Numerical Methods for the Solution of Hydraulic Engineering Problems

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2023) | Viewed by 16269

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Civil, Environmental, Land, Building Engineering and Chemistry—DICATECh, Polytechnic University of Bari, Bari, Italy
Interests: hydraulics; fluid mechanics; environmental hydraulics; maritime hydraulics; contaminant transport; physical models in hydraulics; numerical models in hydraulics; climate changes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since fluid dynamics problems are usually too complex to be solved by analytical methods because they involve many different issues due to their nonlinearity, research has recently focused on computer power and the continuous improvement of numerical codes.  Today, numerical methods are becoming the main tool used by scientists and researchers to study complex problems in several fields, such as aerospace, civil, mechanical, and biomedical engineering. New research challenges in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are ongoing; in particular, recent research has focused on coupling the Eulerian–Lagrangian techniques to combine the advantages of individual models into a single model, thus increasing the accuracy, efficiency, and regime of validity.

This Special Issue will collect papers showing the applicability of the Eulerian and Lagrangian methods to solve complex engineering problems from different fields with an emphasis on fluid-dynamics problems with highly nonlinear deformations, such as the breaking and impact of waves, hydraulic jumps, multi-phase flows, and fluid–structure interaction (FSI) problems.

I cordially invite you to participate in this Special Issue by presenting your original, recent results with numerical approaches related to this topic and showing new research challenges.

Dr. Diana De Padova
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • hydraulic engineering problems
  • numerical simulation
  • Eulerian method
  • Lagrangian method
  • fluid dynamics
  • vorticity generation mechanism in flows

