Chemical and Nonchemical Water Treatment and Applications

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2021) | Viewed by 23504

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School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
Interests: computational methods; stochastic methods; large-scale environmental systems; climate change and sea level rise; water and wastewater treatment; water and health systems policy, adaptation, and mitigation; ecosystem restoration and resilience analysis; sensors and critical infrastructure protection and management; trans-border water assessments and management; population dynamics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water treatment technologies have evolved over the past several decades as our understanding of chemical, nonchemical, and mechanistic design of treatment systems have progressed significantly. Currently, ozone treatment and UV treatment are becoming the preferred alternatives for many applications over traditional procedures for which disinfection byproducts and their health effects are creating concerns. Applications of chemical ozone treatment or nonchemical UV treatment alternatives are appearing as alternatives which may eliminate these concerns. Applications of these technologies include industrial applications, drinking water disinfection and treatment, bottle rinsing, bleaching, ballast water treatment, wastewater treatment, and many other applications. Thus, it may be important to have a second look at chemical and nonchemical water treatment technologies. Research findings in these areas are increasing exponentially, with very positive and encouraging results that may guide us in our applications. Given the increasing number of emerging contaminants and their illusive ecological and health effect issues, and the advances made in electronic technologies for UV applications, the topic of chemical and nonchemical treatment is a very active research area for both engineers and scientists. This Special Issue is included to the Water Journal to gather and present the most recent research and applications within this broad research area of water treatment. In this Special Issue, the general and inclusive topics of CHEMICAL AND NONCHEMICAL WATER TREATMENT AND APPLICATIONS has been selected as the emphasis. We are looking forward to receiving your contributions to this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Mustafa M. Aral
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • chemical treatment;
  • nonchemical treatment;
  • ozone;
  • chlorine;
  • ultraviolete (UV);
  • LED;
  • disinfection byproducts;
  • contact tank;
  • simulation.

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 3621 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Effect of Plasma-Activated Tap Water on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans
by William Chiappim, Aline da Graça Sampaio, Felipe Miranda, Mariana Fraga, Gilberto Petraconi, Argemiro da Silva Sobrinho, Konstantin Kostov, Cristiane Koga-Ito and Rodrigo Pessoa
Water 2021, 13(11), 1480; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111480 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3950
Abstract
In this study, the potential antimicrobial activity of plasma-activated tap water (PAW) was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. For this, PAW was prepared in a gliding arc plasma system using two treatment conditions: stagnant water and [...] Read more.
In this study, the potential antimicrobial activity of plasma-activated tap water (PAW) was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. For this, PAW was prepared in a gliding arc plasma system using two treatment conditions: stagnant water and water stirring by a magnetic stirrer, called moving water. Subsequently, their oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), pH, electrical conductivity (σ), and total dissolved solids (TDS) were monitored in different areas of the sample divided according to the depth of the beaker. It was observed that PAW obtained in dynamic conditions showed a more uniform acidity among the evaluated areas with pH 3.53 and ORP of 215 mV. Finally, standardized suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Escherichia coli (ATCC 10799), and Candida albicans (SC 5314) were treated with PAW, and the reduction of viable cells determined the antimicrobial effect. Our results indicate that the tap water, activated by plasma treatment using gliding arc, is an excellent inactivation agent in the case of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. On the other hand, no significant antimicrobial activity was achieved for Candida albicans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Nonchemical Water Treatment and Applications)
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17 pages, 11060 KiB  
Article
A Perforated Baffle Design to Improve Mixing in Contact Tanks
by Nazhmiddin Nasyrlayev, M. Anil Kizilaslan, A. Tolga Kurumus, Ender Demirel and Mustafa M. Aral
Water 2020, 12(4), 1022; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041022 - 02 Apr 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 15563
Abstract
In this study, a perforated baffle design is proposed to improve mixing in contact tanks. Turbulent flow through the perforated baffle is studied at the perforation hole scale. The contribution of jets emerging from the perforations to the mixing process is evaluated in [...] Read more.
In this study, a perforated baffle design is proposed to improve mixing in contact tanks. Turbulent flow through the perforated baffle is studied at the perforation hole scale. The contribution of jets emerging from the perforations to the mixing process is evaluated in terms of standard mixing indexes for various perforation parameters, such as the solidity ratio and hole diameter. Based on numerical simulation results, the two sets of perforated baffles that yielded the highest performance were manufactured from polycarbonate and tracer studies were conducted on a laboratory model. Comparison of numerical and experimental results demonstrates that the numerical model developed is reliable in simulating the flow through the perforated baffles and the associated mixing level in the contact tank. Numerical simulations indicate that the jet flow structure through the perforated baffle penetrates to the recirculation zones in the neighboring chambers and turns the dead zones into active mixing zones. Furthermore, large scale turbulent eddies shed by the perforations contribute to the mixing process in the chambers of the tank. With the use of the perforated baffle design, it is shown that the hydraulic efficiency of the tank can be improved from average to superior according to the baffling factor, and the associated mixing in the proposed design can be improved by 31% according to the Morrill index. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Nonchemical Water Treatment and Applications)
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11 pages, 4365 KiB  
Article
An Effective Method to Remove Antimony in Water by Using Iron-Based Coagulants
by Kuan Cheng, Hongtao Wang, Jie Li and Fengting Li
Water 2020, 12(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010066 - 23 Dec 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3466
Abstract
The effectiveness of antimony (Sb) removal by using iron-based coagulants was investigated in this study. The effects of pH, coagulant types and dose, equilibrium concentration, co-existing humic acid (HA) and anions, and oxidation process were studied. Effective Sb removal was achieved by using [...] Read more.
The effectiveness of antimony (Sb) removal by using iron-based coagulants was investigated in this study. The effects of pH, coagulant types and dose, equilibrium concentration, co-existing humic acid (HA) and anions, and oxidation process were studied. Effective Sb removal was achieved by using Fe(III)-based coagulants. However, the removal efficiency of Sb by using Fe(II)-based coagulants was very low. The removal capacity of Sb fitted the Sips adsorption isotherm well, which revealed that the heterogeneous adsorption process onto the formed hydrous ferric oxide played an important role in Sb removal, and the mechanism was further supported by Fourier transform infrared spectrum analysis. Sb removal was inhibited by the presence of HA and phosphate, as well as oxidation and aeration. Therefore, coagulation by using Fe(III)-based coagulants without oxidation is an effective and promising method for removing Sb in aqueous solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Nonchemical Water Treatment and Applications)
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