Internal Nutrient Cycling in Lakes and Reservoirs

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Quality and Contamination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2024) | Viewed by 3670

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
Interests: nutrients; nitrogen cycling; sediments; eutrophication; harmful algal blooms; water quality; lakes

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
Interests: lake; climate change; salinization; eutrophication; carbon and nitrogen cycling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nutrients (e.g., bioavailable inorganic and organic forms of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur) contribute to biological productivity. Excessive nutrient inputs have long been known to affect the eutrophication status of lakes and lead to frequent harmful algal blooms in lakes around the world. Moreover, the presence of internal nutrient cycling often causes a delay in lake recovery after external loading reductions. Internal nutrient cycling occurs at multiple places including water columns, sediment, suspended particles, and water–air and sediment–water interfaces. The cycling closely relates to biological (e.g., bacterial and algal communities) processes and/or physicochemical processes. Various drivers such as climate change, hydrological events, and human impacts can significantly influence nutrient cycling in lakes.

Due to the complexity of nutrient cycling in aquatic ecosystems, new insights are expected to be a broad scope of literature and help to target internal nutrient control. This Special Issue welcomes contributions on carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur dynamics as well as their couplings in lakes or reservoirs. Broad topics of interest include but are not limited to: nutrient regeneration and removal driven by biogeochemical or physicochemical processes; interactions between internal nutrient cycling and environmental changes (e.g., eutrophication, salinization, climate warming, and human impacts); estimation of nutrient fluxes/loadings/budgets across different phases/interfaces; eco-environmental effects of internal nutrient cycling, e.g., greenhouse gas releases; modelings or applications for assessment and control of internal nutrient loadings.

Dr. Xiaolong Yao
Dr. Xingyu Jiang
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • nutrients
  • internal cycling
  • carbon
  • nitrogen
  • phosphorus
  • sediments
  • transformations
  • transportations
  • assessments
  • lakes
  • reservoirs

