Special Issue "Interactions of the Terrestrial Hydrologic, Energy, and Biogeochemical Cycles"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Stefan Kollet Website E-Mail
Forschungszentrum Jülich IBG-3, Wilhelm-Johnen-Straße, 52428 Jülich, Germany
Interests: interactions of the terrestrial hydrologic and energy cycles; watershed hydrodynamics; scientific computing in HPC environments; surface water–groundwater interactions; subsurface flow and transport (mass, energy); thermodynamics of soil moisture; experimental and theoretical aquifer hydraulics
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Clemens Simmer Website E-Mail
Meteorological Institute, Bonn University, Bonn
Interests: interactions of the terrestrial hydrologic and energy cycles; radar meteorology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The terrestrial hydrologic, energy, and biogeochemical (HEB) cycles are intrinsically coupled via non-linear processes acting across a number of space and time scales. In the past, considerable progress has been made in characterizing the different cycles utilizing in situ and remotely sensed observations and models. Recently, strong focus has been placed on integrating the HEB cycles in a systems theoretical and experimental approach accounting for the non-linear, two-way feebacks across different terrestrial compratments from groundwater across the land surface into the atomsphere including also human activities. This Special Issue solicits contributions from observational and modeling studies, which advance our understanding of the coupled HEB cycles and improve our models and predictions including uncertainty estimates. Special focus is placed on novel data analytics and assimilation technologies to identify, e.g., long and short range correlations of non-linear processes and merge efficiently models with observations.

Prof. Stefan Kollet
Prof. Dr. Clemens Simmer
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • terrestrial hydrologic energy, and biogeochemical cycles
  • groundwater, land surface, atmosphere; observations
  • integrated modeling
  • data assimilation

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Using a Distributed Hydrologic Model to Improve the Green Infrastructure Parameterization Used in a Lumped Model
Water 2018, 10(12), 1756; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121756 - 29 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Stormwater represents a complex and dynamic component of the urban water cycle. Hydrologic models have been used to study pre- and post-development hydrology, including green infrastructure. However, many of these models are applied in urban environments with very little formal verification and/or benchmarking. [...] Read more.
Stormwater represents a complex and dynamic component of the urban water cycle. Hydrologic models have been used to study pre- and post-development hydrology, including green infrastructure. However, many of these models are applied in urban environments with very little formal verification and/or benchmarking. Here we present the results of an intercomparison study between a distributed model (Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis, GSSHA) and a lumped parameter model (the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Storm Water Management Model, EPA-SWMM) for an urban system. The distributed model scales to higher resolutions, allows for rainfall to be spatially and temporally variable, and solves the shallow water equations. The lumped model uses a non-linear reservoir method to determine runoff rates and volumes. Each model accounts for infiltration, initial abstraction losses, but solves the watershed flow equations in a different way. We use an urban case study with representation of green infrastructure to test the behavior of both models. Results from this case study show that when calibrated, the lumped model is able to represent green infrastructure for small storm events at lower implementation levels. However, as both storm intensity and amount of green infrastructure implementation increase, the lumped model diverges from the distributed model, overpredicting the benefits of green infrastructure on the system. We performed benchmark test cases to evaluate and understand key processes within each model. The results show similarities between the models for the standard cases for simple infiltration. However, as the domain increased in complexity the lumped model diverged from the distributed model. This indicates differences in how the models represent the physical processes and numerical solution approaches used between each. When the distributed model results were used to modify the representation of impermeable surface connections within the lumped model, the results were improved. These results demonstrate how complex, distributed models can be used to improve the formulation of lumped models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Introduction of an Experimental Terrestrial Forecasting/Monitoring System at Regional to Continental Scales Based on the Terrestrial Systems Modeling Platform (v1.1.0)
Water 2018, 10(11), 1697; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111697 - 21 Nov 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Operational weather and flood forecasting has been performed successfully for decades and is of great socioeconomic importance. Up to now, forecast products focus on atmospheric variables, such as precipitation, air temperature and, in hydrology, on river discharge. Considering the full terrestrial system from [...] Read more.
Operational weather and flood forecasting has been performed successfully for decades and is of great socioeconomic importance. Up to now, forecast products focus on atmospheric variables, such as precipitation, air temperature and, in hydrology, on river discharge. Considering the full terrestrial system from groundwater across the land surface into the atmosphere, a number of important hydrologic variables are missing especially with regard to the shallow and deeper subsurface (e.g., groundwater), which are gaining considerable attention in the context of global change. In this study, we propose a terrestrial monitoring/forecasting system using the Terrestrial Systems Modeling Platform (TSMP) that predicts all essential states and fluxes of the terrestrial hydrologic and energy cycles from groundwater into the atmosphere. Closure of the terrestrial cycles provides a physically consistent picture of the terrestrial system in TSMP. TSMP has been implemented over a regional domain over North Rhine-Westphalia and a continental domain over Europe in a real-time forecast/monitoring workflow. Applying a real-time forecasting/monitoring workflow over both domains, experimental forecasts are being produced with different lead times since the beginning of 2016. Real-time forecast/monitoring products encompass all compartments of the terrestrial system including additional hydrologic variables, such as plant available soil water, groundwater table depth, and groundwater recharge and storage. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Urban Irrigation Suppresses Land Surface Temperature and Changes the Hydrologic Regime in Semi-Arid Regions
Water 2018, 10(11), 1563; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111563 - 02 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Outdoor water use for irrigation constitutes a substantial urban water flux yet its impact on the land surface remains poorly quantified. This study analyzes the impact of irrigation on land surface temperatures and the hydrologic regime of a large, semi-arid urban metropolis. Using [...] Read more.
Outdoor water use for irrigation constitutes a substantial urban water flux yet its impact on the land surface remains poorly quantified. This study analyzes the impact of irrigation on land surface temperatures and the hydrologic regime of a large, semi-arid urban metropolis. Using remotely sensed products, municipal water use data, and simulations with a coupled land surface-hydrologic model we find significant impacts on both land surface temperatures and the hydrologic dynamics of the study domain, Los Angeles, CA. The analysis of remotely sensed land surface temperature finds a decrease of up to 3.2 ± 0.02 K between low and high irrigation areas of similar land cover. These temperature differences, caused by a human-induced flux, are on par with estimates of the urban heat island effect and regional warming trends; simulations are able to capture this difference but underestimate absolute values throughout. Assessment of change in irrigation volume and timing through simulations show that irrigation timing has a small impact (<±2%) on evapotranspiration and runoff. Furthermore, relatively low irrigation volumes push the semi-arid urban environment into a sub-humid regime. Full article
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