Seas under Anthropopressure

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Oceans and Coastal Zones".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 13937

Special Issue Editors

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Business Faculty, WSB University in Gdańsk, Al. Grunwaldzka 238 A, 80-266 Gdańsk, Poland
Interests: aquatic species; invasive alien species; crustaceans
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Department of Industrial Products Quality and Chemistry, Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia, Poland
Interests: dangerous goods; shipping; sea accidents; modeling accident consequences
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Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The problems of seas are caused by many onshore and offshore human activities, including eutrophication and its consequences (e.g., oxygen depletion and massive algae growth), as well as pollution with chemical compounds such as heavy metals, oils, microplastics, and pharmaceuticals that produce toxic effects in living organisms and lead to the contamination of seafood. Human disturbances and the presence of pollutants in the ecosystem cause chain effects and modifications in the marine environment, which also affect changes in seawater quality. Eutrophication, acidification, municipal and industrial pollution, climate change, overfishing, oil rigs, wind farms and other installations, shipping impacts, and accidents with oils and other chemical releases are currently crucial problems in seas, endangering the marine environment. Moreover, anthropopressure can have an effect on the composition of species and the introduction of alien species into new localities. Comprehensive research on biological, physical and chemical processes occurring in modified marine ecosystems is needed. Knowledge of the cause–effect relationships of marine anthropopressure can be a background for the solution and mitigation of this problem, in accordance with the idea of sustainable development and the achievement of balanced functioning of seas under changing conditions.

Thus, this Special Issue of Water, entitled Seas under Anthropopressure, is focused on the distribution of pollutants as well as their modelling, assessment, possibility of reduction, and inflow decrease.

The Special Issue will explore the following main topics:

  • Marine biodiversity in seas as an indicator of anthropopressure;
  • Invasive alien species in seas;
  • Eutrophication, acidification, climate change, pollution, wastewater;
  • Biodegradation in marine environment;
  • Wastewater treatment;
  • Environmental assessment;
  • Seafood safety;
  • Impact of maritime accidents on the environment;
  • Modelling and simulation of pollution processes;
  • Marine sustainability.

Both original research and comprehensive review papers are welcome.

Dr. Aldona Dobrzycka-Krahel
Dr. Magdalena Bogalecka
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • marine biodiversity
  • marine ecosystems
  • marine invasive alien species
  • climate change
  • eutrophication
  • acidification
  • marine pollution

