Special Issue "Water–Rock/Soil Interaction"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrogeology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 6832

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Xiaoli Liu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Hydraulic Engineering Department, School of Civil Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Interests: fractured rock; seepage field; slope engineering; stability analysis; coupling interaction
Prof. Dr. Jiangshan Li
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Wuhan Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China
Interests: polluted soil; leaching action; solute migration; heavy metal pollution; environmental protection
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Shuguang Zhang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Guangxi Key Laboratory of Geotechnical Mechanics and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, China
Interests: soft rock; hydrochemistry; underground water; moisture and heat migration; fluid-solid interaction

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water is an important factor to change the engineering properties of geotechnical media, which is a common problem that must be faced in engineering construction. At the same time, the interaction between water and geotechnical medium is an important part of geological hazard prevention. In human engineering activities, excavation can lead to geological disasters such as quicksand, water inrush and subsidence. Under extreme climate conditions, rainfall can lead to debris flow, landslide, leachate leaching and other ecological environmental problems. For soft rock, karst, swelling soil and collapsible soil, water is their natural enemy. Therefore, the struggle between human engineering activities and water is ongoing. In order to solve the above engineering problems, scientists in the field of geotechnical engineering have carried out a lot of research on soil–rock interaction, soil–water interaction, pollutant migration and other aspects, and achieved fruitful results. However, the engineering geological environment and human engineering activities are constantly changing, and new problems are constantly emerging. The basic theory, disaster mechanism, prevention technology and other problems need to be improved. Discussing these challenges, finding solutions, and presenting the latest results are the main purposes of this Special Issue.

The geological disasters caused by engineering activities have attracted much attention, and the interaction between water and geotechnical medium is the key problem to cause the disasters. The scope of the discussion includes but is not limited to (1) interaction between water and soil in slope engineering; (2) interaction of water and rock in underground engineering; (3) migration of leachate from waste slag; (4) effect of mining on groundwater; (5) effect of hydrochemical environment on geotechnical medium; (6) karst, debris flow, water inrush, etc.

Dr. Xiaoli Liu
Prof. Dr. Jiangshan Li
Prof. Dr. Shuguang Zhang
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • environmental geotechnology
  • water–soil interaction
  • geological disasters
  • groundwater
  • karst
  • debris flow
  • water inrush

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Article
Water Leakage and Crack Identification in Tunnels Based on Transfer-Learning and Convolutional Neural Networks
Water 2022, 14(9), 1462; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091462 - 03 May 2022
Viewed by 361
Abstract
In order to solve the problems of long artificial time consumption, the inability to standardize the degree of damage, and the difficulty of maintaining data in traditional tunnel disease detection methods, this paper proposes the use of Residual Network (ResNet) models for tunnel [...] Read more.
In order to solve the problems of long artificial time consumption, the inability to standardize the degree of damage, and the difficulty of maintaining data in traditional tunnel disease detection methods, this paper proposes the use of Residual Network (ResNet) models for tunnel water leakage and crack detection. ResNet proposes a residual learning framework to ease the training of networks that are deeper than those previously used. Furthermore, ResNet explicitly reformulates the layers as learning the residual functions of the reference layer inputs, rather than learning the unreferenced functions. The ResNet model is built on the Tensorflow Deep Learning (DL) framework and transfer-learning is used to optimize the model. The ResNet-V1 can be obtained by pre-training in ImageNet. The fully connected layers of the ResNet-V1 were modified to four classifications of tunnel disease. Then, the SoftMax function is used to recognize the tunnel diseases. Four network structures have been chosen, i.e., ResNet34 and ResNet50, with and without Transfer-learning, respectively. Those models were selected for testing and training on the sample dataset, and these four network structures were compared and analyzed using five types of evaluation indicators, which are the confusion matrix, accuracy, precision, recall ratio and F1. In identifying tunnel cracks and water leakage, the accuracy of ResNet50 and ResNet34 using the transfer-learning were 96.30% and 91.29%, and the accuracy of ResNet50 was 5.01% higher than that of ResNet34; for the network structure without the transfer-learning, the accuracy of ResNet50 was 90.36% and ResNet34’s accuracy was 87.87%. These data show that the accuracy of ResNet50 is higher than that of ResNet34 with or without the transfer-learning, and the deep structure framework is superior in the identification of tunnel diseases; secondly, comparing the network structures with and without the transfer-learning, it can be found that using the Transfer-Learning can improve the ResNet network’s accuracy for tunnel disease identification. The experiments and reliability analysis demonstrate the intelligent tunnel disease identification method proposed in this paper, and its good robustness and generalization performance. This method can be used for the rapid identification of cracks and water leakage in a tunnel survey, construction and maintenance, which has practical engineering implications for tunnel disease detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water–Rock/Soil Interaction)
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Article
Evaluation of the Karst Collapse Susceptibility of Subgrade Based on the AHP Method of ArcGIS and Prevention Measures: A Case Study of the Quannan Expressway, Section K1379+300-K1471+920
Water 2022, 14(9), 1432; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091432 - 29 Apr 2022
Viewed by 359
Abstract
In order to solve the problem of geological disasters caused by karst collapse in the K1379+300-K1471+920 section of the Quannan Expressway reconstruction and expansion, the evaluation of karst collapse susceptibility in the study area was carried out, and the corresponding prevention measures are [...] Read more.
