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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Susceptibility to Alcohol Hangovers: The Association with Self-Reported Immune Status
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1286; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061286 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Increasing evidence points at a role for the immune system in the genesis of the alcohol hangover. This study investigated the association between self-reported immune function and experiencing hangovers. Dutch students aged 18 to 30 years old were invited to complete an online
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Increasing evidence points at a role for the immune system in the genesis of the alcohol hangover. This study investigated the association between self-reported immune function and experiencing hangovers. Dutch students aged 18 to 30 years old were invited to complete an online survey. Eighteen items on immune-related complaints were completed to assess self-reported immune function. Alcohol consumption in the past month (with respect to usual consumption and the occasion of heaviest drinking) was also recorded. Subjects with an estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) of 0.18% or higher on their heaviest drinking occasion in the prior month were included in the analyses. Self-reported immune function was compared between drinkers with a hangover and those who claimed to be hangover resistant. In total, of 481 subjects (79.2% women) with a mean (SD) age of 21.1 (1.9) years old were included in the analysis. Of these, 83.3% (n = 400) reported having hangovers and 16.8% (n = 81) claimed to be hangover resistant. Drinkers with hangovers had significantly higher self-reported overall immune function scores when compared to hangover-resistant drinkers (mean ± SD = 10.5 ± 3.6 versus 13.1 ± 4.9, p = 0.0001), indicating a poorer immune status. In conclusion, experiencing alcohol hangovers is associated with significantly poorer self-reported immune function. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Value Creation from a Stakeholder Perspective
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2062; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062062 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In recent years, we have witnessed how companies and institutions have devoted significant effort to developing Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policies, basing their decision on the improvement in company results and the subsequent benefits for shareholders and other stakeholders. CSR means that managers
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In recent years, we have witnessed how companies and institutions have devoted significant effort to developing Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policies, basing their decision on the improvement in company results and the subsequent benefits for shareholders and other stakeholders. CSR means that managers must go beyond the mere satisfaction of the shareholders and take steps to establish balanced relations with all their stakeholders. The principles behind the CSR approach empower stakeholder governance. To test whether CSR policy constitutes a factor in value creation for shareholders and certain stakeholders such as employees, creditors and the State, we conducted an explanatory study, using a Correlated Random Effects approach, which compares the socially responsible companies included in the Spanish sustainability index, FTSE4Good Ibex, with the companies listed on the other indices of the IBEX family. On the one hand, the data show that sustainability reporting is well established in large companies in Spain but that it needs to be introduced more extensively in small and medium-sized enterprises. On the other hand, the findings point out that CSR has a positive and significant influence on the distribution of value in favor of the State, a negative influence for employees and no influence on other stakeholders. Full article
Open AccessReview
Hypersialylation in Cancer: Modulation of Inflammation and Therapeutic Opportunities
Cancers 2018, 10(6), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10060207 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Cell surface glycosylation is dynamic and often changes in response to cellular differentiation under physiological or pathophysiological conditions. Altered glycosylation on cancers cells is gaining attention due its wide-spread occurrence across a variety of cancer types and recent studies that have documented functional
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Cell surface glycosylation is dynamic and often changes in response to cellular differentiation under physiological or pathophysiological conditions. Altered glycosylation on cancers cells is gaining attention due its wide-spread occurrence across a variety of cancer types and recent studies that have documented functional roles for aberrant glycosylation in driving cancer progression at various stages. One change in glycosylation that can correlate with cancer stage and disease prognosis is hypersialylation. Increased levels of sialic acid are pervasive in cancer and a growing body of evidence demonstrates how hypersialylation is advantageous to cancer cells, particularly from the perspective of modulating immune cell responses. Sialic acid-binding receptors, such as Siglecs and Selectins, are well-positioned to be exploited by cancer hypersialylation. Evidence is also mounting that Siglecs modulate key immune cell types in the tumor microenvironment, particularly those responsible for maintaining the appropriate inflammatory environment. From these studies have come new and innovative ways to block the effects of hypersialylation by directly reducing sialic acid on cancer cells or blocking interactions between sialic acid and Siglecs or Selectins. Here we review recent works examining how cancer cells become hypersialylated, how hypersialylation benefits cancer cells and tumors, and proposed therapies to abrogate hypersialylation of cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Destructive Methodology to Determine Modulus of Elasticity in Static Bending of Quercus mongolica Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
Sensors 2018, 18(6), 1963; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18061963 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This article presents a non-destructive methodology to determine the modulus of elasticity (MOE) in static bending of wood through the use of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Wood specimens were obtained from Quercus mongolica growing in Northeast of China. The NIR spectra of specimens were
