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Topical Collection "Novel Drug Candidates for Anticancer Therapy: Design, Preliminary Evaluations, and Further Developments"

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A topical collection in Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This collection belongs to the section "Medicinal Chemistry".

Editors

Collection Editor
Dr. Jean Jacques Vanden Eynde

Formerly head of the Department of Organic Chemistry (FS), University of Mons-UMONS, 7000 Mons, Belgium
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Interests: heterocycles; microwave-induced synthesis; medicinal chemistry; green chemistry
Collection Editor
Dr. Annie Mayence

Formerly professor at the Haute Ecole Provinciale de Hainaut-Condorcet, 7330 Saint-Ghislain, Belgium
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Former Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Tien L. Huang *

Formerly professor at Division of Basic and Pharmaceutical sciences, College of Pharmacy, Xavier University of Louisiana, 1 Drexel Drive, New Orleans, LA 70125, USA
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Phone: 504-520-7603
Interests: medicinal chemistry; organic chemistry; anti-opportunistic agents; anti-parasitic agents; prodrugs
* One of the founding Collection Editors and Collection Editor up to 6 March 2015

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Developing novel cancer therapeutics is essential for treating cancer, a complex, multi-factorial disease that is dreaded worldwide. Although significant advances have been made in recent years in preventing and treating cancer, the mortality rate is still unacceptably high. Many of the current chemotherapeutics are limited by significant side effects, unpredictable efficacies or acquired resistances. Recent discoveries concerning the pathogenesis and biology of cancer have unraveled new, strategic cellular targets for drug intervention. This has allowed the rational development of novel cancer therapeutics. For this Special Issue, we invite the submission of manuscripts that focus on the design, synthesis, evaluation, and further development of investigational agents (including natural products) as potential cancer chemotherapeutics.

Dr. Jean Jacques Vanden Eynde
Dr. Annie Mayence
Dr. Tien L. Huang
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts for the topical collection can be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on this website. The topical collection considers regular research articles, short communications and review articles. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • anticancer activity
  • anticancer agents
  • antiproliferative effects
  • antitumor activity
  • apoptosis
  • cancer cells
  • chemotherapy
  • cytotoxicity
  • oncology
  • tumor cells

Published Papers (68 papers)