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 6085 KiB  
Article
Modeling of the Fate and Behaviors of an Oil Spill in the Azemmour River Estuary in Morocco
by Nisrine Iouzzi, Mouldi Ben Meftah, Mehdi Haffane, Laila Mouakkir, Mohamed Chagdali and Michele Mossa
Water 2023, 15(9), 1776; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091776 - 5 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2279
Abstract
Oil spills are one of the most hazardous pollutants in marine environments with potentially devastating impacts on ecosystems, human health, and socio-economic sectors. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance to establish a prompt and efficient system for forecasting and monitoring such spills, [...] Read more.
Oil spills are one of the most hazardous pollutants in marine environments with potentially devastating impacts on ecosystems, human health, and socio-economic sectors. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance to establish a prompt and efficient system for forecasting and monitoring such spills, in order to minimize their impacts. The present work focuses on the numerical simulation of the drift and spread of oil slicks in marine environments. The specific area of interest is the Azemmour estuary, located on Morocco’s Atlantic Coast. According to the environmental sensitivity index (ESI), given its geographical location at the intersection of the World’s Shipping Lines of oil transport, this area, as with many other sites in Morocco, has been classified as a high-risk area for oil spill accidents. By taking into account a range of factors, including the ocean currents, the weather conditions, and the oil properties, detailed numerical simulations were conducted, using the hydrodynamic TELEMAC-2D model, to predict the behavior and spread of an oil spill event in the aforementioned coastal region. The simulation results help to understand the spatial–temporal evolution of the spilled oil, the effect of wind on the spreading process, as well as the coastal areas that are most likely to be affected in the event of an oil spill accident. The simulations were performed with and without wind effects. The results showed that three days after the oil spill only 31% of the spilled oil remained on the sea surface. The wind was found to be the main factor responsible for oil drifting offshore. The results indicated that rapid action is needed to address the oil spill before it causes significant environmental damage and makes the oil cleanup process more challenging and expensive. The results of the present study are highly valuable for the management and prevention of environmental disasters in the Azemmour estuary area. The findings can be used to assess the efficacy of various response strategies, such as containment and cleanup measures, and to develop more effective emergency response plans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Methods for the Solution of Hydraulic Engineering Problems)
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14 pages, 5079 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Frost Heave Deformation of Concrete-Lined Canal Considering Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Coupling Effect
by Renjie Teng, Xin Gu, Xiaozhou Xia and Qing Zhang
Water 2023, 15(7), 1412; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15071412 - 5 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1932
Abstract
This work presents a comprehensive coupled thermal-hydro-mechanical model to explore the frost heave mechanism of the concrete-lined canal under a freeze–thaw environment. Unlike previous models that regard concrete as a homogeneous material, this model considers concrete a porous medium and considers the effect [...] Read more.
This work presents a comprehensive coupled thermal-hydro-mechanical model to explore the frost heave mechanism of the concrete-lined canal under a freeze–thaw environment. Unlike previous models that regard concrete as a homogeneous material, this model considers concrete a porous medium and considers the effect of the concrete pore structure, as well as the water content, ice content, and ice-water phase transition, on the mechanical deformation of the canal. Firstly, based on the theories of unsaturated soil mechanics, thermodynamics, and poroelasticity, the thermal-hydro-mechanical coupling equations of the soil under the freeze–thaw condition are established. Then, based on the theories of thermodynamics, poroelasticity, and permeability mechanics of porous media, the thermal-hydro-mechanical coupling equations of the concrete under the freeze–thaw condition are established. Finally, the freeze–thaw simulation of a canal is carried out and compared with the referred indoor model test, in which the evolution behavior of temperature, frost depth, and frost heave deformation of the canal are studied. The results show that the freezing process of the soil foundation is a unidirectional process that develops from the surface to the bottom, and the thawing process of the soil foundation is a bidirectional process that thaws from the surface and bottom to the center. The frost heave deformation of the soil foundation at the 1/2~1/3 slope height area is the largest, which may easily lead to frost heave damage to the concrete lining in this area. The frost heave deformation of the canal obtained by the numerical simulation is consistent with the experimental results, which illustrates the validity of the established model for predicting the frost heave deformation of concrete-lined canals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Methods for the Solution of Hydraulic Engineering Problems)
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16 pages, 9554 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Lockdown Effects on a Highly Contaminated Coastal Site: The Mar Piccolo Basin of Taranto
by Diana De Padova, Antonella Di Leo and Michele Mossa
Water 2023, 15(6), 1220; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061220 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1751
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a dramatic socio-economic impact on mankind; however, the COVID-19 lockdown brought a drastic reduction of anthropic impacts on the environment worldwide, including the marine–coastal system. This study is concentrated on the Mar Piccolo basin of Taranto, a complex [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a dramatic socio-economic impact on mankind; however, the COVID-19 lockdown brought a drastic reduction of anthropic impacts on the environment worldwide, including the marine–coastal system. This study is concentrated on the Mar Piccolo basin of Taranto, a complex marine ecosystem model that is important in terms of ecological, social, and economic activities. Although many numerical studies have been conducted to investigate the features of the water fluxes in the Mar Piccolo basin, this is the first study conducted in order to link meteo-oceanographic conditions, water quality, and potential reduction of anthropic inputs. In particular, we used the model results in order to study the response of the Mar Piccolo basin to a drastic reduction in the leakage of heavy metal IPAs from industrial discharges during the two months of the mandated nationwide lockdown. The results show the different behavior of the two sub-basins of Mar Piccolo, showing the different times necessary for a reduction in the concentrations of heavy metals even after a total stop in the leakage of heavy metal IPAs. The results highlight the high sensitivity of the basin to environmental problems and the different times necessary for the renewal of the water in both sub-basins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Methods for the Solution of Hydraulic Engineering Problems)
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29 pages, 8951 KiB  
Article
Methodological Proposal for the Hydraulic Design of Labyrinth Weirs
by Erick Dante Mattos-Villarroel, Waldo Ojeda-Bustamante, Carlos Díaz-Delgado, Humberto Salinas-Tapia, Jorge Flores-Velázquez and Carlos Bautista Capetillo
