysilicon MEMS: A Multi-scale Approach
Sensors 2009, 9(1), 556-567; doi:10.3390/s90100556
Received: 12 December 2008 / Revised: 10 January 2009 / Accepted: 13 January 2009 / Published: 19 January 2009
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Failure of packaged polysilicon micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) subjected to impacts involves phenomena occurring at several length-scales. In this paper we present a multi-scale finite element approach to properly allow for: (i) the propagation of stress waves inside the package; (ii) the dynamics of
[...] Read more.
Failure of packaged polysilicon micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) subjected to impacts involves phenomena occurring at several length-scales. In this paper we present a multi-scale finite element approach to properly allow for: (i) the propagation of stress waves inside the package; (ii) the dynamics of the whole MEMS; (iii) the spreading of micro-cracking in the failing part(s) of the sensor. Through Monte Carlo simulations, some effects of polysilicon micro-structure on the failure mode are elucidated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Orbit and Pointing Geometry of a Spaceborne Formation for Monostatic-Bistatic Radargrammetry on Terrain Elevation Measurement Accuracy
Sensors 2009, 9(1), 175-195; doi:10.3390/s90100175
Received: 11 November 2008 / Revised: 29 December 2008 / Accepted: 30 December 2008 / Published: 8 January 2009
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During the last decade a methodology for the reconstruction of surface relief by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measurements – SAR interferometry – has become a standard. Different techniques developed before, such as stereo-radargrammetry, have been experienced from space only in very limiting geometries
[...] Read more.
During the last decade a methodology for the reconstruction of surface relief by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measurements – SAR interferometry – has become a standard. Different techniques developed before, such as stereo-radargrammetry, have been experienced from space only in very limiting geometries and time series, and, hence, branded as less accurate. However, novel formation flying configurations achievable by modern spacecraft allow fulfillment of SAR missions able to produce pairs of monostatic-bistatic images gathered simultaneously, with programmed looking angles. Hence it is possible to achieve large antenna separations, adequate for exploiting to the utmost the stereoscopic effect, and to make negligible time decorrelation, a strong liming factor for repeat-pass stereo-radargrammetric techniques. This paper reports on design of a monostatic-bistatic mission, in terms of orbit and pointing geometry, and taking into account present generation SAR and technology for accurate relative navigation. Performances of different methods for monostatic-bistatic stereo-radargrammetry are then evaluated, showing the possibility to determine the local surface relief with a metric accuracy over a wide range of Earth latitudes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
Open AccessArticle A One-Layer Satellite Surface Energy Balance for Estimating Evapotranspiration Rates and Crop Water Stress Indexes
Sensors 2009, 9(1), 1-21; doi:10.3390/s90100001
Received: 25 September 2008 / Revised: 23 December 2008 / Accepted: 24 December 2008 / Published: 5 January 2009
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (483 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Daily evapotranspiration fluxes over the semi-arid Catania Plain area (Eastern Sicily, Italy) were evaluated using remotely sensed data from Landsat Thematic Mapper TM5 images. A one-source parameterization of the surface sensible heat flux exchange using satellite surface temperature has been used. The transfer
[...] Read more.
Daily evapotranspiration fluxes over the semi-arid Catania Plain area (Eastern Sicily, Italy) were evaluated using remotely sensed data from Landsat Thematic Mapper TM5 images. A one-source parameterization of the surface sensible heat flux exchange using satellite surface temperature has been used. The transfer of sensible and latent heat is described by aerodynamic resistance and surface resistance. Required model inputs are brightness, temperature, fractional vegetation cover or leaf area index, albedo, crop height, roughness lengths, net radiation, air temperature, air humidity and wind speed. The aerodynamic resistance (rah) is formulated on the basis of the Monin-Obukhov surface layer similarity theory and the surface resistance (rs) is evaluated from the energy balance equation. The instantaneous surface flux values were converted into evaporative fraction (EF) over the heterogeneous land surface to derive daily evapotranspiration values. Remote sensing-based assessments of crop water stress (CWSI) were also made in order to identify local irrigation requirements. Evapotranspiration data and crop coefficient values obtained from the approach were compared with: (i) data from the semi-empirical approach “Kc reflectance-based”, which integrates satellite data in the visible and NIR regions of the electromagnetic spectrum with ground-based measurements and (ii) surface energy flux measurements collected from a micrometeorological tower located in the experiment area. The expected variability associated with ET flux measurements suggests that the approach-derived surface fluxes were in acceptable agreement with the observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
Open AccessArticle Femtosecond Laser Microfabrication of an Integrated Device for Optical Release and Sensing of Bioactive Compounds
Sensors 2008, 8(10), 6595-6604; doi:10.3390/s8106595
Received: 23 September 2008 / Revised: 16 October 2008 / Accepted: 21 October 2008 / Published: 23 October 2008
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1902 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Flash photolysis of caged compounds is one of the most powerful approaches to investigate the dynamic response of living cells. Monolithically integrated devices suitable for optical uncaging are in great demand since they greatly simplify the experiments and allow their automation. Here we
[...] Read more.