In order to solve the problem of geological disasters caused by karst collapse in the K1379+300-K1471+920 section of the Quannan Expressway reconstruction and expansion, the evaluation of karst collapse susceptibility in the study area was carried out, and the corresponding prevention measures are put forward. Firstly, by identifying and determining the susceptible factors of karst collapse in the study area, three criterion layers, including the basic geological conditions, karst collapse impact, and human activities were selected, with a total of seven susceptible factors. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to assign values to each factor, and the evaluation model of karst collapse susceptibility in the study area was established. Then, using the spatial analysis function of ArcGIS, the seven susceptible factor partition maps were superimposed according to the evaluation model, and the evaluation map of the karst collapse susceptibility was obtained. The study area was divided into five levels of susceptibility: extremely susceptible areas (2.64–2.81), susceptible areas (2.43–2.64), somewhat susceptible areas (1.88–2.43), non-susceptible areas (1.04–1.88), and non-karst areas (0.51–1.04). The length of the extremely susceptible area is 11.90 km, 12.85% of the total length of the route, and the susceptible area, somewhat susceptible area, non-susceptible area, and non-karst area account for 25.05%, 39.54%, 11.01%, and 11.55% of the total length, respectively. The research results of the karst collapse susceptibility in the area are consistent with the actual situation. Finally, combined with the research results, prevention measures for karst collapse are put forward, which provide a reference for the prevention and mitigation of disaster in engineering construction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water–Rock/Soil Interaction)
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Article
Removal of Copper (II) from Aqueous Solution by a Hierarchical Porous Hydroxylapatite-Biochar Composite Prepared with Sugarcane Top Internode Biotemplate
Water 2022, 14(6), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060839 - 08 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 438
Abstract
Porous hydroxyapatite-biochar composites with layered microstructures (SC–HA/C) were prepared by carbonizing sugarcane stem nodes and then soaking them in lime water and (NH4)2HPO4 solutions in rotation. The surface area of SC–HA/C ranges from 8.52 to 28.44 m2 [...] Read more.
Porous hydroxyapatite-biochar composites with layered microstructures (SC–HA/C) were prepared by carbonizing sugarcane stem nodes and then soaking them in lime water and (NH4)2HPO4 solutions in rotation. The surface area of SC–HA/C ranges from 8.52 to 28.44 m2/g, and its microstructure inherits various macro-, meso-, and micro-pores in the cell walls of sugarcane and in the pits of the vessel walls. The maximum removal capacities were 11.50, 14.65, and 19.81 mg/g for the Cu (II) immobilization at 25 °C, 35 °C, and 45 °C with the solution Cu (II) concentration of 10~320 mg/L, respectively, which were in accordance with the copper sorption capacities of synthesized nano-hydroxylapatites. The Cu (II)-removal kinetics and isotherm followed the pseudo-second-order equation and the Langmuir equation very well. The formation of the Cu-containing hydroxylapatite solid solutions ((CuxCa1−x)5(PO4)3(OH)) through adsorption, ion exchange (x = 0.01~0.04), and dissolution-coprecipitation (x = 0.13~0.35) was the dominant process for the Cu (II) removal by the SC–HA/C composite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water–Rock/Soil Interaction)
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Article
Hydro-Damage Properties of Red-Bed Mudstone Failures Induced by Nonlinear Seepage and Diffusion Effect
Water 2022, 14(3), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030351 - 25 Jan 2022
Viewed by 709
Abstract
Nonlinear catastrophes caused by geological fluids are a fundamental issue in rock mechanics and the geoengineering hazard field. For the consideration of hydrodynamic force on red-bed mudstone softening damage, X-ray visualization tests on the fissure flow in mudstone block failure under hydrodynamic force [...] Read more.