2016

Jump to: 2015, 2014

Open AccessArticle Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Primaquine-Cinnamic Acid Conjugates of the Amide and Acylsemicarbazide Type
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1629; doi:10.3390/molecules21121629
Received: 18 October 2016 / Revised: 16 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 28 November 2016
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Abstract
In this paper design and synthesis of a scaffold comprising primaquine (PQ) motif and cinnamic acid derivatives (CADs) bound directly (compounds 3ak) or via a spacer (compounds 7ak) are reported. In the first series of compounds, PQ
[...] Read more.
In this paper design and synthesis of a scaffold comprising primaquine (PQ) motif and cinnamic acid derivatives (CADs) bound directly (compounds 3ak) or via a spacer (compounds 7ak) are reported. In the first series of compounds, PQ and various CADs were connected by amide bonds and in the second series by acylsemicarbazide functional groups built from the PQ amino group, CONHNH spacer and the carbonyl group originating from the CADs. PQ-CAD amides 3ak were prepared by a simple one-step condensation reaction of PQ with a series of CAD chlorides (method A) or benzotriazolides 2 (method B). The synthesis of acylsemicarbazides 7ak included activation of PQ with benzotriazole, preparation of PQ-semicarbazide 6 and its condensation with CAD chlorides 4. All synthesized PQ-CAD conjugates were evaluated for their anticancer, antiviral and antioxidative activities. Almost all compounds from series 3 were selective towards the MCF-7 cell line and active at micromolar concentrations. The o-fluoro derivative 3h showed high activity against HeLa, MCF-7 and in particular against the SW 620 cell line, while acylsemicarbazide 7f with a benzodioxole ring and 7c, 7g and especially 7j with methoxy-, chloro- or trifluoromethyl-substituents in the para position showed high selectivity and high inhibitory activity against MCF-7 cell line at micromolar (7c, 7f, 7g) and nanomolar (7j) levels. Acylsemicarbazide derivatives with trifluoromethyl group(s) 7i, 7j and 7k showed specific activity against human coronavirus (229E) at concentrations which did not alter the normal cell morphology. The same compounds exerted the most potent reducing activity in the DPPH test, together with 7d and 7g, while methoxy (compounds 7ce), benzodioxole (7f), p-Cl (7g) and m-CF3 (7i) acylsemicarbazides and amide 3f presented the highest LP inhibition (83%–89%). The dimethoxy derivative 7d was the most potent LOX inhibitor (IC50 = 10 μΜ). The performed biological tests gave evidence of acylsemicarbazide functional group as superior binding group in PQ-CAD conjugates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Transdermal Permeation and Anti-Inflammation Activities of Novel Sinomenine Derivatives
Molecules 2016, 21(11), 1520; doi:10.3390/molecules21111520
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
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Abstract
Sinomenine is extracted from Sinomenii caulis (a traditional Chinese medicine), and it is used as the active ingredient in rheumatic arthritis treatments. It has been used in clinical applications for decades. However, there are some disadvantages, including low activity in transdermal permeation and
[...] Read more.
Sinomenine is extracted from Sinomenii caulis (a traditional Chinese medicine), and it is used as the active ingredient in rheumatic arthritis treatments. It has been used in clinical applications for decades. However, there are some disadvantages, including low activity in transdermal permeation and a high dosage being clinically required. To overcome these defects, sinomenine was used as a primer, and structural modification was performed. In our study, eight new compounds were screened out by transdermal permeation in vitro and anti-inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. Compound 1a exhibited the most potent transdermal permeation and anti-inflammatory activity. Based on these results, further development of this compound may be warranted. Full article
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Open AccessReview Mitoxantrone-Surfactant Interactions: A Physicochemical Overview
Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1356; doi:10.3390/molecules21101356
Received: 1 September 2016 / Revised: 29 September 2016 / Accepted: 1 October 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
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Abstract
Mitoxantrone is a synthetic anticancer drug used clinically in the treatment of different types of cancer. It was developed as a doxorubicin analogue in a program to find drugs with improved antitumor activity and decreased cardiotoxicity compared with the anthracyclines. As the cell
[...] Read more.
Mitoxantrone is a synthetic anticancer drug used clinically in the treatment of different types of cancer. It was developed as a doxorubicin analogue in a program to find drugs with improved antitumor activity and decreased cardiotoxicity compared with the anthracyclines. As the cell membrane is the first barrier encountered by anticancer drugs before reaching the DNA sites inside the cells and as surfactant micelles are known as simple model systems for biological membranes, the drugs-surfactant interaction has been the subject of great research interest. Further, quantitative understanding of the interactions of drugs with biomimicking structures like surfactant micelles may provide helpful information for the control of physicochemical properties and bioactivities of encapsulated drugs in order to design better delivery systems with possible biomedical applications. The present review describes the physicochemical aspects of the interactions between the anticancer drug mitoxantrone and different surfactants. Mitoxantrone-micelle binding constants, partitions coefficient of the drug between aqueous and micellar phases and the corresponding Gibbs free energy for the above processes, and the probable location of drug molecules in the micelles are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modulation of Autophagy by a Thioxanthone Decreases the Viability of Melanoma Cells
Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1343; doi:10.3390/molecules21101343
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 1 October 2016 / Published: 10 October 2016
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Abstract
(1) Background: Our previous studies unveiled the hit thioxanthone TXA1 as an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (drug efflux pump) and of human tumor cells growth, namely of melanoma cells. Since TXA1 is structurally similar to lucanthone (an autophagy inhibitor and apoptosis inducer) and to
[...] Read more.
(1) Background: Our previous studies unveiled the hit thioxanthone TXA1 as an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (drug efflux pump) and of human tumor cells growth, namely of melanoma cells. Since TXA1 is structurally similar to lucanthone (an autophagy inhibitor and apoptosis inducer) and to N10-substituted phenoxazines (isosteres of thioxanthones, and autophagy inducers), this study aimed at further assessing its cytotoxic mechanism and evaluating its potential as an autophagy modulator in A375-C5 melanoma cells; (2) Methods: Flow cytometry with propidium iodide (PI) for cell cycle profile analysis; Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, flow cytometry with Annexin V/PI labeling and Western blot for apoptosis analysis were conducted. A pharmacophore approach was used for mapping TXA1 onto pharmacophores for autophagy induction. Autophagy analyses included transmission electron microscopy for visualization of autophagic structures, fluorescence microscopy for observation of monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, pattern of LC3 expression in the cells and acridine orange staining, and Western blot for autophagic proteins expression; (3) Results: TXA1 induced autophagy of melanoma cells at the GI50 concentration (3.6 μM) and apoptosis at twice that concentration. Following treatment with TXA1, autophagic structures were observed, together with the accumulation of autophagosomes and the formation of autophagolysosomes. An increase in LC3-II levels was also observed, which was reverted by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) (an early stage autophagy-inhibitor) but further increased by E-64d/pepstatin (late-stage autophagy inhibitors). Finally, 3-MA also reverted the effect of TXA1 in cellular viability; (4) Conclusion: TXA1 decreases the viability of melanoma cells by modulation of autophagy and may, therefore, serve as a lead compound for the development of autophagy modulators with antitumor activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Cancer Effect of Quercetin in Xenograft Models with EBV-Associated Human Gastric Carcinoma
Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1286; doi:10.3390/molecules21101286
Received: 13 July 2016 / Revised: 8 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 September 2016 / Published: 26 September 2016
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Abstract
Licorice extracts have been widely used in herbal and folk medications. Glycyrrhiza contains diverse range of biological compounds including triterpenes (glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhizic acid) and flavonoids (quercetin, liquiritin, liquiritigenin, glabridin, licoricidin, isoliquiritigenin). The flavonoids in licorice are known to have strong anti-cancer activities. Quercetin,
[...] Read more.
Licorice extracts have been widely used in herbal and folk medications. Glycyrrhiza contains diverse range of biological compounds including triterpenes (glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhizic acid) and flavonoids (quercetin, liquiritin, liquiritigenin, glabridin, licoricidin, isoliquiritigenin). The flavonoids in licorice are known to have strong anti-cancer activities. Quercetin, the most abundant flavonoid, has been shown to have anti-ulcer, anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection can lead to serious malignancies, such as, Burkitt’s lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease and gastric carcinoma(GC), and (Epstein-Barr virus associated gastric carcinoma) EBVaGC is one of the most common EBV-associated cancers. In this study, the authors first examined the anti-cancer effects of quercetin and isoliquiritigenin in vivo xenograft animal models implanted with EBV(+) human gastric carcinoma (SNU719) or EBV(−) human gastric carcinoma (MKN74), and then explored the molecular mechanisms responsible for their anti-cancer activities. The results obtained showed that anti-cancer effect of quercetin was greater than isoliquiritigenin in mice injected with EBV(+) human gastric carcinoma (SNU719) cells. On the other hand, quercetin and isoliquiritigenin had similar anti-cancer effects in mice injected with EBV(−) human gastric carcinoma (MKN74) cells. Interestingly, quercetin inhibited EBV viral protein expressions, including EBNA-1 and LMP-2 proteins in tumor tissues from mice injected with EBV(+) human gastric carcinoma. Quercetin more effectively induced p53-dependent apoptosis than isoliquiritigenin in EBV(+) human gastric carcinoma, and this induction was correlated with increased expressions of the cleaved forms of caspase-3, -9, and Parp. In EBV(−)human gastric carcinoma (MKN74), both quercetin and isoliquiritigenin induced the expressions of p53, Bax, and Puma and the cleaved forms of caspase-3 and -9 and Parp at similar levels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Copper Ion Attenuated the Antiproliferative Activity of Di-2-pyridylhydrazone Dithiocarbamate Derivative; However, There Was a Lack of Correlation between ROS Generation and Antiproliferative Activity
Molecules 2016, 21(8), 1088; doi:10.3390/molecules21081088
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 20 August 2016
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Abstract
The use of chelators for cancer treatment has been an alternative option. Dithiocarbamates have recently attracted considerable attention owning to their diverse biological activities; thus, the preparation of new dithiocarbamate derivatives with improved antitumor activity and selectivity as well as probing the underlying
[...] Read more.
The use of chelators for cancer treatment has been an alternative option. Dithiocarbamates have recently attracted considerable attention owning to their diverse biological activities; thus, the preparation of new dithiocarbamate derivatives with improved antitumor activity and selectivity as well as probing the underlying molecular mechanism are required. In this study, di-2-pyridylhydrazone dithiocarbamate S-propionic acid (DpdtpA) and its copper complex were prepared and characterized, and its antiproliferative activity was evaluated. The proliferation inhibition assay showed that DpdtpA exhibited excellent antiproliferative effect in hepatocellular carcinoma (IC50 = 1.3 ± 0.3 μM for HepG2, and 2.5 ± 0.6 μM for Bel-7402). However, in the presence of copper ion, the antiproliferative activity of DpdtpA was dramatically attenuated (20–30 fold) owing to the formation of copper chelate. A preliminarily mechanistic study revealed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation mediated the antiproliferative activity of DpdtpA, and accordingly induced apoptosis, DNA cleavage, and autophagy. Surprisingly, the cytotoxicity of DpdtpA copper complex (DpdtpA–Cu) was also involved in ROS generation; however, a paradoxical relation between cellular ROS level and cytotoxicity was observed. Further investigation indicated that DpdtpA could induce cell cycle arrest at the S phase; however, DpdtpA–Cu lacked this effect, which explained the difference in their antiproliferative activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hybrid Molecules Containing a 7-Chloro-4-aminoquinoline Nucleus and a Substituted 2-Pyrazoline with Antiproliferative and Antifungal Activity
Molecules 2016, 21(8), 969; doi:10.3390/molecules21080969
Received: 19 May 2016 / Revised: 18 July 2016 / Accepted: 18 July 2016 / Published: 27 July 2016
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Abstract
Twenty-four new hybrid analogues (1538) containing 7-chloro-4-aminoquinoline and 2-pyrazoline N-heterocyclic fragments were synthesized. Twelve of the new compounds were evaluated against 58 human cancer cell lines by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI). Compounds 25, 30, 31
[...] Read more.
Twenty-four new hybrid analogues (1538) containing 7-chloro-4-aminoquinoline and 2-pyrazoline N-heterocyclic fragments were synthesized. Twelve of the new compounds were evaluated against 58 human cancer cell lines by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI). Compounds 25, 30, 31, 36, and 37 showed significant cytostatic activity, with the most outstanding GI50 values ranging from 0.05 to 0.95 µM. The hybrid compounds (1538) were also evaluated for antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. From the obtained results some structure–activity relationships were outlined. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Characterization and Anti-Cancer Activity of Hydrazide Derivatives Incorporating a Quinoline Moiety
Molecules 2016, 21(7), 916; doi:10.3390/molecules21070916
Received: 24 May 2016 / Revised: 5 July 2016 / Accepted: 8 July 2016 / Published: 14 July 2016
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Abstract
Identification of the novel (E)-N′-((2-chloro-7-methoxyquinolin-3-yl)methylene)-3-(phenylthio)propanehydrazide scaffold 18 has led to the development of a new series of biologically active hydrazide compounds. The parent compound 18 and new quinoline derivatives 1926 were prepared from the corresponding quinoline hydrazones
[...] Read more.
Identification of the novel (E)-N′-((2-chloro-7-methoxyquinolin-3-yl)methylene)-3-(phenylthio)propanehydrazide scaffold 18 has led to the development of a new series of biologically active hydrazide compounds. The parent compound 18 and new quinoline derivatives 1926 were prepared from the corresponding quinoline hydrazones and substituted carboxylic acids using EDC-mediated peptide coupling reactions. Further modification of the parent compound 18 was achieved by replacement of the quinoline moiety with other aromatic systems. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-cancer activity against the SH-SY5Y and Kelly neuroblastoma cell lines, as well as the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cell lines. Analogues 19 and 22 significantly reduced the cell viability of neuroblastoma cancer cells with micromolar potency and significant selectivity over normal cells. The quinoline hydrazide 22 also induced G1 cell cycle arrest, as well as upregulation of the p27kip1 cell cycle regulating protein. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pyridine and p-Nitrophenyl Oxime Esters with Possible Photochemotherapeutic Activity: Synthesis, DNA Photocleavage and DNA Binding Studies
Molecules 2016, 21(7), 864; doi:10.3390/molecules21070864
Received: 30 May 2016 / Revised: 22 June 2016 / Accepted: 28 June 2016 / Published: 30 June 2016
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Abstract
Compared to standard treatments for various diseases, photochemotherapy and photo-dynamic therapy are less invasive approaches, in which DNA photocleavers represent promising tools for novel “on demand” chemotherapeutics. A series of p-nitrobenzoyl and p-pyridoyl ester conjugated aldoximes, amidoximes and ethanone oximes were
[...] Read more.
Compared to standard treatments for various diseases, photochemotherapy and photo-dynamic therapy are less invasive approaches, in which DNA photocleavers represent promising tools for novel “on demand” chemotherapeutics. A series of p-nitrobenzoyl and p-pyridoyl ester conjugated aldoximes, amidoximes and ethanone oximes were subjected to UV irradiation at 312 nm with supercoiled circular plasmid DNA. The compounds which possessed appropriate properties were additionally subjected to UVA irradiation at 365 nm. The ability of most of the compounds to photocleave DNA was high at 312 nm, whereas higher concentrations were required at 365 nm as a result of their lower UV absorption. The affinity of selected compounds to calf-thymus (CT) DNA was studied by UV spectroscopy, viscosity experiments and competitive studies with ethidium bromide (EB) revealing that all compounds interacted with CT DNA. The fluorescence emission spectra of the pre-treated EB-DNA exhibited a moderate to significant quenching in the presence of the compounds indicating the binding of the compounds to CT DNA via intercalation as concluded also by DNA-viscosity experiments. For the oxime esters the DNA photocleavage and affinity studies aimed to clarify the role of the oxime nature (aldoxime, ketoxime, amidoxime) and the role of the pyridine and p-nitrophenyl moieties both as oxime substituents and ester conjugates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Novel 5-Substituted 2-(Aylmethylthio)-4-chloro-N-(5-aryl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamides: Synthesis, Molecular Structure, Anticancer Activity, Apoptosis-Inducing Activity and Metabolic Stability
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 808; doi:10.3390/molecules21060808
Received: 13 May 2016 / Revised: 8 June 2016 / Accepted: 17 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
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Abstract
A series of novel 5-substituted 2-(arylmethylthio)-4-chloro-N-(5-aryl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl) benzenesulfonamide derivatives 2760 have been synthesized by the reaction of aminoguanidines with an appropriate phenylglyoxal hydrate in glacial acetic acid. A majority of the compounds showed cytotoxic activity toward the human cancer cell
[...] Read more.
A series of novel 5-substituted 2-(arylmethylthio)-4-chloro-N-(5-aryl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl) benzenesulfonamide derivatives 2760 have been synthesized by the reaction of aminoguanidines with an appropriate phenylglyoxal hydrate in glacial acetic acid. A majority of the compounds showed cytotoxic activity toward the human cancer cell lines HCT-116, HeLa and MCF-7, with IC50 values below 100 μM. It was found that for the analogues 3638 the naphthyl moiety contributed significantly to the anticancer activity. Cytometric analysis of translocation of phosphatidylserine as well as mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle revealed that the most active compounds 37 (HCT-116 and HeLa) and 46 (MCF-7) inhibited the proliferation of cells by increasing the number of apoptotic cells. Apoptotic-like, dose dependent changes in morphology of cell lines were also noticed after treatment with 37 and 46. Moreover, triazines 37 and 46 induced caspase activity in the HCT-116, HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines. Selected compounds were tested for metabolic stability in the presence of pooled human liver microsomes and NADPH, both R2 and Ar = 4-CF3-C6H4 moiety in 2-(R2-methylthio)-N-(5-aryl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamides simultaneously increased metabolic stability. The results pointed to 37 as a hit compound with a good cytotoxicity against HCT-116 (IC50 = 36 μM), HeLa (IC50 = 34 μM) cell lines, apoptosis-inducing activity and moderate metabolic stability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Discovery of Novel Allopurinol Derivatives with Anticancer Activity and Attenuated Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 771; doi:10.3390/molecules21060771
