Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Soil and Groundwater

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Soil and Water".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 December 2023) | Viewed by 5437

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute for Water and Environmental Engineering (IIAMA), Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain
Interests: groundwater; stochastic modeling; simulation; optimization; inverse modeling; environmental science; environmental impact assessment; water resources; engineering

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Guest Editor
Institute of Water and Environmental Engineering. Polytechnic University of Valencia (IIAMA-UPV), 46022 Valencia, Spain
Interests: solid waste management; environmental engineering; landfill design; groundwater; environmental impact assessment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Institute for Water and Environmental Engineering (IIAMA), Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain
Interests: hydrogeology; numerical modelling; fate and transport of pollutants

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Soil and groundwater pollution is one of the most relevant environmental problems associated with urban, industrial, and agricultural activities. Numerical modeling techniques are considered to be essential tools used to analyze environmental risks and ensure the correct design of remediation strategies. These hydrogeological modeling techniques refer to the analysis of fate and transport of pollutants, both in the aquifer (saturated zone) and in the soil (vadose zone).

The purpose of this Special Issue is to show the current state of recent research related to the development and the application of numerical models to real case studies. Pollution problems may derive from organic contaminants (e.g., VOC's, pesticides, hydrocarbons) or inorganic contaminants (e.g. salts, heavy metals, radionuclides).

Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Groundwater flow and transport modeling in the saturated zone;
  • Unsaturated flow and transport modeling;
  • The development of novel models to address soil/groundwater heavy metal pollution;
  • The development of novel models to address soil/groundwater pesticide pollution;
  • The development of novel models to address soil/groundwater NAPLs pollution;
  • The use of numerical modeling techniques to the design of remediation techniques: successful case studies.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Prof. Dr. Jose E. Capilla
Prof. Dr. Javier Rodrigo Ilarri
Prof. Dr. María Elena Rodrigo Clavero
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • groundwater
  • soil
  • pollutants
  • modelling
  • flow
  • transport
  • remediation.