Nonlinear catastrophes caused by geological fluids are a fundamental issue in rock mechanics and the geoengineering hazard field. For the consideration of hydrodynamic force on red-bed mudstone softening damage, X-ray visualization tests on the fissure flow in mudstone block failure under hydrodynamic force was performed in this study based on block scale, and the physical phenomena of fissure seepage and nonlinear diffusion were further explored. A new method for evaluating the hydro-damage degrees of rocks using an X-ray image analysis was proposed, and the quantitative relation of diffusion coefficients of hydro-damage and seepage was established. The research results revealed that the hydrodynamic force promoted the fluid-filled fissure behavior in mudstone specimen failure. Furthermore, the seepage and diffusion phenomena of fluid in rocks during failures were indicated using X-ray imaging. A dual mechanical behavior was presented in the nonlinear seepage and abnormal diffusion of a red mudstone geological body under hydrodynamic conditions. The damaged degree of mudstone was aggravated by the effect of hydrodynamic force, and the initial seepage–diffusion coefficient with respect to lower hydro-damage was larger than the final seepage–diffusion coefficient with respect to higher hydro-damage of rocks with a decreasing nonlinear trend. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water–Rock/Soil Interaction)
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Article
Dynamic Compression Characteristics and Failure Mechanism of Water-Saturated Granite
Water 2022, 14(2), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020216 - 12 Jan 2022
Viewed by 498
Abstract
For Fangshan granite in Beijing, the static compression and dynamic compression tests have been carried out separately under natural air drying and water saturation. It was found that the dynamic compressive strength of water-saturated granite is higher than that of air-dried granite, which [...] Read more.
For Fangshan granite in Beijing, the static compression and dynamic compression tests have been carried out separately under natural air drying and water saturation. It was found that the dynamic compressive strength of water-saturated granite is higher than that of air-dried granite, which is contrary to the result that the strength of water-saturated rock is lower than that of air-dried granite under static load. Furthermore, under the medium strain rate condition, when the strain rate is 85 s−1, the dynamic strength of natural air-dried granite could be increased by nearly 0.5 times compared with its static state. The dynamic strength of water-saturated granite could be increased by nearly 1–2 times compared with its static strength, which shows that water-saturated granite has stronger strain rate sensitivity than natural air-dried granite. Meanwhile, under impact loading, from the perspective of water-bearing granite the Bernoulli effect of fluid, the adhesion effect of free water and the Stefan effect of fluid in water-saturated granite were revealed, and found to be the essential reasons affecting the dynamic strength of water-saturated granite. The dynamic strength in different water-bearing states in the range of medium strain rate could then be analyzed in depth, providing a certain reference value for the strength design of water-bearing rock engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water–Rock/Soil Interaction)
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Article
Temperature Effect on Crack Evolution of Red Clay in Guilin
Water 2021, 13(21), 3025; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213025 - 28 Oct 2021
Viewed by 601
Abstract
As temperature changes, red clay is prone to shrink and generate cracks, which weaken the structure and the stability of soil mass, leading to various engineering problems, such as damage and instability in engineering structures. To study the effect of environmental temperature on [...] Read more.
As temperature changes, red clay is prone to shrink and generate cracks, which weaken the structure and the stability of soil mass, leading to various engineering problems, such as damage and instability in engineering structures. To study the effect of environmental temperature on the crack evolution of red clay, Guilin Red Clay was taken as the research object, and the saturated mud samples were dried at 23, 40, and 60 °C respectively. During the drying process of the samples, the change of moisture content and the evolution process of surface cracks were monitored by high-definition automatic photographing and a weighing device, which were also improved. We used PCAS software to process the crack image, extract various geometric elements, observe, and analyze the change rule of the cracks during the drying process of red clay at different temperatures. The test results show that the cracking evolution of red clay at different temperatures is mainly divided into three stages: (i) the initiation of micro cracks; (ii) crack progress; and (iii) crack stability. With the increase of environmental temperature, stage (i) took less time. Meanwhile, the growth rate of the crack area increased. The number of final crack blocks of soil is significantly reduced. Moreover, the final crack rate is obviously increased. When the temperature is either 23 °C or 40 °C, the initial cracks almost happen at the same time in the samples with different diameters. While the temperature is higher than 60 °C, the cracking time will delay with the increase of the diameter. In addition, the decrease in water content leads to a decrease in the curvature radius of soil particles. Under the joint action of the surface tension and the matrix suction, the distance between red clay particles becomes shorter, so the time for red clay to start to generate cracks will be shorter, and the final crack rate will increase with the increase in temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water–Rock/Soil Interaction)
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Article
Analysis of Bound Water and Its Influence Factors in Mixed Clayey Soils
Water 2021, 13(21), 2991; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13212991 - 22 Oct 2021
Viewed by 694
Abstract
Bound water is an important factor in controlling the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of clayey soils, and it plays an important role in geotechnical engineering disaster prevention and environmental protection. There are many factors (such as soil texture, mineral composition, specific surface [...] Read more.