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 24 May 2016 / Accepted: 8 June 2016 / Published: 20 June 2016
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Abstract
A series of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives related to allopurinol has been synthesized and evaluated for its cytotoxicity against a panel of three cancer cell lines as well as its xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitory activities. Among them, compound 4 showed potent cytotoxicity with IC50
[...] Read more.
A series of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives related to allopurinol has been synthesized and evaluated for its cytotoxicity against a panel of three cancer cell lines as well as its xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitory activities. Among them, compound 4 showed potent cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 25.5 and 35.2 μM against human hepatoma carcinoma cell lines, BEL-7402 and SMMC-7221, respectively. The anticancer activity of 4 was comparable to that of Tanespimycin (17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxy geldanamycin, 17-AAG) that inhibited the growth of BEL-7402 and SMMC-7221 cells at IC50 values of 12.4 and 9.85 μM, respectively. However, unlike allopurinol, which is also a strong inhibitor of XOD, compound 4 is a much weaker XOD inhibitor, suggesting that the anticancer activities of the allopurinol derivatives may not be associated with XOD inhibition. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of 4 toward normal cells is significantly lower than that of 17-AAG, making 4 a promising lead compound for further optimization of structure-activity relationships that may lead to anticancer agents of clinical utility. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of Biphenylurea Derivatives Containing Indolin-2-one Moieties
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 762; doi:10.3390/molecules21060762
Received: 12 April 2016 / Revised: 26 May 2016 / Accepted: 3 June 2016 / Published: 10 June 2016
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Abstract
In our endeavor towards the development of potent anticancer agents, two different sets of biphenylurea-indolinone conjugates, 5as and 8a,b were synthesized. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the synthesized compounds was examined in two human cancer cell lines, namely MCF-7
[...] Read more.
In our endeavor towards the development of potent anticancer agents, two different sets of biphenylurea-indolinone conjugates, 5as and 8a,b were synthesized. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the synthesized compounds was examined in two human cancer cell lines, namely MCF-7 breast cancer and PC-3 prostate cancer cells using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) colorimetric assay. In particular, the MCF-7 cancer cell line was more susceptible to the synthesized compounds. Compound 5o (IC50 = 1.04 ± 0.10 μM) emerged as the most active member in this study against MCF-7, with 7-fold increased activity compared to the reference drug, doxorubicin (IC50 = 7.30 ± 0.84 μM). Compounds 5l, 5q and 8b also exhibited superior cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 with IC50 values of 1.93 ± 0.17, 3.87 ± 0.31 and 4.66 ± 0.42 μM, respectively. All of the tested compounds were filtered according to the Lipinski and Veber rules and all of them passed the filters. Additionally, several ADME descriptors for the synthesized compounds 5as and 8a,b were predicted via a theoretical kinetic study performed using the Discovery Studio 2.5 software. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design, Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationships of Novel Chalcone-1,2,3-triazole-azole Derivates as Antiproliferative Agents
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 653; doi:10.3390/molecules21050653
Received: 10 March 2016 / Revised: 7 May 2016 / Accepted: 12 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2442 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of novel chalcone-1,2,3-triazole-azole hybrids were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against three selected cancer cell lines (SK-N-SH, EC-109 and MGC-803). Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited moderate to good activity against all the cancer cell lines selected. Particularly,
[...] Read more.
A series of novel chalcone-1,2,3-triazole-azole hybrids were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against three selected cancer cell lines (SK-N-SH, EC-109 and MGC-803). Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited moderate to good activity against all the cancer cell lines selected. Particularly, compound I-21 showed the most excellent antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 1.52 μM against SK-N-SH cancer cells. Further mechanism studies revealed that compound I-21 induced morphological changes of SK-N-SH cancer cells possibly by inducing apoptosis. Novel chalcone-1,2,3-triazole-azole derivatives in this work might be a series of promising lead compounds to develop anticancer agents for treating neuroblastoma. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Biological Testing of Novel Glucosylated Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) Derivatives
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 620; doi:10.3390/molecules21050620
Received: 10 March 2016 / Revised: 2 May 2016 / Accepted: 4 May 2016 / Published: 11 May 2016
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Abstract
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant component of green tea catechins and has strong physiological activities. In this study, two novel EGCG glycosides (EGCG-G1 and EGCG-G2) were chemoselectively synthesized by a chemical modification strategy. Each of these EGCG glycosides underwent structure identification,
[...] Read more.
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant component of green tea catechins and has strong physiological activities. In this study, two novel EGCG glycosides (EGCG-G1 and EGCG-G2) were chemoselectively synthesized by a chemical modification strategy. Each of these EGCG glycosides underwent structure identification, and the structures were assigned as follows: epigallocatechin gallate-4′′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (EGCG-G1, 2) and epigallocatechin gallate-4′,4′′-O-β-d-gluco-pyranoside (EGCG-G2, 3). The EGCG glycosides were evaluated for their anticancer activity in vitro against two human breast cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assays. The inhibition rate of EGCG glycosides (EGCG-G1 and EGCG-G2) is not obvious. The EGCG glycosides are more stable than EGCG in aqueous solutions, but exhibited decreasing antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical-scavenging assay (EGCG > EGCG-G2 > EGCG-G1). Additionally, the EGCG glycosides exhibited increased water solubility: EGCG-G2 and EGCG-G1 were 15 and 31 times as soluble EGCG, respectively. The EGCG glycosides appear to be useful, and further studies regarding their biological activity are in progress. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Novel N-Substituted 2-(2-(Adamantan-1-yl)-1H-Indol-3-yl)-2-Oxoacetamide Derivatives: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 530; doi:10.3390/molecules21050530
Received: 7 March 2016 / Revised: 3 April 2016 / Accepted: 16 April 2016 / Published: 5 May 2016
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Abstract
In this study, a series of novel N-substituted 2-(2-(adamantan-1-yl)-1H-indol-3-yl)-2-oxoacetamide derivatives were synthesized, and evaluated for their cytotoxicity in human cell lines including Hela (cervical cancer), MCF7 (breast cancer ) and HepG2 (liver cancer). Several compounds were found to have potent
[...] Read more.
In this study, a series of novel N-substituted 2-(2-(adamantan-1-yl)-1H-indol-3-yl)-2-oxoacetamide derivatives were synthesized, and evaluated for their cytotoxicity in human cell lines including Hela (cervical cancer), MCF7 (breast cancer ) and HepG2 (liver cancer). Several compounds were found to have potent anti-proliferative activity against those human cancer cell lines and compound 5r showed the most potent biological activity against HepG2 cells with an IC50 value of 10.56 ± 1.14 μΜ. In addition, bioassays showed that compound 5r induced time-dependent and dose-dependent cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), and also induced a dose-dependent increase in caspase-3 and caspase-8 activity, but had little effect on caspase-9 protease activity in HepG2 cells. These results provide evidence that 5r-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cell is caspase-8-dependent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Delivery of Gemcitabine Prodrugs Employing Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 522; doi:10.3390/molecules21040522
Received: 21 March 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2016 / Accepted: 14 April 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
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Abstract
In this paper, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were studied as vehicles for the delivery of the antitumoral drug gemcitabine (GEM) and of its 4-(N)-acyl derivatives, (4-(N)-valeroyl-(C5GEM), 4-(N)-lauroyl-(C12GEM) and 4-(N)-stearoyl-gemcitabine (C18GEM)). The loading of the GEM
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In this paper, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were studied as vehicles for the delivery of the antitumoral drug gemcitabine (GEM) and of its 4-(N)-acyl derivatives, (4-(N)-valeroyl-(C5GEM), 4-(N)-lauroyl-(C12GEM) and 4-(N)-stearoyl-gemcitabine (C18GEM)). The loading of the GEM lipophilic prodrugs on MSNs was explored with the aim to obtain both a physical and a chemical protection of GEM from rapid plasmatic metabolization. For this purpose, MSNs as such or with grafted aminopropyl and carboxyethyl groups were prepared and characterized. Then, their different drug loading capacity in relation to the nature of the functional group was evaluated. In our experimental conditions, GEM was not loaded in any MSNs, while C12GEM was the most efficiently encapsulated and employed for further evaluation. The results showed that loading capacity increased with the presence of functional groups on the nanoparticles; similarly, the presence of functional groups on MSNs’ surface influenced the drug release profile. Finally, the cytotoxicity of the different preparations was evaluated and data showed that C12GEM loaded MSNs are less cytotoxic than the free drug with an activity that increased with the incubating time, indicating that all these systems are able to release the drug in a controlled manner. Altogether, the results demonstrate that these MSNs could be an interesting system for the delivery of anticancer drugs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Antitumor Evaluation of Novel 5-Hydrosulfonyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-one Derivatives
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 516; doi:10.3390/molecules21040516
Received: 26 January 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2016 / Accepted: 31 March 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
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Abstract
A series of novel 5-hydrosulfonyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-one derivatives bearing natural product substructures has been successfully synthesized and their antitumor activity studied. These newly synthesized derivatives were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and high resolution mass spectral data, then
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A series of novel 5-hydrosulfonyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-one derivatives bearing natural product substructures has been successfully synthesized and their antitumor activity studied. These newly synthesized derivatives were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and high resolution mass spectral data, then screened as antitumor agents against the A549, HCC1937, and MDA-MB-468 human tumor cell lines using MTT cell proliferation assays. The results show that some of these compounds can effectively inhibit the growth of these cancerous cells, with compound 5b being the best one (IC50 = 2.6 μM). Flow cytometry data revealed that compound 5b induced apoptosis of HCC1937 cells with increased solution concentration. The structure and activity relationships (SAR) of these compounds is summarized. Full article
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Open AccessArticle In-Vitro Anticancer Evaluation of Some Novel Thioureido-Benzensulfonamide Derivatives
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 409; doi:10.3390/molecules21040409
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2016 / Accepted: 26 February 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
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Abstract
A novel series of sulfonamide derivatives (14 compounds) bearing thiourea moieties were efficiently synthesized and evaluated for their possible in vitro anticancer activity against four human tumor cell lines. The results indicated that compound 6 was the most potent, showing effectiveness on all
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A novel series of sulfonamide derivatives (14 compounds) bearing thiourea moieties were efficiently synthesized and evaluated for their possible in vitro anticancer activity against four human tumor cell lines. The results indicated that compound 6 was the most potent, showing effectiveness on all the tested cell lines. Compounds 7 and 10 also showed promising results. Full article
Open AccessArticle Anticancer Effects of Sinulariolide-Conjugated Hyaluronan Nanoparticles on Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 297; doi:10.3390/molecules21030297
Received: 1 February 2016 / Revised: 25 February 2016 / Accepted: 26 February 2016 / Published: 2 March 2016
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Abstract
Lung cancer is one of the most clinically challenging malignant diseases worldwide. Sinulariolide (SNL), extracted from the farmed coral species Sinularia flexibilis, has been used for suppressing malignant cells. For developing anticancer therapeutic agents, we aimed to find an alternative for non-small
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Lung cancer is one of the most clinically challenging malignant diseases worldwide. Sinulariolide (SNL), extracted from the farmed coral species Sinularia flexibilis, has been used for suppressing malignant cells. For developing anticancer therapeutic agents, we aimed to find an alternative for non-small cell lung cancer treatment by using SNL as the target drug. We investigated the SNL bioactivity on A549 lung cancer cells by conjugating SNL with hyaluronan nanoparticles to form HA/SNL aggregates by using a high-voltage electrostatic field system. SNL was toxic on A549 cells with an IC50 of 75 µg/mL. The anticancer effects of HA/SNL aggregates were assessed through cell viability assay, apoptosis assays, cell cycle analyses, and western blotting. The size of HA/SNL aggregates was approximately 33–77 nm in diameter with a thin continuous layer after aggregating numerous HA nanoparticles. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the HA/SNL aggregate-induced apoptosis was more effective at a lower SNL dose of 25 µg/mL than pure SNL. Western blotting indicated that caspases-3, -8, and -9 and Bcl-xL and Bax played crucial roles in the apoptotic signal transduction pathway. In summary, HA/SNL aggregates exerted stronger anticancer effects on A549 cells than did pure SNL via mitochondria-related pathways. Full article
Open AccessArticle Preparation and Biological Evaluation of Two Novel Platinum(II) Complexes Based on the Ligands of Dipicolyamine Bisphosphonate Esters
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 255; doi:10.3390/molecules21030255
Received: 30 December 2015 / Revised: 1 February 2016 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 24 February 2016
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Abstract
Two new platinum(II)-based complexes bearing a bone-targeting group were synthesized and characterized. They both have excellent affinity for hydroxyapatite (HA), which is abundant in human bone tissues. Their antitumor activities against five human cancer cell lines (U2OS, A549, HCT116, MDA-MB-231 and HepG2) were
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Two new platinum(II)-based complexes bearing a bone-targeting group were synthesized and characterized. They both have excellent affinity for hydroxyapatite (HA), which is abundant in human bone tissues. Their antitumor activities against five human cancer cell lines (U2OS, A549, HCT116, MDA-MB-231 and HepG2) were evaluated and compared with cisplatin (CDDP). Though the antitumor efficacies of new complexes are lower than that of CDDP, they show higher selectivity against the HepG2 hepatoma cell line than the L02 normal liver cell line. Morphology studies exhibited typical characteristics of cell apoptosis and the cell cycle distribution analysis indicated that the complexes can inhibit cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, a similar mechanism of action to CDDP. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Anticancer Activities of Glycyrrhetinic Acid Derivatives
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 199; doi:10.3390/molecules21020199
Received: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 6 February 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A total of forty novel glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) derivatives were designed and synthesized. The cytotoxic activity of the novel compounds was tested against two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) in vitro by the MTT method. The evaluation results revealed that, in
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A total of forty novel glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) derivatives were designed and synthesized. The cytotoxic activity of the novel compounds was tested against two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) in vitro by the MTT method. The evaluation results revealed that, in comparison with GA, compound 42 shows the most promising anticancer activity (IC50 1.88 ± 0.20 and 1.37 ± 0.18 µM for MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, respectively) and merits further exploration as a new anticancer agent. Full article
Open AccessArticle Design of a MCoTI-Based Cyclotide with Angiotensin (1-7)-Like Activity
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 152; doi:10.3390/molecules21020152
Received: 28 December 2015 / Revised: 20 January 2016 / Accepted: 22 January 2016 / Published: 26 January 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2826 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We report for the first time the design and synthesis of a novel cyclotide able to activate the unique receptor of angiotensin (1-7) (AT1-7), the MAS1 receptor. This was accomplished by grafting an AT1-7 peptide analog onto loop 6 of cyclotide MCoTI-I using
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We report for the first time the design and synthesis of a novel cyclotide able to activate the unique receptor of angiotensin (1-7) (AT1-7), the MAS1 receptor. This was accomplished by grafting an AT1-7 peptide analog onto loop 6 of cyclotide MCoTI-I using isopeptide bonds to preserve the α-amino and C-terminal carboxylate groups of AT1-7, which are required for activity. The resulting cyclotide construct was able to adopt a cyclotide-like conformation and showed similar activity to that of AT1-7. This cyclotide also showed high stability in human serum thereby providing a promising lead compound for the design of a novel type of peptide-based in the treatment of cancer and myocardial infarction. Full article
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2015