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This article presents a non-destructive methodology to determine the modulus of elasticity (MOE) in static bending of wood through the use of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Wood specimens were obtained from Quercus mongolica growing in Northeast of China. The NIR spectra of specimens were acquired by using a one-chip NIR fiber optic spectrometer whose spectral range was 900~1900 nm. The raw spectra of specimens were pretreated by multiplication scatter correlation and Savitzky-Golay smoothing and differentiation filter. To reduce the dimensions of data and complexity of modeling, the synergy interval partial least squares and successive projections algorithm were applied to extract the characteristic wavelengths, which had closing relevance with the MOE of wood, and five characteristic wavelengths were selected from full 117 variables of a spectrum. Taking the characteristic wavelengths as input values, partial least square regression (PLSR) and the propagation neural network (BPNN) were implemented to establish calibration models. The predictive ability of the models was estimated by the coefficient of determination (rp) and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and in the prediction set. In comparison with the predicted results of the models, BPNN performed better results with the higher rp of 0.91 and lower RMSEP of 0.76. The results indicate that it is feasible to accurately determine the MOE of wood by using the NIR spectroscopy technique. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Metal Flow Balance in Multi-Output Porthole Hot Extrusion of AA6060 Thin-Walled Profile
Metals 2018, 8(6), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8060462 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
For the porthole hot extrusion of a thin-walled tube based on metal flow, the role of the die’s structure should be focused on to achieve precision formation, especially for multi-output extrusion and/or complex cross-sectional profiles. In order to obtain a better metal flow
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For the porthole hot extrusion of a thin-walled tube based on metal flow, the role of the die’s structure should be focused on to achieve precision formation, especially for multi-output extrusion and/or complex cross-sectional profiles. In order to obtain a better metal flow balance, a multi-output porthole extrusion die was developed, including some novel features such as a circular pattern of the portholes with a dart-shaped inlet bridge, a buckle angle in the inlet side of the upper die, a two-step welding chamber, and a non-uniform bearing length distribution. Through the use of thermo-mechanical modeling combined with the Taguchi method, the underlying effects of key die features were investigated, such as the billet buckle angle, the porthole bevel angle, the depth of the welding chamber, and the type of bridge on the metal flow balance. The experimental validation showed that the developed numerical model for the multi-output porthole extrusion process had high prediction accuracy, and was acceptable for use in an industrial extrusion with a complex section. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Nexus of FDI, R&D, and Human Capital on Chinese Sustainable Development: Evidence from a Two-Step Approach
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2063; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062063 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This study examines the effect of the foreign direct investment (FDI)–human capital and R&D–human capital interactions (FDIHC and RDHHC) on Chinese development between 1991 and 2015. Based on endogenous growth theory, the study focuses on FDI, R&D, and human capital as important factors
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This study examines the effect of the foreign direct investment (FDI)–human capital and R&D–human capital interactions (FDIHC and RDHHC) on Chinese development between 1991 and 2015. Based on endogenous growth theory, the study focuses on FDI, R&D, and human capital as important factors for sustained economic growth; the interactions among factors are set as the main variables affecting economic growth (GDP). In particular, this study attempts a two-step empirical analysis. First, data mining and semantic network analysis (SNA) are performed using variables as keywords; reliability and realism are reflected as variables. Second, using the vector error correction model (VECM), the study analyzes short and long run mutual influences between variables. The results show that, in data mining and SNA with FDI and R&D as keywords, words related to human capital show high frequency, centrality, and clustering. This finding implies that FDIHC and RDHHC have robustness as variables and can be used as interaction variables. According to the VECM results, FDIHC and RDHHC have positive influences on GDP in the short and long run. The results of a variance decomposition test show that RDHHC has strong mid- to long-run impacts on GDP, FDIHC, and R&D itself. Full article
Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory and Radical Scavenging Properties of Chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf.) Essential Oils
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060783 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf.) is a widely diffused plant native from China and its fruits have a wide-spread use in confectionary and drinks. Remarkably, only little has been reported thus far on its bioactive properties, in contrast to those of the taxonomically
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Chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf.) is a widely diffused plant native from China and its fruits have a wide-spread use in confectionary and drinks. Remarkably, only little has been reported thus far on its bioactive properties, in contrast to those of the taxonomically related bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso). The present study aimed to investigate potential in vitro anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging properties of chinotto essential oils (CEOs) and to establish to what extent their composition and bioactivities are dependent on maturation. Essential oil from half ripe chinotto (CEO2) reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of inflammatory genes, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264,7 macrophages. Limonene, linalool, linalyl acetate, and γ-terpinene were found to be the main components in CEO2. Moreover, CEO2 showed high radical scavenging activity measured as Trolox equivalents (TE) against both 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS). These findings show that chinotto essential oil represents a valuable part of this fruit and warrants further in vivo studies to validate its anti-inflammatory potential. Full article
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