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Open AccessCommentary
Dynamic Geochemistry of Tetraethyl Lead Dust during the 20th Century: Getting the Lead In, Out, and Translational Beyond
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 860; doi:10.3390/ijerph15050860 -
Abstract
This commentary provides a brief overview of policy decisions that permitted getting tetraethyl lead (TEL) into petrol; global geochemical lead-dust deposition evidence; 1975 catalytic converter requirements; concern about habitability of cities; a personal perspective on legacy lead research that accelerated getting TEL out
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This commentary provides a brief overview of policy decisions that permitted getting tetraethyl lead (TEL) into petrol; global geochemical lead-dust deposition evidence; 1975 catalytic converter requirements; concern about habitability of cities; a personal perspective on legacy lead research that accelerated getting TEL out of petrol; and translational beyond, including New Orleans pre- vs. post-Hurricane Katrina observations about legacy lead interventions that effectively improve urban children’s health outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Marine and Freshwater Feedstocks as a Precursor for Nitrogen-Containing Carbons: A Review
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(5), 142; doi:10.3390/md16050142 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Marine-derived as well as freshwater feedstock offers important benefits, such as abundance, morphological and structural variety, and the presence of multiple elements, including nitrogen and carbon. Therefore, these renewal resources may be useful for obtaining N- and C-containing materials that can be manufactured
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Marine-derived as well as freshwater feedstock offers important benefits, such as abundance, morphological and structural variety, and the presence of multiple elements, including nitrogen and carbon. Therefore, these renewal resources may be useful for obtaining N- and C-containing materials that can be manufactured by various methods, such as pyrolysis and hydrothermal processes supported by means of chemical and physical activators. However, every synthesis concept relies on an efficient transfer of nitrogen and carbon from marine/freshwater feedstock to the final product. This paper reviews the advantages of marine feedstock over synthetic and natural but non-marine resources as precursors for the manufacturing of N-doped activated carbons. The manufacturing procedure influences some crucial properties of nitrogen-doped carbon materials, such as pore structure and the chemical composition of the surface. An extensive review is given on the relationship between carbon materials manufacturing from marine feedstock and the elemental content of nitrogen, together with a description of the chemical bonding of nitrogen atoms at the surface. N-doped carbons may serve as effective adsorbents for the removal of pollutants from the gas or liquid phase. Non-recognized areas of adsorption-based applications for nitrogen-doped carbons are presented, too. The paper proves that nitrogen-doped carbon materials belong to most of the prospective electrode materials for electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies such as fuel cells, air–metal batteries, and supercapacitors, as well as for bioimaging. The reviewed material belongs to the widely understood field of marine biotechnology in relation to marine natural products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Fish Collagen Hydrolysates on Type I Collagen mRNA Levels of Human Dermal Fibroblast Culture
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(5), 144; doi:10.3390/md16050144 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Fish discards and subproducts may represent an important source of raw material, not only for the food industry, but for other different kind of industries, such as the nutraceutical and cosmetic industries. Collagen, which is mainly obtained from animal skins, is an important
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Fish discards and subproducts may represent an important source of raw material, not only for the food industry, but for other different kind of industries, such as the nutraceutical and cosmetic industries. Collagen, which is mainly obtained from animal skins, is an important structural protein in the animal kingdom having many different applications. It is well known that fish skins constitute a significant subproduct in the fishery industry, especially in the case of some species, where fish skins may represent up to 20% of the total body weight of fish. Peptides from collagen hydrolysates have been described to be useful for preventing skin aging and osteoarthritis, however, the mechanism for these biological activities is not well known. Fibroblasts are the main cell types involved in the collagen synthesis, and in the present work, human dermal fibroblasts have been exposed to the treatment of collagen peptides of two different molecular weight ranges. Results show that higher molecular weight collagen peptides produce higher synthesis of collagen type I mRNA and, therefore, it may suggest that prior molecular weight selection may be an important step to maximize the effect of collagen hydrolysates on collagen type I synthesis by dermal fibroblasts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Haliotis discus discus Sialic Acid-Binding Lectin Reduces the Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus Induced Toxicity in a Glioblastoma Mouse Model
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(5), 141; doi:10.3390/md16050141 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Although oncolytic viruses provide attractive vehicles for cancer treatment, their adverse effects are largely ignored. In this work, rat C6 glioblastoma cells were subcutaneously xenografted into mice, and a thymidine kinase-deficient oncolytic vaccinia virus (oncoVV) induced severe toxicity in this model. However, oncoVV-HddSBL,