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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Bioconjugate Sesterterpenoids with Phospholipids and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
Molecules 2016, 21(1), 47; doi:10.3390/molecules21010047
Received: 3 December 2015 / Revised: 21 December 2015 / Accepted: 22 December 2015 / Published: 30 December 2015
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Abstract
A series of sesterterpenoid bioconjugates with phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been synthesized for biological activity testing as antiproliferative agents in several cancer cell lines. Different substitution analogues of the original lipidic ether edelfosine (1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine)
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A series of sesterterpenoid bioconjugates with phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been synthesized for biological activity testing as antiproliferative agents in several cancer cell lines. Different substitution analogues of the original lipidic ether edelfosine (1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine) are obtained varying the sesterterpenoid in position 1 or 2 of the glycerol or a phosphocholine or PUFA unit in position 3. Simple bioconjugates of sesterterpenoids and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have been obtained too. All synthetic derivatives were tested against the human tumour cell lines HeLa (cervix) and MCF-7 (breast). Some compounds showed good IC50 (0.3 and 0.2 μM) values against these cell lines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Novel Pyrido[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazino[3,2-c][1,2,4]thiadiazine 6,6-dioxide Derivatives with Potential Anticancer Activity
Molecules 2016, 21(1), 41; doi:10.3390/molecules21010041
Received: 16 November 2015 / Revised: 21 December 2015 / Accepted: 22 December 2015 / Published: 29 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of novel 3-/2,3-substituted pyrido[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazino[3,2-c][1,2,4]thiadiazine 6,6-dioxides 428 have been synthesized by the reaction of 3-amino-2-(4-thioxo-1,4-dihydropyridin-3-yl-sulfonyl)guanidine with either 2-oxoalkanoic acids and its esters, or phenylglyoxylic hydrates in glacial acetic acid. Some of them exhibited reasonable or moderate
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A series of novel 3-/2,3-substituted pyrido[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazino[3,2-c][1,2,4]thiadiazine 6,6-dioxides 428 have been synthesized by the reaction of 3-amino-2-(4-thioxo-1,4-dihydropyridin-3-yl-sulfonyl)guanidine with either 2-oxoalkanoic acids and its esters, or phenylglyoxylic hydrates in glacial acetic acid. Some of them exhibited reasonable or moderate anticancer activity toward human cancer cell lines, HCT-116, MCF-7 and HeLa. The structure of this novel heterocyclic ring system was confirmed by 1D-NMR and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data including COSY, ROESY and HMBC, elemental analyses and MS spectrometry. Full article
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Open AccessReview Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer by Dietary Polyphenols
Molecules 2015, 20(12), 22578-22620; doi:10.3390/molecules201219864
Received: 2 October 2015 / Revised: 4 December 2015 / Accepted: 8 December 2015 / Published: 17 December 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (9006 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The review will discuss in detail the effects of polyphenols on breast cancer, including both the advantages and disadvantages of the applications of these natural compounds. First, we focus on the characterization of the main classes of polyphenols and then on in vitro
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The review will discuss in detail the effects of polyphenols on breast cancer, including both the advantages and disadvantages of the applications of these natural compounds. First, we focus on the characterization of the main classes of polyphenols and then on in vitro and in vivo experiments carried out in breast cancer models. Since the therapeutic effects of the administration of a single type of polyphenol might be limited because of the reduced bioavailability of these drugs, investigations on combination of several polyphenols or polyphenols with conventional therapy will also be discussed. In addition, we present recent data focusing on clinical trials with polyphenols and new approaches with nanoparticles in breast cancer. Besides the clinical and translational findings this review systematically summarizes our current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer effects of polyphenols, which are related to apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, plasma membrane receptors, signaling pathways and epigenetic mechanisms. At the same time the effects of polyphenols on primary tumor, metastasis and angiogenesis in breast cancer are discussed. The increasing enthusiasm regarding the combination of polyphenols and conventional therapy in breast cancer might lead to additional efforts to motivate further research in this field. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Novel 3-Amino-6-chloro-7-(azol-2 or 5-yl)-1,1-dioxo-1,4,2-benzodithiazine Derivatives with Anticancer Activity: Synthesis and QSAR Study
Molecules 2015, 20(12), 21960-21970; doi:10.3390/molecules201219821
Received: 30 October 2015 / Revised: 20 November 2015 / Accepted: 1 December 2015 / Published: 9 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (958 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of new 3-amino-6-chloro-7-(azol-2 or 5-yl)-1,1-dioxo-1,4,2-benzodithiazine derivatives 5aj have been synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their antiproliferative activity at the U.S. National Cancer Institute. The most active compound 5h showed significant cytotoxic effects against ovarian (OVCAR-3) and breast (MDA-MB-468)
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A series of new 3-amino-6-chloro-7-(azol-2 or 5-yl)-1,1-dioxo-1,4,2-benzodithiazine derivatives 5aj have been synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their antiproliferative activity at the U.S. National Cancer Institute. The most active compound 5h showed significant cytotoxic effects against ovarian (OVCAR-3) and breast (MDA-MB-468) cancer (10% and 47% cancer cell death, respectively) as well as a good selectivity toward prostate (DU-145), colon (SW-620) and renal (TK-10) cancer cell lines. To obtain a deeper insight into the structure-activity relationships of the new compounds 5aj QSAR studies have been applied. Theoretical calculations allowed the identification of molecular descriptors belonging to the RDF (RDF055p and RDF145m in the MOLT-4 and UO-31 QSAR models, respectively) and 3D-MorSE (Mor32m and Mor16e for MOLT-4 and UO-31 QSAR models) descriptor classes. Based on these data, QSAR models with good robustness and predictive ability have been obtained. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anticancer and Antibacterial Activity Studies of Gold(I)-Alkynyl Chromones
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 19699-19718; doi:10.3390/molecules201119647
Received: 8 September 2015 / Revised: 18 October 2015 / Accepted: 23 October 2015 / Published: 30 October 2015
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Abstract
Three gold(I) complexes of alkynyl chromones were synthesized and characterized. The single-crystal X-ray structure analysis of a dinuclear compound and of a flavone derivative exhibit a typical d10 gold(I)-alkynyl linear arrangement. All complexes were evaluated as anticancer and antibacterial agents against four human
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Three gold(I) complexes of alkynyl chromones were synthesized and characterized. The single-crystal X-ray structure analysis of a dinuclear compound and of a flavone derivative exhibit a typical d10 gold(I)-alkynyl linear arrangement. All complexes were evaluated as anticancer and antibacterial agents against four human cancer cell lines and four pathogenic bacterial strains. All compounds show antiproliferative activity at lower micromolar range concentrations. Complex 4 showed a broad activity profile, being more active than the reference drug auranofin against HepG2, MCF-7 and CCRF-CEM cancer cells. The cellular uptake into MCF-7 cells of the investigated complexes was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). These measurements showed a positive correlation between an increased cellular gold content and the incubation time of the complexes. Unexpectedly an opposite effect was observed for the most active compound. Biological assays revealed various molecular mechanisms for these compounds, comprising: (i) thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) inhibition, (ii) caspases-9 and -3 activation; (iii) DNA damaging activity and (iv) cell cycle disturbance. The gold(I) complexes were also bactericidal against Gram-positive methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bacterial strains, while showing no activity against the Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacterial strain. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design, Synthesis, Activity and Docking Study of Sorafenib Analogs Bearing Sulfonylurea Unit
Molecules 2015, 20(10), 19361-19371; doi:10.3390/molecules201019361
Received: 10 August 2015 / Revised: 21 September 2015 / Accepted: 21 September 2015 / Published: 23 October 2015
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Abstract
Two series of novel sorafenib analogs containing a sulfonylurea unit were synthesized and their chemical structures were confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS spectrum and elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for the cytotoxicity against A549, Hela, MCF-7, and PC-3
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Two series of novel sorafenib analogs containing a sulfonylurea unit were synthesized and their chemical structures were confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS spectrum and elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for the cytotoxicity against A549, Hela, MCF-7, and PC-3 cancer cell lines. Some of the compounds showed moderate cytotoxic activity, especially compounds 1-(2,4-difluorophenylsulfonyl)-3-(4-(2-(methylcarbamoyl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea (6c) and 1-(4-bromophenylsulfonyl)-3-(4-(2-(methylcarbamoyl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea (6f) with the IC50 values against four cancer cell lines ranging from 16.54 ± 1.22 to 63.92 ± 1.81 μM, respectively. Inhibitory rates against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2/KDR) kinase at 10 μM of target compounds were further carried out in this paper in order to investigate the target of these compounds. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) and docking studies indicated that the sulfonylurea unit was important to these kinds of compounds. None of the substitutions in the phenoxy group and small halogen atoms such as 2,4-difluoro substitution of the aryl group contributed to the activity. The results suggested that sulfonylurea sorafenib analogs are worthy of further study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Evaluation of New Pyrazoline Derivatives as Potential Anticancer Agents
Molecules 2015, 20(10), 19066-19084; doi:10.3390/molecules201019066
Received: 17 August 2015 / Revised: 14 October 2015 / Accepted: 14 October 2015 / Published: 20 October 2015
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Abstract
New pyrazoline derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic effects on AsPC-1 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma, U87 and U251 human glioblastoma cell lines. 1-[((5-(4-Methylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)thio)acetyl]-3-(2-thienyl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-pyrazoline (11) was found to be the most effective anticancer agent against AsPC-1 and U251 cell lines, with
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New pyrazoline derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic effects on AsPC-1 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma, U87 and U251 human glioblastoma cell lines. 1-[((5-(4-Methylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)thio)acetyl]-3-(2-thienyl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-pyrazoline (11) was found to be the most effective anticancer agent against AsPC-1 and U251 cell lines, with IC50 values of 16.8 µM and 11.9 µM, respectively. Tumor selectivity of compound 11 was clearly seen between Jurkat human leukemic T-cell line and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Due to its promising anticancer activity, compound 11 was chosen for apoptosis/necrosis evaluation and DNA-cleavage analysis in U251 cells. Compound 11-treated U251 cells exhibited apoptotic phenotype at low concentration (1.5 µM). DNA-cleaving efficiency of this ligand was more significant than cisplatin and was clearly enhanced by Fe(II)-H2O2-ascorbic acid systems. This result pointed out the relationship between the DNA cleavage and the cell death. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Lead Optimization of 2-Cyclohexyl-N-[(Z)-(3-methoxyphenyl/3-hydroxyphenyl) methylidene]hydrazinecarbothioamides for Targeting the HER-2 Overexpressed Breast Cancer Cell Line SKBr-3
Molecules 2015, 20(10), 18246-18263; doi:10.3390/molecules201018246
Received: 19 June 2015 / Revised: 2 October 2015 / Accepted: 2 October 2015 / Published: 7 October 2015
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Abstract
Lead derivatives of 2-cyclohexyl-N-[(Z)-(3-methoxyphenyl/3-hydroxyphenyl) methylidene]hydrazinecarbothioamides 118 were synthesized, characterized and evaluated in vitro against HER-2 overexpressed breast cancer cell line SKBr-3. All the compounds showed activity against HER-2 overexpressed SKBr-3 cells with IC50 = 17.44 ±
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Lead derivatives of 2-cyclohexyl-N-[(Z)-(3-methoxyphenyl/3-hydroxyphenyl) methylidene]hydrazinecarbothioamides 118 were synthesized, characterized and evaluated in vitro against HER-2 overexpressed breast cancer cell line SKBr-3. All the compounds showed activity against HER-2 overexpressed SKBr-3 cells with IC50 = 17.44 ± 0.01 µM to 53.29 ± 0.33 µM. (2Z)-2-(3-Hydroxybenzylidene)-N-(3-methoxyphenyl)hydrazinecarbothioamide (12, IC50 = 17.44 ± 0.01 µM) was found to be most potent compound of this series targeting HER-2 overexpressed breast cancer cells compared to the standard drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (IC50 = 38.58 ± 0.04 µM). Compound 12 inhibited the cellular proliferation via DNA degradation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel 5H-Chromenopyridines as Potential Anti-Cancer Agents
Molecules 2015, 20(9), 17152-17165; doi:10.3390/molecules200917152
Received: 20 July 2015 / Revised: 10 September 2015 / Accepted: 11 September 2015 / Published: 17 September 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (889 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A novel series of 5H-chromenopyridines was identified as anticancer agents in our continuing effort to discover and develop new small molecule anti-proliferative agents. Based on our initial lead SP-6-27 compound, we designed and synthesized novel tricyclic 5H-thiochromenopyridine and 5
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A novel series of 5H-chromenopyridines was identified as anticancer agents in our continuing effort to discover and develop new small molecule anti-proliferative agents. Based on our initial lead SP-6-27 compound, we designed and synthesized novel tricyclic 5H-thiochromenopyridine and 5H-chromenopyridine analogs to evaluate the impact of an additional ring, as well as conformational flexibility on cytotoxic activity against human melanoma and glioma cell lines. All of the 5H-thiochromenopyridines have been achieved in good yields (89%–93%) using a single-step, three-component cyclization without the need for purification. The 5H-chromenopyridine analog of the potent 5H-thiochromenopyride was obtained in a good yield upon purification. All newly-prepared 5H-thiochromenopyridines showed good to moderate cytotoxicity against three melanoma and two glioma cell lines (3–15 μM). However, the 5H-chromenopyridine analogue that we prepared in our laboratory lost cytotoxic activity. The moderate cytotoxic activity of 5H-thiochromenopyridines shows the promise of developing chromenopyridines as potential anticancer agents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Spectral Analysis and Preliminary in Vitro Evaluation of Some Tetrapyrrolic Complexes with 3d Metal Ions
Molecules 2015, 20(9), 15488-15499; doi:10.3390/molecules200915488
Received: 20 July 2015 / Revised: 13 August 2015 / Accepted: 18 August 2015 / Published: 26 August 2015
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Abstract
In this paper, two tetrapyrrolic complexes, Zn(II)-5-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris-(4-acetoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin and Cu(II)-5-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris-(4-acetoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin were synthesized, and characterized from a spectral and biological point of view. The study provided data concerning the behavior of identical external substituents vs. two different core insertions. Some of the properties of the
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In this paper, two tetrapyrrolic complexes, Zn(II)-5-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris-(4-acetoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin and Cu(II)-5-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris-(4-acetoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin were synthesized, and characterized from a spectral and biological point of view. The study provided data concerning the behavior of identical external substituents vs. two different core insertions. Some of the properties of the proposed tetrapyrrolic structures were highlighted, having photodynamic therapy of cancer as a targeted biomedical application. Elemental analysis, NMR, FTIR and UV-Vis data in various solvents were provided. A preliminary in vitro study on normal and cancer cultured cells was carried out for biocompatibility assessment in dark conditions. The preliminary in vitro study performed on human peripheral mononuclear cells exposed to tetrapyrrolic compounds (2 µM) showed that the proposed compounds had a convenient cytotoxic profile on human normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells under dark conditions. Meanwhile, the investigated compounds reduced the number of metabolically active breast tumor MCF-7 cells, with the exception of Zn(II) complex-containing a symmetrical ligand. Accordingly, preliminary in vitro data suggest that the proposed tetrapyrrolic compounds are good candidates for PDT, as they limit tumor expansion even under dark conditions, whilst sparing normal cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Novel Coumarin-Containing Aminophosphonatesas Antitumor Agent: Synthesis, Cytotoxicity, DNA-Binding and Apoptosis Evaluation
Molecules 2015, 20(8), 14791-14809; doi:10.3390/molecules200814791
