Special Issue "System Dynamics Modelling for Water–Energy–Climate Nexus"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water-Energy Nexus".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021) | Viewed by 11862

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Oz Sahin
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Engineering & Built Environment/Cities Research Institute (CRI)/Griffith Climate Change Response Program, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia
Interests: systems thinking and system dynamics; climate change risk assessment; water, energy and climate nexus; decision support systems; integrated participatory modelling; modelling of socioeconomic/ecological systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Russell Richards
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. International Business, UQ School of Business, University of Queensland, Brisbane, ‎Australia
2. Coastal and Marine Research Centre (Adjunct), Griffith University, Queensland, Australia
Interests: systems thinking and system dynamics; coastal science; process-based modelling of socioecological systems; decision support systems; apps in research
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Exacerbated by climate change, water utilities are facing ever-evolving water security challenges resulting from a growing human population, highly variable and uncertain precipitation, drought, floods, and maintaining the environmental health of catchments and receiving waterways, to name a few. Collectively, these challenges put pressure on utilities to assess the capability of their existing supply infrastructure and future investment to fulfill future water demand.

In the context of water supply, energy interactions related to the energy–water nexus vary across spatial scales ranging from the household scale to the city scale.

Therefore, there is a growing recognition that the energy–water–climate nexus should be jointly considered as the interactions between these factors that span the use of water in hydropower, water heating systems, energy intensity of water treatment systems, energy intensity of water supply, and the use of energy in desalination plants.

Simulation modelling using systems thinking/system dynamics offers a platform for exploring a complex optimization problem of searching and finding the best option from all practical solutions where time dynamics are essential.

The SI editors invite submission of papers that provide research insights into this complex problem and case studies exploring the interactions in water–energy–climate for improving the use of models. We welcome papers from a wide range of domains, including: water supply and demand management, water quality, climate change adaptation planning for the water system, water supply and sanitation systems, and energy efficiency of water supply systems.

Dr. Oz Sahin
Dr. Russell Richards
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • systems models for water–energy–climate nexus
  • system dynamics modelling for water resources management
  • sustainable development of water and energy systems
  • decision support tools for water/energy systems
  • climate change adaptation planning for water systems
  • water conservation and green infrastructure systems
  • systems methods and tools for water–energy–climate interactions
  • optimization the water efficiency of energy production
  • energy efficiency of water treatment systems
  • resilience of energy and water systems