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 3918 KiB  
Article
Experiment and Simulation of Groundwater Salt Transport Based on Different Contact Relations in Heterogeneous Soil Layers
by Xiaohui Lu, Yushu Hu, Ziyang Yang, Abdou Raouf, Mengen Song and Lei Wang
Water 2024, 16(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010047 - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 971
Abstract
With the expansion of reserve cultivated land resources in coastal saline–alkali areas, the problem of soil salinization is becoming more and more prominent. In order to reveal the influence of different soil media and contact modes on soil water movement, a two-domain Hydrus-3D [...] Read more.
With the expansion of reserve cultivated land resources in coastal saline–alkali areas, the problem of soil salinization is becoming more and more prominent. In order to reveal the influence of different soil media and contact modes on soil water movement, a two-domain Hydrus-3D model was established to verify its performance in heterogeneous soil layers, and the characteristics of water, salt, and wet peak transport of surface soil and sandy soil under horizontal contact and inclined contact conditions were analyzed through experiments and simulations. The measured data show that in horizontal contact mode, probe 3 and probe 2 are close to the interface of the two layers of soil, and their maximum values are measured in about 60 min. The time difference between probe 1 and probe 2 is about 15 min. In the inclined contact mode, probe 4 in the topsoil reached 45% in 10 min and remained stable; the peak lag time of probes 3 and 2 was 10 min, and the peak lag time of probes 2 and 1 was 15 min; the water in the surface soil gradually increases and then stabilizes; and the water in the sand soil is similar to the normal curve. The salt characteristics in the surface soil are similar to the normal curve, while the salt characteristics in the sandy soil gradually increase and then stabilize. The simulation results show that the water content in the topsoil is more than 40%, and the maximum water content in the center of the sand is only 36.9%, which is roughly the same as the experimental results. The results showed that the Hydrus-3D model had a good simulation effect on the groundwater salt transport of heterogeneous soil under two contact methods. The RMSE value and E value are close to 0 and 1, respectively, indicating that the simulation has good feasibility and can be applied to the simulation of water and salt transport processes under different contact modes of soil media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Soil and Groundwater)
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19 pages, 7857 KiB  
Article
Environmental Assessment of Soil and Groundwater Pollution by BTEX Leaching in Valencia Region (Spain)
by Javier Rodrigo-Ilarri, María-Elena Rodrigo-Clavero, José E. Capilla and Luis Romero-Ballesteros
Water 2023, 15(18), 3279; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183279 - 16 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1372
Abstract
The impact of hydrocarbon spills in the unsaturated zone is a significant environmental concern, particularly in locations where contamination arises from leaks in underground fuel storage tanks (USTs). This paper presents the outcomes achieved through the utilization of VLEACH, a finite-difference numerical model, [...] Read more.
The impact of hydrocarbon spills in the unsaturated zone is a significant environmental concern, particularly in locations where contamination arises from leaks in underground fuel storage tanks (USTs). This paper presents the outcomes achieved through the utilization of VLEACH, a finite-difference numerical model, to assess the concentrations of organic contaminants in the solid, liquid, and gas phases within the vadose zone. Additionally, it evaluates the mass transfer of pollutants to the aquifer as part of an environmental assessment for the placement of a forthcoming service station. The study encompasses an analysis of 18 scenarios under realistic conditions based on actual field data. These scenarios were constructed, taking into account various factors, including the nature of the leak (one-time or permanent), the depth of the phreatic level, and the soil conditions and properties. The results highlight the potential environmental consequences of a permanent leak as compared to those resulting from a specific accident. The findings further emphasize the substantial influence of soil moisture on transport phenomena within the vadose zone. Variations in soil moisture significantly alter hydraulic conductivity, impact magnitudes, transport velocities, and even the predominant transport mechanism. Consequently, precise delineation of soil moisture becomes a crucial parameter in such simulations. Additionally, it has been observed that each component of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) experiences varying transport velocities through the vadose zone. Benzene, having a greater propensity to concentrate in the liquid and gas phases, exhibits the swiftest movement through the vadose zone. The detection of benzene in aquifers can serve as an indicator of the potential future arrival of the remaining BTEX compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Soil and Groundwater)
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24 pages, 2554 KiB  
Article
Low-Quality Irrigation Water Treated Using Waste Biofilters
by Teresa Rodríguez-Espinosa, Ana Pérez Gimeno, María Belén Almendro Candel, Ignacio Gómez Lucas and Jose Navarro-Pedreño
Water 2023, 15(13), 2464; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15132464 - 05 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1025
Abstract
Although in water-deficient regions, agricultural runoff, drainage water or surplus irrigation water is often used, there are constraints related to its quality to be considered (salinity, nutrients and pollutants). Thus, it is necessary to treat surplus irrigation water considering the low-energy supply systems [...] Read more.
Although in water-deficient regions, agricultural runoff, drainage water or surplus irrigation water is often used, there are constraints related to its quality to be considered (salinity, nutrients and pollutants). Thus, it is necessary to treat surplus irrigation water considering the low-energy supply systems available to farmers. This work focuses on a nature-based water treatment system consisting of two prototypes of anaerobic bioreactors with horizontal or vertical flow. To enhance the circular economy strategy, two different wastes (coarse sand and almond pruning) were used as bioreactor components. The aim of the research was to monitor the quality of the water (pH, electrical conductivity, suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, alkalinity and bicarbonate, carbonate and nitrogen contents) before and after the treatment. All the parameters studied (except chemical oxygen demand) were reduced by the treatments, but with large variations. Furthermore, there was 100% nitrogen reduction in the horizontal water flow treatment with the filter bed formed by coarse sand and almond pruning. It was observed that the variation in the concentration of some parameters was associated with the type of filter bed (i.e., the C/N ratio of the residue) and with the design for water circulation flow. Although the findings are promising, further research is needed to achieve reductions in all studied parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Soil and Groundwater)
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14 pages, 3909 KiB  
Article
A Quantitative Evaluation Method for Xanthan Enhanced Transport Uniformity and Factors Affecting This Process
by Yiti Wang, Hongbo Zhou, Jiajun Chen and Qi Xu
Water 2022, 14(17), 2630; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14172630 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1351
Abstract
Strengthening the transmission uniformity of remedial amendments in heterogeneous porous media is important for improving in situ groundwater remediation efficiency. This study developed a characterization method to represent the improvement of transmission uniformity in heterogeneous media using the degree of difference in hydraulic [...] Read more.
Strengthening the transmission uniformity of remedial amendments in heterogeneous porous media is important for improving in situ groundwater remediation efficiency. This study developed a characterization method to represent the improvement of transmission uniformity in heterogeneous media using the degree of difference in hydraulic conductivity of porous media between xanthan solution and pure water, which was defined as the transmission uniformity control coefficient U. Research results showed that U of medium sand/fine sand (2.44) was the most ideal among the three medium combinations tested when the concentration of xanthan solution was 100 mg/L. Then, factors that may influence U were analyzed, and the obtained results showed that xanthan’s control ability is affected by permeability contrast (media combinations) and polymer concentration. Generally, when concentrations were in the range of 100~800 mg/L, Umf > Ucf > Ucm. Finally, the actual degree of polymer propulsion under different concentrations and media combinations was analyzed, and the obtained results showed that as different media were varied in permeability change degree, while the migration speed presented an overall decrease as the concentration increased, where the maximum migration front in the low-permeability zone (LPZ) was more obvious than that in the high permeability zone (HPZ). This was consistent with the results characterized by U. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Soil and Groundwater)
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