Received: 29 June 2015 / Revised: 6 August 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 13 August 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1417 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of novel coumarin-containing α-aminophosphonates were synthesized and evaluated for their antitumor activities against Human colorectal (HCT-116), human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (human KB) and human lung adenocarcinoma (MGC-803) cell lines in vitro. Compared with 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (4-MU), most of the derivatives
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A series of novel coumarin-containing α-aminophosphonates were synthesized and evaluated for their antitumor activities against Human colorectal (HCT-116), human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (human KB) and human lung adenocarcinoma (MGC-803) cell lines in vitro. Compared with 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (4-MU), most of the derivatives showed an improved antitumor activity. Compound 8j (diethyl 1-(3-(4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yloxy) propanamido)-1-phenylethyl-Phosphonate), with IC50 value of 8.68 μM against HCT-116 cell lines, was about 12 fold than that of unsubstituted parent compound. The mechanism investigation proved that 8c, 8d, 8f and 8j were achieved through the induction of cell apoptosis by G1 cell-cycle arrest. In addition, the further mechanisms of compound 8j-induced apoptosis in HCT-116 cells demonstrated that compound 8j induced the activations of caspase-9 and caspase-3 for causing cell apoptosis, and altered anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins. DNA-binding experiments suggested that some derivatives bind to DNA through intercalation. The results seem to imply the presence of an important synergistic effect between coumarin and aminophosphonate, which could contribute to the strong chelating properties of aminophosphonate moiety. Full article
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Open AccessArticle CAPE Analogs Induce Growth Arrest and Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells
Molecules 2015, 20(7), 12576-12589; doi:10.3390/molecules200712576
Received: 28 May 2015 / Revised: 4 July 2015 / Accepted: 7 July 2015 / Published: 10 July 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (738 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death amongst women worldwide. As a result, many have turned their attention to new alternative approaches to treat this disease. Caffeic acid phenylethyl ester (CAPE), a well-known active compound from bee propolis, has been previously
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Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death amongst women worldwide. As a result, many have turned their attention to new alternative approaches to treat this disease. Caffeic acid phenylethyl ester (CAPE), a well-known active compound from bee propolis, has been previously identified as a strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anticancer molecule. In fact, CAPE is well documented as inducing cell death by inhibiting NFκB and by inducing pro-apoptotic pathways (i.e., p53). With the objective of developing stronger anticancer compounds, we studied 18 recently described CAPE derivatives for their ability to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. Five of the said compounds, including CAPE, were selected and subsequently characterised for their anticancer mechanism of action. We validated that CAPE is a potent inducer of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Interestingly, some newly synthesized CAPE derivatives also showed greater cell death activity than the lead CAPE structure. Similarly to CAPE, analog compounds elicited p53 activation. Interestingly, one compound in particular, analog 10, induced apoptosis in a p53-mutated cell line. These results suggest that our new CAPE analog compounds may display the capacity to induce breast cancer apoptosis in a p53-dependent and/or independent manner. These CAPE analogs could thus provide new therapeutic approaches for patients with varying genotypic signatures (such as p53 mutations) in a more specific and targeted fashion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Novel 1-(4-Substituted pyridine-3-sulfonyl)-3-phenylureas with Potential Anticancer Activity
Molecules 2015, 20(7), 12029-12044; doi:10.3390/molecules200712029
Received: 2 April 2015 / Revised: 16 June 2015 / Accepted: 24 June 2015 / Published: 1 July 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (779 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of novel 4-substituted-N-(phenylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridinesulfonamides 1127 have been synthesized by the reaction of 4-substituted pyridine-3-sulfonamides 210 with the appropriate aryl isocyanates in presence of potassium carbonate. The in vitro anticancer activity of compounds 11, 12,
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A series of novel 4-substituted-N-(phenylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridinesulfonamides 1127 have been synthesized by the reaction of 4-substituted pyridine-3-sulfonamides 210 with the appropriate aryl isocyanates in presence of potassium carbonate. The in vitro anticancer activity of compounds 11, 12, 1421 and 2426 was evaluated at the U.S. National Cancer Institute and in light of the results, some structure-activity relationships were discussed. The most prominent compound, N-[(4-chlorophenyl)carbamoyl]-4-[4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]pyridine-3-sulfonamide (21) has exhibited a good activity profile and selectivity toward the subpanels of leukemia, colon cancer and melanoma, with average GI50 values ranging from 13.6 to 14.9 µM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Induction of Mitochondrial Dependent Apoptosis in Human Leukemia K562 Cells by Meconopsis integrifolia: A Species from Traditional Tibetan Medicine
Molecules 2015, 20(7), 11981-11993; doi:10.3390/molecules200711981
Received: 22 February 2015 / Revised: 15 May 2015 / Accepted: 18 May 2015 / Published: 30 June 2015
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Abstract
Objectives: Meconopsis integrifolia (M. integrifolia) is one of the most popular members in Traditional Tibetan Medicine. This study aimed to investigate the anticancer effect of M. integrifolia and to detect the underlying mechanisms of these effects. Methods: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide
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Objectives: Meconopsis integrifolia (M. integrifolia) is one of the most popular members in Traditional Tibetan Medicine. This study aimed to investigate the anticancer effect of M. integrifolia and to detect the underlying mechanisms of these effects. Methods: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and trypan blue assay were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of M. integrifolia. Changes in cell nuclear morphology and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level were observed by fluorescent microscopy. Apoptosis ratio, DNA damage and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss were analyzed by flow cytometry. Western blotting assay was adopted to detect the proteins related to apoptosis. Immunofluorescence was used to observe the release of cytochrome C. Results: The obtained data revealed that M. integrifolia could significantly inhibit K562 cell viability, mainly by targeting apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Collapse in cell morphology, chromatin condensation, DNA damage and ROS accumulation were observed. Further mechanism detection revealed that mitochondrion might be a key factor in M. integrifolia-induced apoptosis. Conclusions: M. integrifolia could induce mitochondria mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase with little damage to normal cells, suggesting that M. integrifolia might be a potential and efficient anticancer agent that deserves further investigation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Lipophilic 1,4-Naphthoquinone Derivatives against Human Cancer Cell Lines
Molecules 2015, 20(7), 11994-12015; doi:10.3390/molecules200711994
Received: 29 May 2015 / Revised: 21 June 2015 / Accepted: 25 June 2015 / Published: 30 June 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4867 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
To examine the effect of hydrophobicity on the anticancer activity of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives, a series of compounds bearing a 2-O-alkyl-, 3-C-alkyl- or 2/3-N-morpholinoalkyl group were synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activity against five human cancer cell
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To examine the effect of hydrophobicity on the anticancer activity of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives, a series of compounds bearing a 2-O-alkyl-, 3-C-alkyl- or 2/3-N-morpholinoalkyl group were synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activity against five human cancer cell lines in vitro. The cytotoxicity of these derivatives was assayed against HT-29, SW480, HepG2, MCF-7 and HL-60 cells by the MTT assay. Among them, 2-hydroxy-3-farnesyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (11a) was found to be the most cytotoxic against these cell lines. Our results showed that the effectiveness of compound 11a may be attributed to its suppression of the survival of HT-29. Secondly, in the Hoechst 33258 staining test, compound 11a-treated cells exhibited nuclear condensation typical of apoptosis. Additionally, cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry indicated that compound 11a arrested HT-29 cells in the S phase. Furthermore, cell death detected by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining showed that compound 11a efficiently induced apoptosis of HT-29 in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, compound 11a effectively inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation and may be a potent anticancer agent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Selective G-Quadruplex DNA-Stabilizing Ligand Based on a Cyclic Naphthalene Diimide Derivative
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 10963-10979; doi:10.3390/molecules200610963
Received: 8 May 2015 / Revised: 28 May 2015 / Accepted: 8 June 2015 / Published: 12 June 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2743 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A cyclic naphthalene diimide (cyclic NDI, 1), carrying a benzene moiety as linker chain, was synthesized and its interaction with G-quadruplex DNAs of a-core and a-coreTT as a human telomeric DNA, c-kit and c-myc as DNA sequence at promoter region, or thrombin-binding
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A cyclic naphthalene diimide (cyclic NDI, 1), carrying a benzene moiety as linker chain, was synthesized and its interaction with G-quadruplex DNAs of a-core and a-coreTT as a human telomeric DNA, c-kit and c-myc as DNA sequence at promoter region, or thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) studied based on UV-VIS and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques, thermal melting temperature measurement, and FRET-melting assay. The circular dichroism spectra showed that 1 induced the formation of different types of G-quadruplex DNA structure. Compound 1 bound to these G-quadruplexes with affinities in the range of 106–107 M−1 order and a 2:1 stoichiometry. Compound 1 showed 270-fold higher selectivity for a-core than dsDNA with a preferable a-core binding than a-coreTT, c-kit, c-myc and TBA in the presence of K+, which is supported by thermal melting studies. The FRET-melting assay also showed that 1 bound preferentially to human telomeric DNA. Compound 1 showed potent inhibition against telomerase activity with an IC50 value of 0.9 μM and preferable binding to G-quadruplexes DNA than our previously published cyclic NDI derivative 3 carrying a benzene moiety as longer linker chain. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Purification, Identification and Evaluation of the in Vitro Antitumor Activity of Polyphenols from Pinus Koraiensis Pinecones
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 10450-10467; doi:10.3390/molecules200610450
Received: 6 February 2015 / Revised: 12 May 2015 / Accepted: 2 June 2015 / Published: 5 June 2015
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Abstract
In this study, an efficient purification method for the polyphenols of Pinus koraiensis pinecone (PPP) has been developed. AB-8 resin was verified to offer good adsorption and desorption ratio for PPP. Response surface methodology (RSM) indicated that the optimized purification parameters for PPP
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In this study, an efficient purification method for the polyphenols of Pinus koraiensis pinecone (PPP) has been developed. AB-8 resin was verified to offer good adsorption and desorption ratio for PPP. Response surface methodology (RSM) indicated that the optimized purification parameters for PPP were 1.70 mg GAE/mL phenolic sample concentration, 22.00 mL sample volume, and 63.00% ethanol concentration. Under these conditions, the experimental purity of PPP was 27.93 ± 0.14% (n = 3), which matched well with the predicted purity of 28.17%. Next, the antiproliferative effects of PPP on seven cancer cell lines, including A375 (human skin melanoma cancer cell line), A549 (human lung cancer cell line), SH-SY5Y (human neuroblastoma cell line), LOVO (human colon cancer stem cell line), MCF-7 (human breast cancer cell line), HeLa (human cervical cancer line), and HT29 (human colon cancer line), were examined by MTT assays. The results indicated that PPP had the highest capacity for inhibiting LOVO cells growth with an EC50 value of 0.317 ± 0.0476 mg/mL. Finally, Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was used to tentatively identify twenty-four peaks in the purified PPP, of which five representative peaks were identified as catechin, methyl quercetin, o-vanillin, luteolin and coronaric acid. Our results demonstrate that Pinus koraiensis pinecone is a readily available source of polyphenols, and the purified PPP could be a promising natural antitumor agent for applications in functional foods. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Water-Soluble Poly-(ethylene glycol)-10-hydroxycamptothecin Conjugates
Molecules 2015, 20(5), 9393-9404; doi:10.3390/molecules20059393
Received: 20 April 2015 / Accepted: 15 May 2015 / Published: 21 May 2015
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Abstract
In order to improve the antitumor activity and water solubility of 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT), a series of novel HCPT conjugates were designed and synthesized by conjugating polyethylene glycol (PEG) to the 10-hydroxyl group of HCPT via a valine spacer. The in vitro stability of
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In order to improve the antitumor activity and water solubility of 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT), a series of novel HCPT conjugates were designed and synthesized by conjugating polyethylene glycol (PEG) to the 10-hydroxyl group of HCPT via a valine spacer. The in vitro stability of these synthesized compounds was determined in pH 7.4 buffer at 37 °C, and the results showed that they released HCPT at different rates. All the compounds demonstrated significant antitumor activity in vitro against K562, HepG2 and HT-29 cells. Among them, compounds, 4a, 4d, 4e and 4f, exhibited 2–5 times higher potency than HCPT. The stability and antitumor activity of these conjugates were found to be closely related to the length of PEG and the linker type, conjugates with a relatively short PEG chain and carbamate linkages (compounds 4a and 4f) exhibited controlled release of HCPT and excellent antitumor in vitro activity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Novel All Trans-Retinoic Acid Derivatives: Cytotoxicity, Inhibition of Cell Cycle Progression and Induction of Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cell Lines
Molecules 2015, 20(5), 8181-8197; doi:10.3390/molecules20058181
Received: 5 February 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 29 April 2015 / Published: 7 May 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3436 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Owing to the pharmacological potential of ATRA (all trans-retinoic acid), a series of retinamides and a 1-(retinoyl)-1,3-dicyclohexylurea compound were prepared by reacting ATRA with long chain alkyl or alkenyl fatty amines by using a 4-demethylaminopyridine (DMAP)-catalyzed N,N¢-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) coupling. The successful synthesis
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Owing to the pharmacological potential of ATRA (all trans-retinoic acid), a series of retinamides and a 1-(retinoyl)-1,3-dicyclohexylurea compound were prepared by reacting ATRA with long chain alkyl or alkenyl fatty amines by using a 4-demethylaminopyridine (DMAP)-catalyzed N,N¢-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) coupling. The successful synthesis of the target compounds was demonstrated using a range of spectroscopic techniques. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was measured along with their ability to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human cancer cell lines MCF-7 (breast cancer) and HepG2 (liver cancer) and normal human cell line HEK293 (embryonic kidney). The results of cytotoxicity and flow cytometry data showed that the compounds had a moderate to strong effect against MCF-7 and HepG2 cells and were less toxic to HEK293 cells. N-oleyl-retinamide was found to be the most potent anticancer agent and was more effective against MCF-7 cells than HepG2 cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle 5-Methoxyquinoline Derivatives as a New Class of EZH2 Inhibitors
Molecules 2015, 20(5), 7620-7636; doi:10.3390/molecules20057620
Received: 15 January 2015 / Revised: 16 April 2015 / Accepted: 20 April 2015 / Published: 27 April 2015
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Abstract
A series of quinoline derivatives was synthesized and biologically evaluated as Enhancer of Zeste Homologue 2 (EZH2) inhibitors. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies led to the discovery of 5-methoxy-2-(4-methyl-1,4-diazepan-1-yl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)quinolin-4-amine (5k), which displayed an IC50 value of 1.2 μM against
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A series of quinoline derivatives was synthesized and biologically evaluated as Enhancer of Zeste Homologue 2 (EZH2) inhibitors. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies led to the discovery of 5-methoxy-2-(4-methyl-1,4-diazepan-1-yl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)quinolin-4-amine (5k), which displayed an IC50 value of 1.2 μM against EZH2, decreased global H3K27me3 level in cells and also showed good anti-viability activities against two tumor cell lines. Due to the low molecular weight and the fact that no quinoline derivative has been reported as an EZH2 inhibitor, this compound could serve as a lead compound for further optimization. Full article
Open AccessReview A Survey of Marine Natural Compounds and Their Derivatives with Anti-Cancer Activity Reported in 2012
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 7097-7142; doi:10.3390/molecules20047097