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 3517 KiB  
Article
Effects of Ecological Water Diversion on Internal Nitrogen and Phosphorus Release in a Typical Small Shallow Lake in China
by Huaizhi Chen, Yunben Li, Anjie Wu, Yadong Wang, Yanping Zhao, Guoxiang Wang, Chao Han and Qiushi Shen
Water 2024, 16(7), 1065; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16071065 - 07 Apr 2024
Viewed by 479
Abstract
Ecological water diversion is an important method to improve water quality in lakes and reservoirs. But the environmental effects, from the ecological water diversion project (EWDP) to the internal release of sediment nutrients, remain unclear. In this study, an indoor simulation of an [...] Read more.
Ecological water diversion is an important method to improve water quality in lakes and reservoirs. But the environmental effects, from the ecological water diversion project (EWDP) to the internal release of sediment nutrients, remain unclear. In this study, an indoor simulation of an EWDP with different treatment scenarios with water transfer proportions of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% was conducted to study the effects of water diversion on sediment nitrogen and phosphorus release in Lake Wanshandang. Our results showed that the flux of NH3–N released from the sediments in the western and eastern areas of Lake Wanshandang was significantly reduced after water transfer treatment, and the degree of reduction increased with increased water transfer. Specifically, the release flux of NH3–N in the sediment in the western area decreased from 18.02 mg/(m2/d) to −2.25 mg/(m2/d) when the transferred water reached 100% replacement of the original overlying water. The effect of water transfer treatment on the release flux of SRP from sediment varied greatly throughout the lake. After treatment, the SRP release flux in the western and central areas increased significantly, while it decreased in the eastern area. The NH3–N and SRP concentrations changed from 0.12–0.27 mg/L and 0.02–0.049 mg/L to 0.28–0.84 mg/L and 0.01–0.066 mg/L before and after the water transfer treatment. Our statistical analysis showed that the change in NH3–N and SRP release fluxes after treatment was significantly negatively correlated (p < 0.05) with concentrations of NH3–N or SRP in the overlying water before and after water transfer. We suggest the increase in NH3–N and SRP concentrations in the overlying water after the water transfer treatment led to the subsequent decreased NH3–N or SRP release flux, while the decrease in SRP concentration in overlying waters enhanced SRP release from the sediment. The differences in the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus between the original overlying water and the transferred incoming water are important factors affecting the release of nutrients from sediment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internal Nutrient Cycling in Lakes and Reservoirs)
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18 pages, 9273 KiB  
Article
Effect of Benthic Flux on the Nutrient Dynamics of Bottom Water during Stratification in an Artificial Brackish Lake
by Yong-Hoon Jeong, Yong-Ho Choi and Dong-Heui Kwak
Water 2024, 16(7), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16070958 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 345
Abstract
In semi-closed coastal brackish systems, the stratification of the water column due to the interaction between freshwater and seawater can lead to a reduction in the dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in the bottom layers, consequently affecting the benthic nutrient flux and causing the [...] Read more.
In semi-closed coastal brackish systems, the stratification of the water column due to the interaction between freshwater and seawater can lead to a reduction in the dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in the bottom layers, consequently affecting the benthic nutrient flux and causing the degradation in water quality. We performed in situ investigations using a benthic lander to examine changes in the sediment oxygen demand (SOD) and benthic nutrient flux during the development of stratification in the downstream area of an artificially constructed brackish lake. During each measurement period, the temperature and salinity of the water column showed vertically stable stratification. The potential energy anomaly was 88.1–125.7 J/m3, with the stratification intensity strengthening gradually over the measurement period. The concentration of DO in bottom waters gradually decreased as the stratification of the water intensified and the temperature increased, establishing hypoxic conditions. As the stratification intensified, the SOD decreased with the DO concentration in bottom waters, while the benthic fluxes of NH4-N and PO4-P exhibited an opposite effect. When the effect of offshore water (introduced through a sluice gate) was insignificant, the SOD contributed 33% of the net loss of DO below the pycnocline. During this period, the benthic NH4-N and PO4-P fluxes were estimated to contribute 55% and 87% to the net fluxes in NH4-N and PO4-P, respectively, in the water column below the pycnocline. The benthic NH4-N and PO4-P fluxes resulted in excess phosphorus in the bottom water. When the inflow of seawater through the sluice gate was sufficient, the flow in the upstream direction of the bottom layer moved phosphorus-rich bottom water downstream, which is important for algal growth in the middle-upstream region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internal Nutrient Cycling in Lakes and Reservoirs)
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15 pages, 7704 KiB  
Article
Combining Multiple Remediation Techniques Is Effective for the Remediation of Eutrophic Flowing Water
by Ran Luo, Wei Li, Jiayou Zhong, Taotao Dai, Jinfu Liu, Xiaoliang Zhang, Yuwei Chen and Guiqing Gao
Water 2024, 16(6), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16060858 - 16 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Dredging, adsorbent inactivation, and phytoremediation are commonly used to control internal nitrogen and phosphorus sediment loads in eutrophic still-water ecosystems, such as lakes and ponds. However, the effectiveness of these remediation techniques has not been verified for rivers, lakes, and reservoirs with large [...] Read more.
Dredging, adsorbent inactivation, and phytoremediation are commonly used to control internal nitrogen and phosphorus sediment loads in eutrophic still-water ecosystems, such as lakes and ponds. However, the effectiveness of these remediation techniques has not been verified for rivers, lakes, and reservoirs with large disturbances. In this study, a calcium-loaded clay granular adsorbent (CRB) was prepared as an alternative to commercial adsorbents, and an experiment was conducted on the ecological restoration effects of both dredging and adsorbent single treatments as well as combined treatments on eutrophic flowing water. The enhancement effect of phytoremediation on the above restoration techniques was investigated. The results indicated that CRB inactivation treatment reduced the phosphorus and turbidity of the water by 63% and 80%, respectively and increased the total nitrogen and permanganate index (CODMn) by 25% and 101% before phytoremediation, respectively compared to the control group. There were no significant differences in the nutrient indexes of the sediment and water between the dredging treatment and the control group, but dredging enhanced the effect of the CRB treatment. Compared with the CRB treatment, the total nitrogen and CODMn of water in the dredging and combined CRB treatments decreased by 13% and 15%, respectively. Phytoremediation significantly improved the effectiveness of the dredging and adsorbent treatments, both individually and in combination. Additionally, there were notable differences in the growth rates of the submerged plants and the contents of different phosphorus speciation among the plant species. Selecting suitable plant species is recommended when implementing phytoremediation methods. This study highlights that the combination of multiple restoration techniques is effective for eutrophic flowing water. The results provide a guide for the ecological restoration of flowing water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internal Nutrient Cycling in Lakes and Reservoirs)
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14 pages, 3177 KiB  
Article
Photochemical Release of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen from Algal Detritus and Sediment Particles in Lake Taihu, China
by Yanan Liu and Xiaolong Yao
Water 2023, 15(19), 3346; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15193346 - 24 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1297
Abstract
Solar irradiation in aquatic systems can induce the conversion of substances from the solid to the dissolved phase (photodissolution). Yet, the photochemical release of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) from internal particles in lakes remains largely unknown. In this study, suspensions of algal detritus [...] Read more.
Solar irradiation in aquatic systems can induce the conversion of substances from the solid to the dissolved phase (photodissolution). Yet, the photochemical release of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) from internal particles in lakes remains largely unknown. In this study, suspensions of algal detritus and sediment particles from a shallow eutrophic lake were exposed to simulated solar irradiation, and the release and compositional changes of dissolved organic matter were explored by measuring their UV–Visible absorption spectroscopy and ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). The photochemical release of inorganic nitrogen during the incubations was also investigated. Results showed that light irradiation induced stronger dissolved organic carbon and DON production in the algal detritus suspensions, with release rates of 1.17 mg C L−1 h−1 and 0.14 mg N L−1 h−1, respectively, at an algal detritus concentration of 0.1 dry g L−1. Light irradiation also induced compositional changes of DON in both algal and sediment suspensions. A larger number of DON molecules with lower molecular weight were continuously released in the algal suspensions, e.g., the total number of DON formulas increased from 1349 to 4135 during an 8 h irradiation. In contrast, upon irradiation of sediment suspensions, DON showed decreased molecular diversity and increased aromaticity. The photochemical release of ammonium (photoammonification) was also higher in the algal suspensions with a rate of 0.015 mg N L−1 h−1, which may contribute to the eutrophication of the lake. This study provides new molecular insights into the photochemical release of DON from typical internal particles in eutrophic lakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internal Nutrient Cycling in Lakes and Reservoirs)
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