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Development of a Multi-Methodological Approach to Support the Management of Water Supply Systems
Water 2021, 13(12), 1655; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121655 - 13 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1138
Abstract
The benefits provided by a model of system dynamics are directly related to its correct construction. One of the main challenges in the process of building such models is that they must be able to effectively represent a specific problematic situation. Thus, the [...] Read more.
The benefits provided by a model of system dynamics are directly related to its correct construction. One of the main challenges in the process of building such models is that they must be able to effectively represent a specific problematic situation. Thus, the main objective of this study is to develop a multi-methodological approach, adapting the problem structuring method of strategic options development and analysis (SODA) in the initial stage of the system dynamics (SD) model. The role of each of them clearly represents the contribution of this study: the SODA in the structuring (representation) phase of the problem and proposition of alternatives and the SD in the evaluation phase of these alternatives. To illustrate its application, the multimethodological approach developed was used to simulate scenarios considering management strategies, and the various variables affecting a water supply system, including population growth, in order to evaluate more “assertive” water management strategy(s) that could have been adopted to address the water crisis (2012–2017) and analysis future scenarios. The results show that, based on the vision of specialists with enough experience for the case studied, it was possible to structure the problem, and therefore propose a set of strategies (alternatives), which were: water loss control, wastewater reuse, application of more efficient tariffs to reduce water waste, inter-basin water transfer, and awareness regarding the use of water resources. After the survey of alternatives, scenarios were simulated considering these water management strategies. Simulation results showed that actions taken on the demand side would only be effective for a short period of water scarcity, (for example, the impact of the scarcity-based tariff on water consumption reduction). For severe drought scenarios and with a water producing system heavily dependent on rainfall, such action would no longer be efficient. However, water supply management-oriented strategies, e.g., inter-basin water transfers (PISF) and wastewater reuse, are highly effective in securing water supply and preventing water supply collapse in the region. The development of this multi-methodological approach is expected to be useful to support managers in the decision-making and implementation of water management strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue System Dynamics Modelling for Water–Energy–Climate Nexus)
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Article
A System Dynamics Model of the Community-Based Rural Drinking Water Supply Program (PAMSIMAS) in Indonesia
Water 2021, 13(4), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040507 - 15 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1878
Abstract
The sustainability of the water supply program in developing countries is influenced by many inter-linked and dynamic factors, suggesting the need to analyse the system behaviour of the water supply program. However, no study analyses factors influencing the sustainability of rural drinking water [...] Read more.
The sustainability of the water supply program in developing countries is influenced by many inter-linked and dynamic factors, suggesting the need to analyse the system behaviour of the water supply program. However, no study analyses factors influencing the sustainability of rural drinking water supply programs holistically, and this study aims to fill that gap. This study utilized a system dynamics approach based on a case study of a community-based rural drinking water supply program (PAMSIMAS in Bahasa) in Magelang Regency, Indonesia. Five sustainability aspects were considered in the model development and simulation: financial, institutional, environmental, technical, and social aspects. Eight scenario analyses related to those five aspects were conducted. The causal loop diagrams suggest that the overall loop in the system is reinforcing, meaning that the improvement in one aspect will improve the overall condition of the system and deterioration in one aspect will reduce the overall condition of the system. Scenario analysis shows that external fund is critical to support the program financially, especially at the beginning of the project when the piped system is being built and water revenue is still low. Scenario and sensitivity analyses revealed that human factors, i.e., the performance of the water board and response and support from the community, positively influence the sustainability of the water supply program. Additionally, the water board plays a key role in accelerating the pipe network growth. Finally, this paper argues that visualising and simulating the causal relationship and dynamic behaviour of the rural water supply program are critical for water stakeholders to better design and implement the water supply program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue System Dynamics Modelling for Water–Energy–Climate Nexus)
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Article
Simulation Study on the Different Policies of Jiangsu Province for a Dynamic Balance of Water Resources under the Water–Energy–Food Nexus
Water 2020, 12(6), 1666; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061666 - 10 Jun 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1278
Abstract
In order to promote the efficient use of resources and the sustainable development of the economy in Jiangsu Province, it is particularly important to ease the contradiction between water supply and demand on the basis of realizing the coordinated development of the water–energy–food [...] Read more.
In order to promote the efficient use of resources and the sustainable development of the economy in Jiangsu Province, it is particularly important to ease the contradiction between water supply and demand on the basis of realizing the coordinated development of the water–energy–food (WEF) nexus. With the aim of a dynamic balance of water resources, this paper used system dynamics (SD) to build a WEF nexus SD model that focused on studying the specific supply-and-demand mechanism of water resources in each subsystem. Then, Jiangsu Province was taken as an example to perform simulation research on the regional water dynamic balance to explore effective policies for increasing water supply and decreasing water demand. The results showed that the imbalance of water resources will remain severe in the next few years. To relieve the imbalance, it will be helpful to promote the energy utilization of straw, improve the irrigation efficiency, adjust the crop planting structure, and require residents to strictly follow the water quota. An important advancement in this study is the simulation of the water resources supply-and-demand mechanism in each subsystem from the perspective of the WEF nexus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue System Dynamics Modelling for Water–Energy–Climate Nexus)
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Article
Climate Change Impacts on Hydropower in Yunnan, China
Water 2020, 12(1), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010197 - 10 Jan 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2110
Abstract
Climate change could have dire effects on hydropower systems, especially in southwest China, where hydropower dominates the regional power system. This study examines two large cascade hydropower systems in Yunnan province in southwest China for 10 climate change projections made with 5 global [...] Read more.
Climate change could have dire effects on hydropower systems, especially in southwest China, where hydropower dominates the regional power system. This study examines two large cascade hydropower systems in Yunnan province in southwest China for 10 climate change projections made with 5 global climate models (GCMs) and 2 representative concentration pathways (RCPs) under Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). First, a back propagation neural network rain-runoff model is built for each hydropower station to estimate inflows with climate change. Then, a progressive optimality algorithm maximizes hydropower generation for each projection. The results show generation increasing in each GCM projection, but increasing more in GCMs under scenario RCP8.5. However, yearly generation fluctuates more: generation decreases dramatically with potential for electricity shortages in dry years and more electricity as well as spill during wet years. Average annual spill, average annual inflow and average storage have similar trends. The analysis indicates that a planned large dam on the upper Jinsha River would increase seasonal regulation ability, increase hydropower generation, and decrease spill. Increased turbine capacity increases generation slightly and decreases spill for the Lancang River. Results from this study demonstrate effects of climate change on hydropower systems and identify which watersheds might be more vulnerable, along with some actions that could help adapt to climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue System Dynamics Modelling for Water–Energy–Climate Nexus)
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Article
Building a System Dynamics Model to Support Water Management: A Case Study of the Semiarid Region in the Brazilian Northeast
Water 2019, 11(12), 2513; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122513 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2068
Abstract
In recent centuries, water consumption rates have more than doubled and the population growth rate is rising constantly. As a result, water scarcity is now one of the main problems to be faced, mainly in semiarid regions. In light of such a dilemma, [...] Read more.
In recent centuries, water consumption rates have more than doubled and the population growth rate is rising constantly. As a result, water scarcity is now one of the main problems to be faced, mainly in semiarid regions. In light of such a dilemma, this study aims to develop a system dynamics model in order to evaluate the water system in the semiarid region of the state of Paraíba—located in the Brazilian Northeast—and it focus on the following two issues: (1) measures that could have been taken with respect to the recent water crisis (2012–2017); (2) simulating water availability up to 2025. It was observed that, despite the options of in-demand management tools being efficient solutions for water scarcity in the short term (e.g., the influence of scarcity-based tariffs in reducing water use), such tools would not suffice in a context of severe drought within a water-providing system that depends heavily on rainfall. However, certain policies involving water-supply management (e.g., wastewater reuse and inter-basin water transfer) are very effective in maintaining water supply and avoiding a water collapse in the region. Furthermore, employing the Monte Carlo approach in simulating the system dynamic proved that the water supply is sensitive to scarcity-based tariffs, wastewater reuse, and inter-basin water transfer. An important advancement in this study was the simulation of a methodology for pricing that encourages rational use of water-based on its scarcity, which in turn increases revenue and investment in other water-management strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue System Dynamics Modelling for Water–Energy–Climate Nexus)
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Review