Received: 21 January 2015 / Revised: 1 April 2015 / Accepted: 3 April 2015 / Published: 20 April 2015
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Abstract
Although considerable effort and progress has been made in the search for new anticancer drugs and treatments in the last several decades, cancer remains a major public health problem and one of the major causes of death worldwide. Many sources, including plants, animals,
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Although considerable effort and progress has been made in the search for new anticancer drugs and treatments in the last several decades, cancer remains a major public health problem and one of the major causes of death worldwide. Many sources, including plants, animals, and minerals, are of interest in cancer research because of the possibility of identifying novel molecular therapeutics. Moreover, structure-activity-relationship (SAR) investigations have become a common way to develop naturally derived or semi-synthetic molecular analogues with improved efficacy and decreased toxicity. In 2012, approximately 138 molecules from marine sources, including isolated compounds and their associated analogues, were shown to be promising anticancer drugs. Among these, 62% are novel compounds. In this report, we review the marine compounds identified in 2012 that may serve as novel anticancer drugs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Pharmacophore Modelling of 2,6,9-Trisubstituted Purine Derivatives and Their Potential Role as Apoptosis-Inducing Agents in Cancer Cell Lines
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 6808-6826; doi:10.3390/molecules20046808
Received: 4 March 2015 / Revised: 9 April 2015 / Accepted: 10 April 2015 / Published: 15 April 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (978 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of 2,6,9-trisubstituted purine derivatives have been synthesized and investigated for their potential role as antitumor agents. Twelve compounds were obtained by a three step synthetic procedure using microwave irradiation in a pivotal step. All compounds were evaluated in vitro to determine
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A series of 2,6,9-trisubstituted purine derivatives have been synthesized and investigated for their potential role as antitumor agents. Twelve compounds were obtained by a three step synthetic procedure using microwave irradiation in a pivotal step. All compounds were evaluated in vitro to determine their potential effect on cell toxicity by the MTT method and flow cytometry analysis on four cancer cells lines and Vero cells. Three out of twelve compounds were found to be promising agents compared to a known and effective anticancer drug, etoposide, in three out of four cancer cell lines assayed with considerable selectivity. Preliminary flow cytometry data suggests that compounds mentioned above induce apoptosis on these cells. The main structural requirements for their activity for each cancer cell line were characterized with a preliminary pharmacophore model, which identified aromatic centers, hydrogen acceptor/donor center and a hydrophobic area. These features were consistent with the cytotoxic activity of the assayed compounds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle QSAR-Assisted Virtual Screening of Lead-Like Molecules from Marine and Microbial Natural Sources for Antitumor and Antibiotic Drug Discovery
Molecules 2015, 20(3), 4848-4873; doi:10.3390/molecules20034848
Received: 29 January 2015 / Revised: 27 February 2015 / Accepted: 4 March 2015 / Published: 17 March 2015
PDF Full-text (909 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) approach for classification was used for the prediction of compounds as active/inactive relatively to overall biological activity, antitumor and antibiotic activities using a data set of 1746 compounds from PubChem with empirical CDK descriptors and semi-empirical quantum-chemical descriptors.
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A Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) approach for classification was used for the prediction of compounds as active/inactive relatively to overall biological activity, antitumor and antibiotic activities using a data set of 1746 compounds from PubChem with empirical CDK descriptors and semi-empirical quantum-chemical descriptors. A data set of 183 active pharmaceutical ingredients was additionally used for the external validation of the best models. The best classification models for antibiotic and antitumor activities were used to screen a data set of marine and microbial natural products from the AntiMarin database—25 and four lead compounds for antibiotic and antitumor drug design were proposed, respectively. The present work enables the presentation of a new set of possible lead like bioactive compounds and corroborates the results of our previous investigations. By other side it is shown the usefulness of quantum-chemical descriptors in the discrimination of biologically active and inactive compounds. None of the compounds suggested by our approach have assigned non-antibiotic and non-antitumor activities in the AntiMarin database and almost all were lately reported as being active in the literature. Full article
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Open AccessReview Development of Advanced Macrosphelides: Potent Anticancer Agents
Molecules 2015, 20(3), 4430-4449; doi:10.3390/molecules20034430
Received: 4 February 2015 / Revised: 1 March 2015 / Accepted: 6 March 2015 / Published: 10 March 2015
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Abstract Synthetic approaches to macrosphelide derivatives, based on medicinal chemistry, are summarized. This review contains conventional medicinal chemistry approaches, combinatorial chemistry, fluorous tagging techniques and affinity chromatography preparation. In addition, advances in their apoptosis-inducing activities are also included. Full article
Open AccessArticle Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution Study of Caudatin in Normal and Diethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Model Rats
Molecules 2015, 20(3), 4225-4237; doi:10.3390/molecules20034225
Received: 17 November 2014 / Revised: 15 February 2015 / Accepted: 26 February 2015 / Published: 5 March 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1572 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Caudatin is a potential antitumor agent isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine “baishouwu”, which was the root tuber of Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight. In our previous studies, caudatin showed selectivity on human hepatoma cell line SMMC7721 among several different tumor
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Caudatin is a potential antitumor agent isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine “baishouwu”, which was the root tuber of Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight. In our previous studies, caudatin showed selectivity on human hepatoma cell line SMMC7721 among several different tumor cell lines, and further in vivo tests validated the inhibitory action of caudatin against hepatic cancer using an H22 solid tumor model in mice, but to our knowledge, the biopharmaceutical properties of caudatin are largely unknown. In this study, a simple, rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of caudatin in rat plasma and tissues, which kept the run time to detect one sample within 4 min, was developed and validated. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution studies of caudatin in conventional rats and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model rats were then conducted for the first time. Statistically significant differences were observed between conventional rats and diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC rats with respect to pharmacokinetic parameters, including maximum concentration (Cmax), time to reach Cmax (Tmax), half-life (t1/2), area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-t, AUC0-∞), mean residence time (MRT0-t and MRT0-∞), and oral clearance (CL/F). Increased exposures of caudatin were found in the plasma and livers of HCC model rats, which would be helpful for a better understanding of pharmacological effect of caudatin in treating HCC disease. Full article
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Open AccessReview Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Clinical Studies as Templates for New Anticancer Agents
Molecules 2015, 20(3), 3898-3941; doi:10.3390/molecules20033898
Received: 26 December 2014 / Revised: 13 February 2015 / Accepted: 15 February 2015 / Published: 2 March 2015
Cited by 71 | PDF Full-text (1114 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Histone dacetylases (HDACs) are a group of enzymes that remove acetyl groups from histones and regulate expression of tumor suppressor genes. They are implicated in many human diseases, especially cancer, making them a promising therapeutic target for treatment of the latter by developing
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Histone dacetylases (HDACs) are a group of enzymes that remove acetyl groups from histones and regulate expression of tumor suppressor genes. They are implicated in many human diseases, especially cancer, making them a promising therapeutic target for treatment of the latter by developing a wide variety of inhibitors. HDAC inhibitors interfere with HDAC activity and regulate biological events, such as cell cycle, differentiation and apoptosis in cancer cells. As a result, HDAC inhibitor-based therapies have gained much attention for cancer treatment. To date, the FDA has approved three HDAC inhibitors for cutaneous/peripheral T-cell lymphoma and many more HDAC inhibitors are in different stages of clinical development for the treatment of hematological malignancies as well as solid tumors. In the intensifying efforts to discover new, hopefully more therapeutically efficacious HDAC inhibitors, molecular modeling-based rational drug design has played an important role in identifying potential inhibitors that vary in molecular structures and properties. In this review, we summarize four major structural classes of HDAC inhibitors that are in clinical trials and different computer modeling tools available for their structural modifications as a guide to discover additional HDAC inhibitors with greater therapeutic utility. Full article
Open AccessReview Targeting Carbonic Anhydrase IX Activity and Expression
Molecules 2015, 20(2), 2323-2348; doi:10.3390/molecules20022323
Received: 18 August 2014 / Accepted: 25 December 2014 / Published: 30 January 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2689 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metastatic tumors are often hypoxic exhibiting a decrease in extracellular pH (~6.5) due to a metabolic transition described by the Warburg Effect. This shift in tumor cell metabolism alters the tumor milieu inducing tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, cell motility, invasiveness, and often resistance
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Metastatic tumors are often hypoxic exhibiting a decrease in extracellular pH (~6.5) due to a metabolic transition described by the Warburg Effect. This shift in tumor cell metabolism alters the tumor milieu inducing tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, cell motility, invasiveness, and often resistance to common anti-cancer treatments; hence hindering treatment of aggressive cancers. As a result, tumors exhibiting this phenotype are directly associated with poor prognosis and decreased survival rates in cancer patients. A key component to this tumor microenvironment is carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX). Knockdown of CA IX expression or inhibition of its activity has been shown to reduce primary tumor growth, tumor proliferation, and also decrease tumor resistance to conventional anti-cancer therapies. As such several approaches have been taken to target CA IX in tumors via small-molecule, anti-body, and RNAi delivery systems. Here we will review recent developments that have exploited these approaches and provide our thoughts for future directions of CA IX targeting for the treatment of cancer. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel 6-Hydroxy-benzo[d][1,3]oxathiol-2-one Schiff Bases as Potential Anticancer Agents
Molecules 2015, 20(2), 1968-1983; doi:10.3390/molecules20021968
Received: 29 September 2014 / Revised: 25 December 2014 / Accepted: 31 December 2014 / Published: 27 January 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1158 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
With the aim of discovering new anticancer agents, we have designed and synthesized novel 6-hydroxy-benzo[d][1,3]oxathiol-2-one Schiff bases. The synthesis started with the selective nitration at 5-position of 6-hydroxybenzo[d][1,3]oxathiol-2-one (1) leading to the nitro derivative 2. The
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With the aim of discovering new anticancer agents, we have designed and synthesized novel 6-hydroxy-benzo[d][1,3]oxathiol-2-one Schiff bases. The synthesis started with the selective nitration at 5-position of 6-hydroxybenzo[d][1,3]oxathiol-2-one (1) leading to the nitro derivative 2. The nitro group of 2 was reduced to give the amino intermediate 3. Schiff bases 4ar were obtained from coupling reactions between 3 and various benzaldehydes and heteroaromatic aldehydes. All the new compounds were fully identified and characterized by NMR (1H and 13C) and specifically for 4q by X-ray crystallography. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the compounds was evaluated against cancer cell lines (ACP-03, SKMEL-19 and HCT-116) by using MTT assay. Schiff bases 4b and 4o exhibited promising cytotoxicity against ACP-03 and SKMEL-19, respectively, with IC50 values lower than 5 μM. This class of compounds can be considered as a good starting point for the development of new lead molecules in the fight against cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Deoxypodophyllotoxin Induces G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in SGC-7901 Cells and Inhibits Tumor Growth in Vivo
Molecules 2015, 20(1), 1661-1675; doi:10.3390/molecules20011661
Received: 21 December 2014 / Revised: 4 January 2015 / Accepted: 13 January 2015 / Published: 20 January 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (4892 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT), a natural microtubule destabilizer, was isolated from Anthriscus sylvestris, and a few studies have reported its anti-cancer effect. However, the in vivo antitumor efficacy of DPT is currently indeterminate. In this study, we investigated the anti-gastric cancer effects of DPT
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Deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT), a natural microtubule destabilizer, was isolated from Anthriscus sylvestris, and a few studies have reported its anti-cancer effect. However, the in vivo antitumor efficacy of DPT is currently indeterminate. In this study, we investigated the anti-gastric cancer effects of DPT both in vitro and in vivo. Our data showed that DPT inhibited cancer cell proliferation and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest accompanied by an increase in apoptotic cell death in SGC-7901 cancer cells. In addition, DPT caused cyclin B1, Cdc2 and Cdc25C to accumulate, decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and activated caspase-3 and PARP, suggesting that caspase-mediated pathways were involved in DPT-induced apoptosis. Animal studies revealed that DPT significantly inhibited tumor growth and decreased microvessel density (MVD) in a xenograft model of gastric cancer. Taken together, our findings provide a framework for further exploration of DPT as a novel chemotherapeutic for human gastric cancer. Full article
Open AccessArticle Kinase Inhibitor Profile for Human Nek1, Nek6, and Nek7 and Analysis of the Structural Basis for Inhibitor Specificity
Molecules 2015, 20(1), 1176-1191; doi:10.3390/molecules20011176
Received: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 5 January 2015 / Published: 13 January 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Human Neks are a conserved protein kinase family related to cell cycle progression and cell division and are considered potential drug targets for the treatment of cancer and other pathologies. We screened the activation loop mutant kinases hNek1 and hNek2, wild-type hNek7, and
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Human Neks are a conserved protein kinase family related to cell cycle progression and cell division and are considered potential drug targets for the treatment of cancer and other pathologies. We screened the activation loop mutant kinases hNek1 and hNek2, wild-type hNek7, and five hNek6 variants in different activation/phosphorylation statesand compared them against 85 compounds using thermal shift denaturation. We identified three compounds with significant Tm shifts: JNK Inhibitor II for hNek1(Δ262-1258)-(T162A), Isogranulatimide for hNek6(S206A), andGSK-3 Inhibitor XIII for hNek7wt. Each one of these compounds was also validated by reducing the kinases activity by at least 25%. The binding sites for these compounds were identified by in silico docking at the ATP-binding site of the respective hNeks. Potential inhibitors were first screened by thermal shift assays, had their efficiency tested by a kinase assay, and were finally analyzed by molecular docking. Our findings corroborate the idea of ATP-competitive inhibition for hNek1 and hNek6 and suggest a novel non-competitive inhibition for hNek7 in regard to GSK-3 Inhibitor XIII. Our results demonstrate that our approach is useful for finding promising general and specific hNekscandidate inhibitors, which may also function as scaffolds to design more potent and selective inhibitors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Chromonylthiazolidines and Their Cytotoxicity to Human Cancer Cell Lines
Molecules 2015, 20(1), 1151-1160; doi:10.3390/molecules20011151
Received: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 6 January 2015 / Published: 12 January 2015
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Abstract
Nine new chromonylthiazolidine derivatives were successfully semi-synthesized from paeonol. All of the compounds, including starting materials, the intermediate compound and products, were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects toward eight human cancer cell lines. The synthesized chromonylthiazolidines displayed weak cytotoxic effects against the tested
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Nine new chromonylthiazolidine derivatives were successfully semi-synthesized from paeonol. All of the compounds, including starting materials, the intermediate compound and products, were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects toward eight human cancer cell lines. The synthesized chromonylthiazolidines displayed weak cytotoxic effects against the tested cancer cell lines, but selective cytotoxic effects were observed. Compounds 3a and 3b showed the most selective cytotoxic effects against human epidermoid carcinoma (IC50 44.1 ± 3.6 μg/mL) and breast cancer (IC50 32.8 ± 1.4 μg/mL) cell lines, respectively. The results suggest that chromoylthiazolidines are potential low-cost, and selective anticancer agents. Full article