Flash photolysis of caged compounds is one of the most powerful approaches to investigate the dynamic response of living cells. Monolithically integrated devices suitable for optical uncaging are in great demand since they greatly simplify the experiments and allow their automation. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of an integrated bio-photonic device for the optical release of caged compounds. Such a device is fabricated using femtosecond laser micromachining of a glass substrate. More in detail, femtosecond lasers are used both to cut the substrate in order to create a pit for cell growth and to inscribe optical waveguides for spatially selective uncaging of the compounds present in the culture medium. The operation of this monolithic bio-photonic device is tested using both free and caged fluorescent compounds to probe its capability of multipoint release and optical sensing. Application of this device to the study of neuronal network activity can be envisaged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Exploiting Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Technology for the Identification of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF2) Antagonists Endowed with Antiangiogenic Activity
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 6471-6503; doi:10.3390/s90806471
Received: 24 July 2009 / Revised: 17 August 2009 / Accepted: 19 August 2009 / Published: 20 August 2009
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (780 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation, is implicated in various physiological/pathological conditions, including embryonic development, inflammation and tumor growth. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) is a heparin-binding angiogenic growth factor involved in various physiopathological processes, including tumor neovascularization. Accordingly, FGF2 is considered
[...] Read more.
Angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation, is implicated in various physiological/pathological conditions, including embryonic development, inflammation and tumor growth. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) is a heparin-binding angiogenic growth factor involved in various physiopathological processes, including tumor neovascularization. Accordingly, FGF2 is considered a target for antiangiogenic therapies. Thus, numerous natural/synthetic compounds have been tested for their capacity to bind and sequester FGF2 in the extracellular environment preventing its interaction with cellular receptors. We have exploited surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique in search for antiangiogenic FGF2 binders/antagonists. In this review we will summarize our experience in SPR-based angiogenesis research, with the aim to validate SPR as a first line screening for the identification of antiangiogenic compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
Open AccessReview Titanium and Ruthenium Phthalocyanines for NO2 Sensors: A Mini-Review
Sensors 2009, 9(7), 5277-5297; doi:10.3390/s90705277
Received: 20 May 2009 / Revised: 26 June 2009 / Accepted: 2 July 2009 / Published: 6 July 2009
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (871 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review presents studies devoted to the description and comprehension of phenomena connected with the sensing behaviour towards NO2 of films of two phthalocyanines, titanium bis-phthalocyanine and ruthenium phthalocyanine. Spectroscopic, conductometric, and morphological features recorded during exposure to the gas are
[...] Read more.
