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Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1626; doi:10.3390/molecules22101626

Anticarcinogenic Effect of Spices Due to Phenolic and Flavonoid Compounds—In Vitro Evaluation on Prostate Cells

1
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, Brno CZ-613 00, Czech Republic
2
Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, Brno CZ-616 00, Czech Republic
3
Department of Geology and Pedology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, Brno CZ-613 00, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 September 2017 / Accepted: 24 September 2017 / Published: 28 September 2017
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Abstract

This study shows the effects of spices, and their phenolic and flavonoid compounds, on prostate cell lines (PNT1A, 22RV1 and PC3). The results of an MTT assay on extracts from eight spices revealed the strongest inhibitory effects were from black pepper and caraway seed extracts. The strongest inhibitory effect on prostatic cells was observed after the application of extracts of spices in concentration of 12.5 mg·mL−1. An LC/MS analysis identified that the most abundant phenolic and flavonoid compounds in black pepper are 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and naringenin chalcone, while the most abundant phenolic and flavonoid compounds in caraway seeds are neochlorogenic acid and apigenin. Using an MTT assay for the phenolic and flavonoid compounds from spices, we identified the IC50 value of ~1 mmol·L−1 PNT1A. The scratch test demonstrated that the most potent inhibitory effect on PNT1A, 22RV1 and PC3 cells is from the naringenin chalcone contained in black pepper. From the spectrum of compounds assessed, the naringenin chalcone contained in black pepper was identified as the most potent inhibitor of the growth of prostate cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: apigenin; clonogenic assay; 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde; MTT assay; naringenin chalcone; neochlorogenic acid; prostate cancer; scratch test; spices apigenin; clonogenic assay; 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde; MTT assay; naringenin chalcone; neochlorogenic acid; prostate cancer; scratch test; spices
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lackova, Z.; Buchtelova, H.; Buchtova, Z.; Klejdus, B.; Heger, Z.; Brtnicky, M.; Kynicky, J.; Zitka, O.; Adam, V. Anticarcinogenic Effect of Spices Due to Phenolic and Flavonoid Compounds—In Vitro Evaluation on Prostate Cells. Molecules 2017, 22, 1626.

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