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Although oncolytic viruses provide attractive vehicles for cancer treatment, their adverse effects are largely ignored. In this work, rat C6 glioblastoma cells were subcutaneously xenografted into mice, and a thymidine kinase-deficient oncolytic vaccinia virus (oncoVV) induced severe toxicity in this model. However, oncoVV-HddSBL, in which a gene encoding Haliotis discus discus sialic acid-binding lectin (HddSBL) was inserted into oncoVV, significantly prolonged the survival of mice as compared to the control virus. HddSBL reduced the tumor secreted serum rat IL-2 level upregulated by oncoVV, promoted viral replication, as well as inhibited the expression of antiviral factors in C6 glioblastoma cell line. Furthermore, HddSBL downregulated the expression levels of histone H3 and H4, and upregulated histone H3R8 and H4R3 asymmetric dimethylation, confirming the effect of HddSBL on chromatin structure suggested by the transcriptome data. Our results might provide insights into the utilization of HddSBL in counteracting the adverse effects of oncolytic vaccinia virus. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
LiGe(SiMe3)3: A New Substituent for the Synthesis of Metalloid Tin Clusters from Metastable Sn(I) Halide Solutions
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1022; doi:10.3390/molecules23051022 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The most fruitful synthetic route to metalloid tin clusters applies the disproportionation reaction of metastable Sn(I) halide solutions, whereby Si(SiMe3)3 is mostly used as the stabilizing substituent. Here, we describe the synthesis and application of the slightly modified substituent Ge(SiMe
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The most fruitful synthetic route to metalloid tin clusters applies the disproportionation reaction of metastable Sn(I) halide solutions, whereby Si(SiMe3)3 is mostly used as the stabilizing substituent. Here, we describe the synthesis and application of the slightly modified substituent Ge(SiMe3)3, which can be used for the synthesis of metalloid tin clusters to give the neutral cluster Sn10[Ge(SiMe3)3]6 as well as the charged clusters {Sn10[Ge(SiMe3)3]5} and {Sn10[Ge(SiMe3)3]4}2−. The obtained metalloid clusters are structurally similar to their Si(SiMe3)3 derivatives. However, differences with respect to the stability in solution are observed. Additionally, a different electronic situation for the tin atoms is realized as shown by 119mSn Mössbauer spectroscopy, giving further insight into the different kinds of tin atoms within the metalloid cluster {Sn10[Ge(SiMe3)3]4}2−. The synthesis of diverse derivatives gives the opportunity to check the influence of the substituent for further investigations of metalloid tin cluster compounds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of New Thiazolidine-2,4-dione-Based Chlorophenylthiosemicarbazone Hybrids
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1023; doi:10.3390/molecules23051023 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Series of new thiazolidine-2,4-dione-based chlorophenylthiosemicarbazone hybrids (1740) were synthesized by the reaction of condensation chlorophenylthiosemicarbazides with formylphenyl 2-(2,4-dioxothiazolidin-5-yl/ylidene)acetates. New compounds were tested on reference strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity of target compounds was determined by
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Series of new thiazolidine-2,4-dione-based chlorophenylthiosemicarbazone hybrids (1740) were synthesized by the reaction of condensation chlorophenylthiosemicarbazides with formylphenyl 2-(2,4-dioxothiazolidin-5-yl/ylidene)acetates. New compounds were tested on reference strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity of target compounds was determined by broth dilution method. Most active compounds possess minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 3.91 mg/L. These compounds were non-toxic at concentrations close to their antibacterial effect. The antibacterial activity of some compounds was similar to or higher than the activity of used reference drugs such as oxacillin and cefuroxime. The structure–activity relationships (SARs) analysis collectively suggests that at least two different molecular mechanisms of their antibacterial activity should be expected. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genomes of Four Aconitum Medicinal Species
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1015; doi:10.3390/molecules23051015 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Aconitum (Ranunculaceae) consists of approximately 400 species distributed in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. Many species are well-known herbs, mainly used for analgesia and anti-inflammatory purposes. This genus is well represented in China and has gained widespread attention for its toxicity
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Aconitum (Ranunculaceae) consists of approximately 400 species distributed in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. Many species are well-known herbs, mainly used for analgesia and anti-inflammatory purposes. This genus is well represented in China and has gained widespread attention for its toxicity and detoxification properties. In southwestern China, several Aconitum species, called ‘Dula’ in the Yi Nationality, were often used to control the poisonous effects of other Aconitum plants. In this study, the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of these species were determined for the first time through Illumina paired-end sequencing. Our results indicate that their cp genomes ranged from 151,214 bp (A. episcopale) to 155,769 bp (A. delavayi) in length. A total of 111–112 unique genes were identified, including 85 protein-coding genes, 36–37 tRNA genes and eight ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA). We also analyzed codon usage, IR expansion or contraction and simple sequence repeats in the cp genomes. Eight variable regions were identified and these may potentially be useful as specific DNA barcodes for species identification of Aconitum. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all five studied species formed a new clade and were resolved with 100% bootstrap support. This study will provide genomic resources and potential plastid markers for DNA barcoding, further taxonomy and germplasm exploration of Aconitum. Full article
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