This review presents studies devoted to the description and comprehension of phenomena connected with the sensing behaviour towards NO2 of films of two phthalocyanines, titanium bis-phthalocyanine and ruthenium phthalocyanine. Spectroscopic, conductometric, and morphological features recorded during exposure to the gas are explained and the mechanisms of gas-molecule interaction are also elucidated. The review also shows how X-ray reflectivity can be a useful tool for monitoring morphological parameters such as thickness and roughness that are demonstrated to be sensitive variables for monitoring the exposure of thin films of sensor materials to NO2 gas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
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Open AccessReview Progress in the Development of CdTe and CdZnTe Semiconductor Radiation Detectors for Astrophysical and Medical Applications
Sensors 2009, 9(5), 3491-3526; doi:10.3390/s90503491
Received: 26 March 2009 / Revised: 5 May 2009 / Accepted: 8 May 2009 / Published: 12 May 2009
Cited by 192 | PDF Full-text (1592 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the last decade, cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) wide band gap semiconductors have attracted increasing interest as X-ray and gamma ray detectors. Among the traditional high performance spectrometers based on silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge), CdTe and CdZnTe detectors
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Over the last decade, cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) wide band gap semiconductors have attracted increasing interest as X-ray and gamma ray detectors. Among the traditional high performance spectrometers based on silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge), CdTe and CdZnTe detectors show high detection efficiency and good room temperature performance and are well suited for the development of compact and reliable detection systems. In this paper, we review the current status of research in the development of CdTe and CdZnTe detectors by a comprehensive survey on the material properties, the device characteristics, the different techniques for improving the overall detector performance and some major applications. Astrophysical and medical applications are discussed, pointing out the ongoing Italian research activities on the development of these detectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
Open AccessReview Laser‐Self‐Mixing Interferometry for Mechatronics Applications
Sensors 2009, 9(5), 3527-3548; doi:10.3390/s90503527
Received: 16 March 2009 / Revised: 21 April 2009 / Accepted: 6 May 2009 / Published: 12 May 2009
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (805 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report on the development of an all-interferometric optomechatronic sensor for the detection of multi-degrees-of-freedom displacements of a remote target. The prototype system exploits the self-mixing technique and consists only of a laser head, equipped with six laser sources, and a suitably designed
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We report on the development of an all-interferometric optomechatronic sensor for the detection of multi-degrees-of-freedom displacements of a remote target. The prototype system exploits the self-mixing technique and consists only of a laser head, equipped with six laser sources, and a suitably designed reflective target. The feasibility of the system was validated experimentally for both single or multi-degrees-of-freedom measurements, thus demonstrating a simple and inexpensive alternative to costly and bulky existing systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
Open AccessReview Feasibility Studies on Si-Based Biosensors
Sensors 2009, 9(5), 3469-3490; doi:10.3390/s90503469
Received: 20 February 2009 / Revised: 6 April 2009 / Accepted: 9 April 2009 / Published: 11 May 2009
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (800 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this paperis to summarize the efforts carried out so far in the fabrication of Si-based biosensors by a team of researchers in Catania, Italy. This work was born as a collaboration between the Catania section of the Microelectronic and Microsystem
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The aim of this paperis to summarize the efforts carried out so far in the fabrication of Si-based biosensors by a team of researchers in Catania, Italy. This work was born as a collaboration between the Catania section of the Microelectronic and Microsystem Institute (IMM) of the CNR, the Surfaces and Interfaces laboratory (SUPERLAB) of the Consorzio Catania Ricerche and two departments at the University of Catania: the Biomedical Science and the Biological Chemistry and Molecular Biology Departments. The first goal of our study was the definition and optimization of an immobilization protocol capable of bonding the biological sensing element on a Si-based surface via covalent chemical bonds. We chose SiO2 as the anchoring surface due to its biocompatibility and extensive presence in microelectronic devices. The immobilization protocol was tested and optimized, introducing a new step, oxide activation, using techniques compatible with microelectronic processing. The importance of the added step is described by the experimental results. We also tested different biological molecule concentrations in the immobilization solutions and the effects on the immobilized layer. Finally a MOS-like structure was designed and fabricated to test an electrical transduction mechanism. The results obtained so far and the possible evolution of the research field are described in this review paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