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Review
Identifying Capabilities and Potentials of System Dynamics in Hydrology and Water Resources as a Promising Modeling Approach for Water Management
Water 2020, 12(5), 1432; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051432 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2343
Abstract
Agriculture is the most important sector with regard to water resources management due to its social, economic, hydrological, and environmental aspects, and many scholars and researchers have been driven to investigate the dynamic interrelationships among hydrological, environmental, and socioeconomic factors affecting agriculture. The [...] Read more.
Agriculture is the most important sector with regard to water resources management due to its social, economic, hydrological, and environmental aspects, and many scholars and researchers have been driven to investigate the dynamic interrelationships among hydrological, environmental, and socioeconomic factors affecting agriculture. The system dynamics (SD) approach has become widely used because of its merits and benefits as a tool to deal with complex, dynamic problems and systems with many aspects and components that are involved and must be understood to ensure sound decisions regarding water and hydrological systems. Although agricultural water management needs to be studied as a main part of water management, socioeconomic management, and environmental management requiring the use of SD, this review shows that SD is currently used to a limited extent in terms of agricultural water management. This paper sheds light on the studies and investigations on the use of SD in the water sector and highlights the strengths of SD in order to encourage researchers to use this promising method to manage such a vital resource. Accordingly, this review seeks to include a comprehensive and up-to-date survey of existing publications and scholarly papers on the use of SD modeling as an effective technique for dealing with different problems associated with planning, management, and analysis of hydrology and water resources systems. Recent trends in the integration of SD with other modeling systems, such as artificial intelligence systems, are discussed along with the limitations and challenges facing application. This article makes a new contribution by giving a foundation of references and studies for scholars, researchers, and academics which encourages future investigation in employing the SD approach to hydrology and water resources management and planning, especially with agricultural water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue System Dynamics Modelling for Water–Energy–Climate Nexus)
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