Water 2023, 15(4), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040722 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3373
Abstract
A labyrinth weir allows for higher discharge capacity than conventional linear weirs, especially at low hydraulic heads. In fact, this is an alternative for the design or rehabilitation of spillways. It can even be used as a strategy in problems related to dam [...] Read more.
A labyrinth weir allows for higher discharge capacity than conventional linear weirs, especially at low hydraulic heads. In fact, this is an alternative for the design or rehabilitation of spillways. It can even be used as a strategy in problems related to dam safety. A sequential design method for a labyrinth weir is based on optimal geometric parameters and the results of discharge flow analysis using Computational Fluid Dynamics and the experimental studies reported in the literature. The tests performed were for weirs with values of HT/P ≤ 0.8 and for angles of the cycle sidewall of 6° ≤ α ≤ 20°. The results of the discharge coefficient are presented as a family of curves, which indicates a higher discharge capacity when HT/P ≤ 0.17. Four aeration conditions are identified with higher discharge capacity when the nappe is adhering to the downstream face of the weir wall and lower discharge capacity when the nappe is drowned. Unstable flow was present when 12° ≤ α ≤ 20°, with a greater presence when the nappe was partially aerated and drowned. The interference of the nappe is characterized and quantified, reaching up to 60% of the length between the apex, and a family of curves is presented as a function of HT/P in this respect. Finally, a spreadsheet and a flowchart are proposed to support the design of the labyrinth type weir. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Methods for the Solution of Hydraulic Engineering Problems)
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17 pages, 5132 KiB  
Article
Research on the Similarity Scale of Flood Discharge Atomization Based on Water-Air Two-Phase Flow
by Gang Liu, Fuguo Tong, Bin Tian and Jiaxin Lan
Water 2023, 15(3), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030442 - 22 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1504
Abstract
The flood discharge atomization of high dams involves a complex coupled flow of water and air. Small-scale model tests are typically used to predict the atomization of flood discharge. However, the accuracy of the prediction results often suffers because of the scale effect [...] Read more.
The flood discharge atomization of high dams involves a complex coupled flow of water and air. Small-scale model tests are typically used to predict the atomization of flood discharge. However, the accuracy of the prediction results often suffers because of the scale effect between the model and the prototype. Considering that the numerical simulation method has the advantage of not being restricted by similarity scales, this paper studies the influence of the scale effect on the atomization of flood discharge based on the principle of water-air two-phase flow. Taking the Shuibuya Hydropower Station as the research object, the distribution of the flood discharge atomized rainfall and the atomized wind speed are studied when the boundary conditions, ambient atmospheric pressure, and geometric dimensions meet similar requirements. The research results show that under the same boundary conditions, the geometric scale is the most important factor affecting flood discharge atomization. The smaller the geometric scale, the smaller the atomization wind speed and rainfall intensity obtained by the model, which means that smaller monitoring errors lead to larger prediction deviations. When the calculation model satisfies similar atmospheric pressure conditions, the atomization wind speed and rainfall obtained by the models with different geometric scales satisfy the standard exponential function relationship. By comparing with the atomized rainfall and wind speed data observed by the Shuibuya prototype, it is found that the prediction accuracy of the prototype can be greatly improved when the model satisfies a similar atmospheric pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Methods for the Solution of Hydraulic Engineering Problems)
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23 pages, 5369 KiB  
Article
A New Turbulence Model for Breaking Wave Simulations
by Benedetta Iele, Federica Palleschi, Giovanni Cannata and Francesco Gallerano
Water 2022, 14(13), 2050; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14132050 - 27 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1627
Abstract
In this paper, the hydrodynamic and free surface elevation fields in breaking waves are simulated by solving the integral and contravariant forms of the three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations that are expressed in a generalized time-dependent curvilinear coordinate system, in which the vertical coordinate moves [...] Read more.
In this paper, the hydrodynamic and free surface elevation fields in breaking waves are simulated by solving the integral and contravariant forms of the three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations that are expressed in a generalized time-dependent curvilinear coordinate system, in which the vertical coordinate moves by following the free surface. A new kl turbulence model in contravariant form is proposed; in this model, the mixing length, l, is defined as a function of the maximum water surface elevation variation. A new original numerical scheme is proposed. The main element of originality of the numerical scheme consists of the proposal of a new fifth-order reconstruction technique for the point values of the conserved variables on the cell face. This technique, named in the paper as WTENO, allows the choice procedure of the reconstruction polynomials for the point values to be modified in a dynamic way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Methods for the Solution of Hydraulic Engineering Problems)
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22 pages, 11638 KiB  
Article
Numerical Modeling and Simulation of the Effectiveness of Groundwater Source Protection Management Plans: Riverbank Filtration Case Study in Serbia
by Dušan Polomčić, Dragoljub Bajić, Bojan Hajdin and Dragan Pamučar
Water 2022, 14(13), 1993; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14131993 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2091
Abstract
The paper describes the establishment and testing of an algorithm for developing sustainable management plans associated with groundwater source protection against potential pollutants and discusses the effectiveness of individual systems. The applied methodology pertains to groundwater resource management, particularly those cases that involve [...] Read more.
The paper describes the establishment and testing of an algorithm for developing sustainable management plans associated with groundwater source protection against potential pollutants and discusses the effectiveness of individual systems. The applied methodology pertains to groundwater resource management, particularly those cases that involve riverbank filtration. Namely, groundwater (numerical) modeling is employed to examine the groundwater regime and balance, as well as to create protection systems and illustrate their effectiveness. Particle tracking analysis is used to study pollutants’ travel and residence time. On the other hand, PEST with regularization is employed to estimate the numerical model parameters. The proposed method is used in a real case study, which examines the application of the developed algorithm to the protection of a drinking water supply source from an industrial zone, which is a potential source of pollution. The research presented in the paper opens new avenues for future studies involving mathematical multicriteria optimization and decision making about optimal groundwater source protection management plans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Methods for the Solution of Hydraulic Engineering Problems)
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