Open AccessReview A Real-Time Spectroscopic Sensor for Monitoring Laser Welding Processes
Sensors 2009, 9(5), 3376-3385; doi:10.3390/s90503376
Received: 4 March 2009 / Revised: 28 April 2009 / Accepted: 29 April 2009 / Published: 7 May 2009
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (317 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we report on the development of a sensor for real time monitoring of laser welding processes based on spectroscopic techniques. The system is based on the acquisition of the optical spectra emitted from the laser generated plasma plume and their
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In this paper we report on the development of a sensor for real time monitoring of laser welding processes based on spectroscopic techniques. The system is based on the acquisition of the optical spectra emitted from the laser generated plasma plume and their use to implement an on-line algorithm for both the calculation of the plasma electron temperature and the analysis of the correlations between selected spectral lines. The sensor has been patented and it is currently available on the market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
Open AccessReview Optical and Electronic NOx Sensors for Applications in Mechatronics
Sensors 2009, 9(5), 3337-3356; doi:10.3390/s90503337
Received: 13 March 2009 / Revised: 24 April 2009 / Accepted: 6 May 2009 / Published: 6 May 2009
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (3046 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Current production and emerging NOx sensors based on optical and nanomaterials technologies are reviewed. In view of their potential applications in mechatronics, we compared the performance of: i) Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) based photoacoustic (PA) systems; ii) gold nanoparticles as catalytically active materials
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Current production and emerging NOx sensors based on optical and nanomaterials technologies are reviewed. In view of their potential applications in mechatronics, we compared the performance of: i) Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) based photoacoustic (PA) systems; ii) gold nanoparticles as catalytically active materials in field-effect transistor (FET) sensors, and iii) functionalized III-V semiconductor based devices. QCL-based PA sensors for NOx show a detection limit in the sub part-per-million range and are characterized by high selectivity and compact set-up. Electrochemically synthesized gold-nanoparticle FET sensors are able to monitor NOx in a concentration range from 50 to 200 parts per million and are suitable for miniaturization. Porphyrin-functionalized III-V semiconductor materials can be used for the fabrication of a reliable NOx sensor platform characterized by high conductivity, corrosion resistance, and strong surface state coupling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
Open AccessReview Overview of Electrochemical DNA Biosensors: New Approaches to Detect the Expression of Life
Sensors 2009, 9(4), 3122-3148; doi:10.3390/s90403122
Received: 18 March 2009 / Revised: 20 April 2009 / Accepted: 23 April 2009 / Published: 24 April 2009
Cited by 52 | PDF Full-text (3014 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
DNA microarrays are an important tool with a variety of applications in gene expression studies, genotyping, pharmacogenomics, pathogen classification, drug discovery, sequencing and molecular diagnostics. They are having a strong impact in medical diagnostics for cancer, toxicology and infectious disease applications. A series
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DNA microarrays are an important tool with a variety of applications in gene expression studies, genotyping, pharmacogenomics, pathogen classification, drug discovery, sequencing and molecular diagnostics. They are having a strong impact in medical diagnostics for cancer, toxicology and infectious disease applications. A series of papers have been published describing DNA biochips as alternative to conventional microarray platforms to facilitate and ameliorate the signal readout. In this review, we will consider the different methods proposed for biochip construction, focusing on electrochemical detection of DNA. We also introduce a novel single-stranded DNA platform performing high-throughput SNP detection and gene expression profiling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
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Open AccessReview Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture
Sensors 2009, 9(4), 2809-2835; doi:10.3390/s90402809
Received: 4 March 2009 / Revised: 15 April 2009 / Accepted: 20 April 2009 / Published: 21 April 2009
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (188 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of