2014

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Open AccessReview 1-[2-(2-Methoxyphenylamino)ethylamino]-3-(naphthalene-1- yloxy)propan-2-ol May Be a Promising Anticancer Drug
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 21462-21472; doi:10.3390/molecules191221462
Received: 14 November 2014 / Revised: 11 December 2014 / Accepted: 16 December 2014 / Published: 19 December 2014
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Abstract
We have originally synthesized the naftopidil analogue 1-[2-(2-methoxyphenylamino)ethylamino]-3-(naphthalene-1-yloxy)propan-2-ol (HUHS 1015) as a new anticancer drug. HUHS1015 induces cell death in a wide variety of human cancer cell lines originated from malignant pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, hepatoma, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, prostate
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We have originally synthesized the naftopidil analogue 1-[2-(2-methoxyphenylamino)ethylamino]-3-(naphthalene-1-yloxy)propan-2-ol (HUHS 1015) as a new anticancer drug. HUHS1015 induces cell death in a wide variety of human cancer cell lines originated from malignant pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, hepatoma, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, prostate cancer, and renal cancer. HUHS1015-induced cell death includes necrosis (necroptosis) and apoptosis, and the underlying mechanism differs depending upon cancer cell types. HUHS1015 effectively suppresses tumor growth in mice inoculated with NCI-H2052, MKN45, or CW2 cells, with a potential similar to or higher than that of currently used anticancer drugs. Here we show how HUHS1015 might offer brilliant hope for cancer therapy. Full article
Open AccessReview Anticancer Agents Targeted to Sirtuins
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 20295-20313; doi:10.3390/molecules191220295
Received: 4 October 2014 / Revised: 28 November 2014 / Accepted: 1 December 2014 / Published: 4 December 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1125 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sirtuins are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+-dependent deacetylases of which there are seven isoforms (SIRT1–7). Sirtuin activity is linked to gene expression, lifespan extension, neurodegeneration, and age-related disorders. Numerous studies have suggested that sirtuins could be of great significance with regard to both
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Sirtuins are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+-dependent deacetylases of which there are seven isoforms (SIRT1–7). Sirtuin activity is linked to gene expression, lifespan extension, neurodegeneration, and age-related disorders. Numerous studies have suggested that sirtuins could be of great significance with regard to both antiaging and tumorigenesis, depending on its targets in specific signaling pathways or in specific cancers. Recent studies have identified small chemical compounds that modulate sirtuins, and these modulators have enabled a greater understanding of the biological function and molecular mechanisms of sirtuins. This review highlights the possibility of sirtuins, especially SIRT1 and SIRT2, for cancer therapy targets, and focuses on the therapeutic potential of sirtuin modulators both in cancer prevention and treatment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Discovery of Novel Small-Molecule Compounds with Selective Cytotoxicity for Burkitt’s Lymphoma Cells Using 3D Ligand-Based Virtual Screening
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19209-19219; doi:10.3390/molecules191119209
Received: 15 October 2014 / Revised: 6 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
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Abstract
We describe a ligand-based approach towards compounds with more specific targeting for Burkitt’s lymphoma. Using three-dimensional ligand-based similarity searches and a previously described hit compound, we have identified six compounds that are chemically different but with similar spatial conformations. Biological evaluation revealed that
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We describe a ligand-based approach towards compounds with more specific targeting for Burkitt’s lymphoma. Using three-dimensional ligand-based similarity searches and a previously described hit compound, we have identified six compounds that are chemically different but with similar spatial conformations. Biological evaluation revealed that one compound has better growth inhibition and improved selectivity towards Burkitt’s lymphoma cells than the query compound. However, initial mechanism-of-action studies show a different target profile in comparison with the previous hit compound, which does not involve the inhibition of the proteasome or the NFκB pathway. The data from this study provide a solid basis for further efforts in the search for selective agents against Burkitt’s lymphoma. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Study on the Cytotoxic Activity of Drimane Sesquiterpenes and Nordrimane Compounds against Cancer Cell Lines
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18993-19006; doi:10.3390/molecules191118993
Received: 23 September 2014 / Revised: 27 October 2014 / Accepted: 3 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
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Abstract
Twelve drimanes, including polygodial (1), isopolygodial (2), drimenol (3), confertifolin (4), and isodrimenin (5), were obtained from natural sources. Semi-synthetic derivatives 612 were obtained from 1 and 2, and cytotoxic
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Twelve drimanes, including polygodial (1), isopolygodial (2), drimenol (3), confertifolin (4), and isodrimenin (5), were obtained from natural sources. Semi-synthetic derivatives 612 were obtained from 1 and 2, and cytotoxic activity was evaluated in vitro against cancer cell lines (HT-29, MDA-MB231, DHF, MCF-7, PC-3, DU-145, and CoN). IC50 values were determined at concentrations of 12.5–100 µM of each compound for 72 h. In addition, it was found that polygodial (1), 8, and 12 induced changes in mitochondrial membrane permeability in CoN, MCF-7, and PC-3 cells. Full article
Open AccessArticle Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Artemisinin-Indoloquinoline Hybrids as Potent Antiproliferative Agents
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19021-19035; doi:10.3390/molecules191119021
Received: 13 August 2014 / Revised: 10 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (302 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of artemisinin-indoloquinoline hybrids were designed and synthesized in an attempt to develop potent and selective anti-tumor agents. Compounds 7a7f, 8 and 9 were prepared and characterized. Their antiproliferative activities against MV4-11, HCT-116, A549, and BALB/3T3 cell lines in
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A series of artemisinin-indoloquinoline hybrids were designed and synthesized in an attempt to develop potent and selective anti-tumor agents. Compounds 7a7f, 8 and 9 were prepared and characterized. Their antiproliferative activities against MV4-11, HCT-116, A549, and BALB/3T3 cell lines in vitro were tested. Nearly all of the tested compounds (79, except for compounds 7d and 7e against HCT-116) showed an increased antitumor activity against HCT-116 and A549 cell lines when compared to the dihydroartemisinin control. Especially for the artemisinin-indoloquinoline hybrid 8, with an 11-aminopropylamino-10H-indolo[3,2-b]quinoline substituent, the antiproliferative activity against the A549 cell line had improved more than ten times. The IC50 value of hybrid 8 against A549 cell lines was decreased to 1.328 ± 0.586 μM, while dihydroartemisin showed IC50 value of >20 µM in the same cell line. Thus, these results have proven that the strategy of introducing a planar basic fused aromatic moiety, such as the indoloquinoline skeleton, could improve the antiproliferative activity and selectivity towards cancer cell lines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and in Vitro Antitumor Activity of a Novel Series of 2-Pyrazoline Derivatives Bearing the 4-Aryloxy-7-chloroquinoline Fragment
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18656-18675; doi:10.3390/molecules191118656
Received: 24 September 2014 / Revised: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
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Abstract
A new series of NH-pyrazoline derivatives 6 was synthesized by cyclocondensation reaction of novel [(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)oxy]chalcones 5 with hydrazine hydrate. The treatment of pyrazolines 6 with acetic anhydride or formic acid yielded the N-acetyl- or N-formylpyrazoline derivatives 78,
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A new series of NH-pyrazoline derivatives 6 was synthesized by cyclocondensation reaction of novel [(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)oxy]chalcones 5 with hydrazine hydrate. The treatment of pyrazolines 6 with acetic anhydride or formic acid yielded the N-acetyl- or N-formylpyrazoline derivatives 78, respectively. These novel 2-pyrazoline derivatives 68 were evaluated by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI). Compounds 7b,d,f and 8c,f showed remarkable antitumor activity against 58 cancer cell lines, with the most important GI50 values from in vitro assays ranging from 0.48 to 1.66 μM. The 2-pyrazoline derivatives bearing the 4-aryloxy-7-chloroquinoline fragment are thus considered to be useful leads for the rational design of new antitumor agents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design and Synthesis of Isosteviol Triazole Conjugates for Cancer Therapy
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18676-18689; doi:10.3390/molecules191118676
Received: 13 October 2014 / Revised: 6 November 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
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Abstract
One of the keys for successfully developing drugs against the broad spectrum of cancer cell types is structural diversity. In the current study, we focused on a family of isosteviol derivatives as potential novel antitumor agents. Isosteviol is a tetracyclic diterpenoid obtained by
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One of the keys for successfully developing drugs against the broad spectrum of cancer cell types is structural diversity. In the current study, we focused on a family of isosteviol derivatives as potential novel antitumor agents. Isosteviol is a tetracyclic diterpenoid obtained by acid hydrolysis of steviol glycoside extracts isolated from abundant Stevia rebaudiana plants. In this work, we have designed and synthesized a panel of isosteviol triazole conjugates using “click” chemistry methodology. Evaluation of these compounds against a series of cancer cell lines derived from primary and metastatic tumors demonstrated that these conjugates exhibit cytotoxic activities with IC50 in the low μM range. In addition, their anti-proliferative activities are cancer cell type specific. Taken together, our studies underscore the importance of structural diversity in achieving cancer cell type specific drug development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Anti-Tumor Activity of Novel Aminomethylated Derivatives of Isoliquiritigenin
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 17715-17726; doi:10.3390/molecules191117715
Received: 25 August 2014 / Revised: 21 October 2014 / Accepted: 27 October 2014 / Published: 31 October 2014
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Abstract
A series of new aminomethylated derivatives of isoliquiritigenin was synthesized. The structures of the compounds were confirmed by IR, MS, NMR, 13C-NMR and elemental analyses. Cytotoxic activities of these derivatives towards the human prostatic cell line PC-3, human mammary cancer cell line
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A series of new aminomethylated derivatives of isoliquiritigenin was synthesized. The structures of the compounds were confirmed by IR, MS, NMR, 13C-NMR and elemental analyses. Cytotoxic activities of these derivatives towards the human prostatic cell line PC-3, human mammary cancer cell line MCF-7 and human oophoroma cell line HO-8910 in vitro were tested. The IC50 values showed cytotoxic activities of some of these new derivatives were relatively strong. Furthermore, tumor growth inhibition in vivo of aminomethylated derivatives of isoliquiritigenin 15 was superior to that of isoliquritigenin and reached inhibition rates of 71.68%. The detailed synthesis, spectroscopic data, biological and pharmacologicalactivities of the synthesized compounds were provided. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Structural Diversity of Copper(II) Complexes with N-(2-Pyridyl)Imidazolidin-2-Ones(Thiones) and Their in Vitro Antitumor Activity
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 17026-17051; doi:10.3390/molecules191017026
Received: 29 August 2014 / Revised: 30 September 2014 / Accepted: 13 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
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Abstract
Six series of structurally different mono- and binuclear copper(II) complexes 510 were obtained by reacting N-(2-pyridyl)imidazolidin-2-ones (1al), N,N'-bis(2-pyridyl)imidazolidin-2-ones (2a,b), N-acyl-N'(2-pyridyl)imidazolodin-2-ones (3aj) and