Bound water is an important factor in controlling the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of clayey soils, and it plays an important role in geotechnical engineering disaster prevention and environmental protection. There are many factors (such as soil texture, mineral composition, specific surface area (SSA), organic matter content, porosity and so on) that affect bound water in natural clayey soils. However, the main factors are mineral composition and specific surface area (SSA). Experimental tests on specific surface area and isothermal adsorption of a series of artificial mixed clayey soils were carried out to determine the different types of bound water. On this basis, the relationship between the bound water of mixed clayey soils and influencing factors of mineral composition and specific surface area are discussed. The results show that relative humidities of RH = 0.90 and 0.98, in an isothermal adsorption method, are the boundary-dividing points between strongly bound water and weakly bound water, and between weakly bound water and free water, respectively. The bound water content of the mixed clayey soils increased linearly with the montmorillonite content and specific surface area. Clay’s mineral composition (montmorillonite) was found to be the most fundamental influencing factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water–Rock/Soil Interaction)
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Article
Effects of Geosynthetic Reinforcement on Tailings Accumulation Dams
Water 2021, 13(21), 2986; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13212986 - 22 Oct 2021
Viewed by 619
Abstract
Owing to the complexity of current reinforcement mechanisms, test results from existing models alone cannot provide a basis for the design of new tailings dam reinforcement projects. On-site reinforced tailings accumulation dam testing is thus required to further understand the reinforcement mechanism. In [...] Read more.
Owing to the complexity of current reinforcement mechanisms, test results from existing models alone cannot provide a basis for the design of new tailings dam reinforcement projects. On-site reinforced tailings accumulation dam testing is thus required to further understand the reinforcement mechanism. In this study, the influence of reinforcement on tailings dams and the variation law of pore water pressure (PWP) and internal pressure (IP) in the dam body after slurry discharge were analysed, and a comparative analysis was performed. The results showed that during the field test, the PWP and internal earth pressure of the accumulation dam after grouting gradually increased over time. Reinforcement can greatly reduce the PWP and IP of the reinforced dam; compared with geotextiles, the reinforcement effect of geogrids is slightly greater. Based on these results, we conclude that geosynthetics are a good choice for strengthening tailings accumulation dams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water–Rock/Soil Interaction)
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Article
Variation in Anisotropy with Dehydration in Layered Sandstone
Water 2021, 13(16), 2224; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162224 - 16 Aug 2021
Viewed by 686
Abstract
Anisotropy in rock could significantly affect the stability and safety of rock engineering by differing physical and mechanical properties of rock in different directions. Another major factor for physical and mechanical properties of rock is moisture state, however, whether anisotropy can be altered [...] Read more.
Anisotropy in rock could significantly affect the stability and safety of rock engineering by differing physical and mechanical properties of rock in different directions. Another major factor for physical and mechanical properties of rock is moisture state, however, whether anisotropy can be altered by it remains unclear. This study investigated variation in anisotropy (by conduct-ing ultrasonic tests) with moisture state (measured by nuclear magnetic resonance) in layered sandstones, and interpreted the phenomenon from the perspective of linking dehydration with pore structure of rock. The results show that (1) sandstone with more obvious bedding bears stronger anisotropy, the P-wave velocity in the perpendicular direction is much lower than that in the parallel direction. (2) The anisotropy index fluctuates around 1 with dehydration of sandstone without obvious bedding, while the anisotropy in sandstone with obvious bedding was significantly enhanced be dehydration. (3) During dehydration bulk water escaped firstly then capillary water and bound water. (4) Dehydration is controlled by the bedding structure. The different dehydration rates of pore water in different directions inevitably lead to heterogeneity in moisture state that change the anisotropy of the rock, which is reflected by the non-synchronous changes in P-wave velocities in different directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water–Rock/Soil Interaction)
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