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Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of efficient irrigation systems, which includes the implementation of a suitable method for precise scheduling. At the farm level, irrigation is generally scheduled based on the grower’s experience or on the determination of soil water balance (weather-based method). An alternative approach entails the measurement of soil water status. Expensive and sophisticated root zone sensors (RZS), such as neutron probes, are available for the use of soil and plant scientists, while cheap and practical devices are needed for irrigation management in commercial crops. The paper illustrates the main features of RZS’ (for both soil moisture and salinity) marketed for the irrigation industry and discusses how such sensors may be integrated in a wireless network for computer-controlled irrigation and used for innovative irrigation strategies, such as deficit or dual-water irrigation. The paper also consider the main results of recent or current research works conducted by the authors in Tuscany (Italy) on the irrigation management of container-grown ornamental plants, which is an important agricultural sector in Italy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
Open AccessReview Nanoparticle Thin Films for Gas Sensors Prepared by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation
Sensors 2009, 9(4), 2682-2696; doi:10.3390/s90402682
Received: 27 February 2009 / Revised: 7 April 2009 / Accepted: 10 April 2009 / Published: 16 April 2009
Cited by 40 | PDF Full-text (802 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique has been used for the deposition of metal dioxide (TiO2, SnO2) nanoparticle thin films for gas sensor applications. For this purpose, colloidal metal dioxide nanoparticles were diluted in volatile solvents, the
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The matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique has been used for the deposition of metal dioxide (TiO2, SnO2) nanoparticle thin films for gas sensor applications. For this purpose, colloidal metal dioxide nanoparticles were diluted in volatile solvents, the solution was frozen at the liquid nitrogen temperature and irradiated with a pulsed excimer laser. The dioxide nanoparticles were deposited on Si and Al2O3 substrates. A rather uniform distribution of TiO2 nanoparticles with an average size of about 10 nm and of SnO2 nanoparticles with an average size of about 3 nm was obtained, as demonstrated by high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM-FEG) inspections. Gas-sensing devices based on the resistive transduction mechanism were fabricated by depositing the nanoparticle thin films onto suitable rough alumina substrates equipped with interdigitated electrical contacts and heating elements. Electrical characterization measurements were carried out in controlled environment. The results of the gas-sensing tests towards low concentrations of ethanol and acetone vapors are reported. Typical gas sensor parameters (gas responses, response/recovery time, sensitivity, and low detection limit) towards ethanol and acetone are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
Open AccessReview Visual Sensor Technology for Advanced Surveillance Systems: Historical View, Technological Aspects and Research Activities in Italy
Sensors 2009, 9(4), 2252-2270; doi:10.3390/s90402252
Received: 9 January 2009 / Revised: 25 March 2009 / Accepted: 26 March 2009 / Published: 30 March 2009
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2055 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper is a survey of the main technological aspects of advanced visual-based surveillance systems. A brief historical view of such systems from the origins to nowadays is given together with a short description of the main research projects in Italy on surveillance
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The paper is a survey of the main technological aspects of advanced visual-based surveillance systems. A brief historical view of such systems from the origins to nowadays is given together with a short description of the main research projects in Italy on surveillance applications in the last twenty years. The paper then describes the main characteristics of an advanced visual sensor network that (a) directly processes locally acquired digital data, (b) automatically modifies intrinsic (focus, iris) and extrinsic (pan, tilt, zoom) parameters to increase the quality of acquired data and (c) automatically selects the best subset of sensors in order to monitor a given moving object in the observed environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
Open AccessReview Passive and Self-Powered Autonomous Sensors for Remote Measurements
Sensors 2009, 9(2), 943-960; doi:10.3390/s90200943
Received: 28 January 2009 / Revised: 11 February 2009 / Accepted: 11 February 2009 / Published: 13 February 2009
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (900 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Autonomous sensors play a very important role in the environmental, structural, and medical fields. The use of this kind of systems can be expanded for several applications, for example in implantable devices inside the human body where it is impossible to use wires.