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Six series of structurally different mono- and binuclear copper(II) complexes 510 were obtained by reacting N-(2-pyridyl)imidazolidin-2-ones (1al), N,N'-bis(2-pyridyl)imidazolidin-2-ones (2a,b), N-acyl-N'(2-pyridyl)imidazolodin-2-ones (3aj) and N-(2-pyridyl)imidazolidine-2-thiones (4ag) with copper(II) chloride at an ambient temperature. The coordination modes of the complexes obtained were established by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopic data and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The in vitro cytotoxic activities of both the free ligands and copper(II) complexes were evaluated using a crystal violet microtiter plate assay on five human tumor cell lines: LCLC-103H, A-427, SISO, RT-4 and DAN-G. The free ligands 14 at concentration attainable in cancer cells of 20 μM showed no meaningful cytotoxic effect with cell viability in the range of 88%–100%. The most potent copper(II) complex of 1-(6-ethoxy-2-pyridyl)imidazolidin-2-one (6b) exhibited selective cytotoxicity against A-427 lung cancer cell line, while the complexes of 1-(5-methyl-2-pyridyl)imidazolidine-2-thione (5h) and 1-(4-tert-butyl-2-pyridyl)imidazolidine-2-thione (5j) showed cytostatic effect against a whole panel of five human tumor cell lines. In conclusion, the only complexes that showed remarkably increased activity in comparison to the free ligands were those obtained from N-(2-pyridyl)imidazolidine-2-thiones 4c and 4e substituted with alkyl group at position 4 or 5 of pyridine ring. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Stereoselective Synthesis and Cytoselective Toxicity of Monoterpene-Fused 2-Imino-1,3-thiazines
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 15918-15937; doi:10.3390/molecules191015918
Received: 27 August 2014 / Revised: 22 September 2014 / Accepted: 24 September 2014 / Published: 2 October 2014
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Abstract
Starting from pinane-, apopinane- and carane-based 1,3-amino alcohols obtained from monoterpene-based β-amino acids, a library of monoterpene-fused 2-imino-1,3-thiazines as main products and 2-thioxo-1,3-oxazines as side-products were prepared via two- or three-step syntheses. When thiourea adducts prepared from 1,3-amino alcohols and aryl isothiocyanates were
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Starting from pinane-, apopinane- and carane-based 1,3-amino alcohols obtained from monoterpene-based β-amino acids, a library of monoterpene-fused 2-imino-1,3-thiazines as main products and 2-thioxo-1,3-oxazines as side-products were prepared via two- or three-step syntheses. When thiourea adducts prepared from 1,3-amino alcohols and aryl isothiocyanates were reacted with CDI under mild conditions, O-imidazolylcarbonyl intermediates were isolated which could be transformed to the desired 1,3-thiazines under microwave conditions. 1,3-Thiazines and 2-thioxo-1,3-oxazine side-products could also be prepared in one-step reactions through the application of CDI and microwave irradiation. The ring-closure process was extended to cycloalkane-based γ-hydroxythioureas. The carane- and apopinane-based derivatives exhibited marked antiproliferative activity against a panel of human adherent cancer cell lines (HeLa, A2780, MCF7 and A431). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Biological Evaluation of the Activity of Some Benzimidazole-4,7-dione Derivatives
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 15361-15373; doi:10.3390/molecules191015361
Received: 30 July 2014 / Revised: 9 September 2014 / Accepted: 11 September 2014 / Published: 26 September 2014
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Abstract
The study presented here is a follow up of the authors’ interest in the approach to selective and cytotoxic bioreductive anticancer prodrugs. The current work is devoted to explore both the biological activity of some previously obtained compounds and the search for an
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The study presented here is a follow up of the authors’ interest in the approach to selective and cytotoxic bioreductive anticancer prodrugs. The current work is devoted to explore both the biological activity of some previously obtained compounds and the search for an explanation of their target(s) in hypoxic pathways. In this work the biological activity of some benzimidazole-4,7-diones was evaluated. These compounds were examined as potential bioreductive agents specific for the hypoxic environment found in tumor cells. The main aim was concerned with establishing their cytotoxic properties by using proliferation, apoptosis and DNA destruction tests on selected tumor cells. Their cytotoxic effects on two tumor cell lines (human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells line and human malignant melanoma WM115) was compared by means of a WST-1 test. Next, the mode of cytotoxicity behind the selected tumor cells’ death was determined by the caspase 3/7 test. The last point referred to the DNA destruction of A549 and WM115 cells and the in situ DNA Assay Kit test was applied. The cytotoxic tests confirmed their activity against the tumor cells and target hypoxia (compounds 2b, 2a, 2d). The screening test of the caspase-dependent apoptosis proved that the exposure of the tested tumor cells in hypoxia to these benzimidazole-4,7-diones promoted the apoptotic cell death. Additionally, the DNA damage test established that benzimidazole-4,7-diones can be potential hypoxia-selective agents for tumor cells, especially compound 2b. All results classify the tested benzimidazole-4,7-diones as promising, lead molecules and provide a rationale for further molecular studies to explain their usefulness as potential inhibitors of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1). Full article
Open AccessArticle Eurycomanone and Eurycomanol from Eurycoma longifolia Jack as Regulators of Signaling Pathways Involved in Proliferation, Cell Death and Inflammation
Molecules 2014, 19(9), 14649-14666; doi:10.3390/molecules190914649
Received: 15 July 2014 / Revised: 1 September 2014 / Accepted: 3 September 2014 / Published: 16 September 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (5054 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Eurycomanone and eurycomanol are two quassinoids from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia Jack. The aim of this study was to assess the bioactivity of these compounds in Jurkat and K562 human leukemia cell models compared to peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors.
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Eurycomanone and eurycomanol are two quassinoids from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia Jack. The aim of this study was to assess the bioactivity of these compounds in Jurkat and K562 human leukemia cell models compared to peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors. Both eurycomanone and eurycomanol inhibited Jurkat and K562 cell viability and proliferation without affecting healthy cells. Interestingly, eurycomanone inhibited NF-κB signaling through inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation and upstream mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, but not eurycomanol. In conclusion, both quassinoids present differential toxicity towards leukemia cells, and the presence of the α,β-unsaturated ketone in eurycomanone could be prerequisite for the NF-κB inhibition. Full article
Open AccessArticle Design and Synthesis of New Cholesterol-Conjugated 5-Fluorouracil: A Novel Potential Delivery System for Cancer Treatment
Molecules 2014, 19(9), 13177-13187; doi:10.3390/molecules190913177
Received: 12 May 2014 / Revised: 9 July 2014 / Accepted: 15 July 2014 / Published: 26 August 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1981 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cholesterol-conjugated 5-fluorouracil prodrugs were designed to be carried in vivo via low density lipoproteins (LDL) and subsequently undergo LDL-receptor-mediated internalisation into cancer cells. In vivo anti-cancer evaluation was performed using 5-fluorouracil-cholesterol conjugate in a mouse model. The obtained prodrugs were more potent than
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Cholesterol-conjugated 5-fluorouracil prodrugs were designed to be carried in vivo via low density lipoproteins (LDL) and subsequently undergo LDL-receptor-mediated internalisation into cancer cells. In vivo anti-cancer evaluation was performed using 5-fluorouracil-cholesterol conjugate in a mouse model. The obtained prodrugs were more potent than 5-fluorouracil control drug at the same 5-fluorouracil content (3 mg·kg−1). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Isocorydine Derivatives and Their Anticancer Activities
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 12099-12115; doi:10.3390/molecules190812099
Received: 5 June 2014 / Revised: 13 July 2014 / Accepted: 22 July 2014 / Published: 12 August 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In order to improve the anticancer activity of isocorydine (ICD), ten isocorydine derivatives were prepared through chemical structure modifications, and their in vitro and in vivo activities were experimentally investigated. 8-Amino-isocorydine (8) and 6a,7-dihydrogen-isocorydione (10) could inhibit the growth
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In order to improve the anticancer activity of isocorydine (ICD), ten isocorydine derivatives were prepared through chemical structure modifications, and their in vitro and in vivo activities were experimentally investigated. 8-Amino-isocorydine (8) and 6a,7-dihydrogen-isocorydione (10) could inhibit the growth of human lung (A549), gastric (SGC7901) and liver (HepG2) cancer cell lines in vitro. Isocorydione (2) could inhibit the tumor growth of murine sarcoma S180-bearing mice, and 8-acetamino-isocorydine (11), a pro-drug of 8-amino-isocorydine (8), which is instable in water solution at room temperature, had a good inhibitory effect on murine hepatoma H22-induced tumors. The results suggested that the isocorydine structural modifications at C-8 could significantly improve the biological activity of this alkaloid, indicating its suitability as a lead compound in the development of an effective anticancer agent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Aqueous Solubility and Degradation Kinetics of the Phytochemical Anticancer Thymoquinone; Probing the Effects of Solvents, pH and Light
Molecules 2014, 19(5), 5925-5939; doi:10.3390/molecules19055925
Received: 14 March 2014 / Revised: 23 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 May 2014 / Published: 8 May 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1430 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thymoquinone (TQ) is a potent anticancer phytochemical with confirmed in vitro efficacy. Its clinical use has not yet established, and very few reports have documented its formulation. There also are no reports about the aqueous solubility and stability of this valuable drug, despite
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Thymoquinone (TQ) is a potent anticancer phytochemical with confirmed in vitro efficacy. Its clinical use has not yet established, and very few reports have documented its formulation. There also are no reports about the aqueous solubility and stability of this valuable drug, despite their direct correlation with the in vivo efficacy. In the current research, we have established and validated a stability-indicating HPLC method for the detection of TQ and its degradation products under different conditions. We then investigated the solubility and stability profiles of TQ in aqueous solutions. The stability study was aimed to determine the effect of pH, solvent type and light on the degradation process of TQ, along with the investigation of the kinetics of this degradation. The solubility of TQ varied in different aqueous solvents, and might be compromised due to stability issues. However, these findings confirm that the aqueous solubility is not the major obstacle for the drug formulations mainly due to the considerable water solubility (>500 μg/mL) that may be enough to exert pharmacologic effects if administered via parenteral route. Stability study results showed a very low stability profile of TQ in all the aqueous solutions with rapid degradation that varied with solvent type. The study of the degradation kinetics showed a significant effect of pH on the degradation process. The process followed first order kinetics at more acidic and alkaline pH values, and second order kinetics at pH 5–7.4, regardless of the solvent type. The results also expressed that light has a greater impact on the stability of TQ as a shorter period of exposure led to severe degradation, independent of the solution pH and solvent type. Our results also addressed some discrepancies in previously published researches regarding the formulation and quantification of TQ with suggested solutions. Overall, the current study concludes that TQ is unstable in aqueous solutions, particularly at an alkaline pH, in addition to presenting severe light sensitivity. This data indicates the inappropriateness of aqueous solutions as pharmaceutical vehicles for TQ preparations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study describing TQ aqueous solubility and stability that may lead to the development of a stable and effective TQ formulation. Full article

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