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Autonomous sensors play a very important role in the environmental, structural, and medical fields. The use of this kind of systems can be expanded for several applications, for example in implantable devices inside the human body where it is impossible to use wires. Furthermore, they enable measurements in harsh or hermetic environments, such as under extreme heat, cold, humidity or corrosive conditions. The use of batteries as a power supply for these devices represents one solution, but the size, and sometimes the cost and unwanted maintenance burdens of replacement are important drawbacks. In this paper passive and self-powered autonomous sensors for harsh or hermetical environments without batteries are discussed. Their general architectures are presented. Sensing strategies, communication techniques and power management are analyzed. Then, general building blocks of an autonomous sensor are presented and the design guidelines that such a system must follow are given. Furthermore, this paper reports different proposed applications of autonomous sensors applied in harsh or hermetic environments: two examples of passive autonomous sensors that use telemetric communication are proposed, the first one for humidity measurements and the second for high temperatures. Other examples of self-powered autonomous sensors that use a power harvesting system from electromagnetic fields are proposed for temperature measurements and for airflow speeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
Open AccessReview State-of-The-Art and Applications of 3D Imaging Sensors in Industry, Cultural Heritage, Medicine, and Criminal Investigation
Sensors 2009, 9(1), 568-601; doi:10.3390/s90100568
Received: 19 September 2008 / Revised: 22 December 2008 / Accepted: 15 January 2009 / Published: 20 January 2009
Cited by 159 | PDF Full-text (2689 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
3D imaging sensors for the acquisition of three dimensional (3D) shapes have created, in recent years, a considerable degree of interest for a number of applications. The miniaturization and integration of the optical and electronic components used to build them have played a
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3D imaging sensors for the acquisition of three dimensional (3D) shapes have created, in recent years, a considerable degree of interest for a number of applications. The miniaturization and integration of the optical and electronic components used to build them have played a crucial role in the achievement of compactness, robustness and flexibility of the sensors. Today, several 3D sensors are available on the market, even in combination with other sensors in a “sensor fusion” approach. An importance equal to that of physical miniaturization has the portability of the measurements, via suitable interfaces, into software environments designed for their elaboration, e.g., CAD-CAM systems, virtual renders, and rapid prototyping tools. In this paper, following an overview of the state-of-art of 3D imaging sensors, a number of significant examples of their use are presented, with particular reference to industry, heritage, medicine, and criminal investigation applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
Open AccessReview Optoelectronic Plethysmography has Improved our Knowledge of Respiratory Physiology and Pathophysiology
Sensors 2008, 8(12), 7951-7972; doi:10.3390/s8127951
Received: 21 October 2008 / Revised: 25 November 2008 / Accepted: 27 November 2008 / Published: 5 December 2008
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (485 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is well known that the methods actually used to track thoraco-abdominal volume displacement have several limitations. This review evaluates the clinical usefulness of measuring chest wall kinematics by optoelectronic plethysmography [OEP]. OEP provides direct measurements (both absolute and its variations) of the
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It is well known that the methods actually used to track thoraco-abdominal volume displacement have several limitations. This review evaluates the clinical usefulness of measuring chest wall kinematics by optoelectronic plethysmography [OEP]. OEP provides direct measurements (both absolute and its variations) of the volume of the chest wall and its compartments, according to the model of Ward and Macklem, without requiring calibration or subject cooperation. The system is non invasive and does not require a mouthpiece or nose-clip which may modify the pattern of breathing, making the subject aware of his breathing. Also, the precise assessment of compartmental changes in chest wall volumes, combined with pressure measurements, provides a detailed description of the action and control of the different respiratory muscle groups and assessment of chest wall dynamics in a number of physiological and clinical experimental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
Open AccessReview Raman Tweezers as a Diagnostic Tool of Hemoglobin-Related Blood Disorders
Sensors 2008, 8(12), 7818-7832; doi:10.3390/s8127818
Received: 3 November 2008 / Revised: 28 November 2008 / Accepted: 28 November 2008 / Published: 3 December 2008
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (947 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review presents the development of a Raman Tweezers system for detecting hemoglobin-related blood disorders at a single cell level. The study demonstrates that the molecular fingerprint insight provided by Raman analysis holds great promise for distinguishing between healthy and diseased cells in
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This review presents the development of a Raman Tweezers system for detecting hemoglobin-related blood disorders at a single cell level. The study demonstrates that the molecular fingerprint insight provided by Raman analysis holds great promise for distinguishing between healthy and diseased cells in the field of biomedicine. Herein a Raman Tweezers system has been applied to investigate the effects of thalassemia, a blood disease quite diffuse in the Mediterranean Sea region. By resonant excitation of hemoglobin Raman bands, we examined the oxygenation capability of normal, alpha- and beta-thalassemic erythrocytes. A reduction of this fundamental red blood cell function, particularly severe for beta-thalassemia, has been found. Raman spectroscopy was also used to draw hemoglobin distribution inside single erythrocytes; the results confirmed the characteristic anomaly (target shape), occurring in thalassemia and some other blood disorders. The success of resonance Raman spectroscopy for thalassemia detection reported in this review provide an interesting starting point to explore the application of a Raman Tweezers system in the analysis of several blood disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)

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