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 2876 KiB  
Article
Determination of Bisphenol A (BPA) in the Port of Gdynia Waters Using Gas Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)
by Aleksandra Bojke, Małgorzata Littwin, Agata Szpiech, Ewelina Duljas, Paweł Jasiński, Izabela Wittstock, Olga Jażdżewska and Katarzyna Galer-Tatarowicz
Water 2023, 15(16), 2958; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162958 - 16 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1408
Abstract
This paper presents a procedure for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in seawater. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used as the analytical method, preceded by analyte isolation via solid-phase extraction (SPE). Initially, the best conditions for extraction, derivatization, and [...] Read more.
This paper presents a procedure for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in seawater. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used as the analytical method, preceded by analyte isolation via solid-phase extraction (SPE). Initially, the best conditions for extraction, derivatization, and GC-MS analysis were established. The need for derivatization in the determination of BPA was investigated, and for this reason, two methods of sample preparation were compared: with and without the derivatization step. The parameters of the two methods of sample preparation were compared with each other, and a more efficient method was chosen for the analysis of marine water samples. Afterwards, the validation process was carried out and the following parameters were determined: limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, precision, reproducibility, and repeatability. Finally, the results of the determination of bisphenol A in water samples collected from five harbor basins of the Port of Gdynia using an unmanned mobile research unit, HydroDron-1, were presented. The identified concentrations ranged from 0.01 µg/L to 0.03 µg/L, depending on the investigated area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seas under Anthropopressure)
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16 pages, 6000 KiB  
Article
Multi-Parameter Algorithms of Remote Sensing Reflectance, Absorption and Backscattering for Coastal Waters of the Southern Baltic Sea Applied to Pomeranian Lakes
by Barbara Lednicka, Maria Kubacka, Włodzimierz Freda, Kamila Haule, Dariusz Ficek and Maciej Sokólski
Water 2023, 15(15), 2843; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152843 - 06 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 911
Abstract
The Pomeranian lakes in Northern Poland and the nearby coastal waters of the Baltic Sea belong to optically complex water bodies characterised by high eutrophication levels. These water types require a local approach when developing bio-optical algorithms that combine the inherent and the [...] Read more.
The Pomeranian lakes in Northern Poland and the nearby coastal waters of the Baltic Sea belong to optically complex water bodies characterised by high eutrophication levels. These water types require a local approach when developing bio-optical algorithms that combine the inherent and the apparent properties of seawater. Well-established local algorithms are of great value for understanding and addressing rapid changes in water quality related mostly to human activities in coastal and near-shore zones, as well as in optically similar lakes. Our research analyses the possibility of using the multi-parameter algorithms of absorption a(λ), backscattering bb(λ) and remote sensing reflectance Rrs(λ), originally developed for the coastal waters of the Southern Baltic Sea, for three selected Pomeranian lakes. Our multi-parameter algorithms are based on the input concentrations of the biogeochemical components measured in the lake waters, i.e., chlorophyll a (Chl a), suspended particulate matter (SPM), inorganic suspended particulate matter (SPMinorg), the sum of the surface concentrations of accessory pigments (ΣC) and coloured dissolved organic matter with a wavelength of 400 nm (aCDOM(400)). Rrs(λ) and a(λ) output values were compared with independent measurements of these parameters conducted in the lake waters at 20 sampling stations. Our algorithm output values of bb(λ) were compared to the values obtained based on the algorithm provided by Ficek, previously developed and validated for Pomeranian lakes, at the same stations. The statistical analyses conducted afterwards showed that the multi-parameter algorithms of Rrs(λ) and a(λ) for the Southern Baltic Sea are sufficient to be used for the stations investigated in the aforementioned three lakes. Specifically, the correlations between the bb(λ) values obtained based on the Ficek algorithm and the bb(λ) values obtained using our multi-parameter algorithm reveal a statistical error rate of less than 20%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seas under Anthropopressure)
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21 pages, 10179 KiB  
Article
Movement of Southern European Aquatic Alien Invertebrate Species to the North and South
by Aldona Dobrzycka-Krahel
Water 2023, 15(14), 2598; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142598 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1050
Abstract
Due to globalisation and anthropopressure (intensification of shipping, creation of water corridors connecting seas, cultivation of commercial species), the movement of aquatic species has increased in recent years. The determination of trends in the movement of aquatic species in their geographical distribution over [...] Read more.
Due to globalisation and anthropopressure (intensification of shipping, creation of water corridors connecting seas, cultivation of commercial species), the movement of aquatic species has increased in recent years. The determination of trends in the movement of aquatic species in their geographical distribution over time is important because it may help in the management of a species in aquatic ecosystems. There are also knowledge gaps on the long-term trends in the movements of Southern European aquatic alien invertebrates. The study provides the first evidence of both northward and southward movements of these species based on available observations from 1940 to 2021, using meta-analyses and GAM modelling. To date, the majority (98%) of analysed Southern European aquatic alien invertebrates of Mediterranean and Ponto-Caspian origin have moved to the north. Among them, 61% are Ponto-Caspian aquatic alien invertebrates that moved only to the north, and 4% are Mediterranean aquatic alien invertebrates that moved only to the north; the rest include species that moved to the north and south: 27% are Ponto-Caspian aquatic alien invertebrates, and 6% are Mediterranean aquatic alien invertebrates. The one-way movement to the south was observed only in 2% of Mediterranean aquatic alien species. The study will help in understanding the movement patterns of Southern European aquatic alien invertebrates and in the effective management of aquatic ecosystems that allow for the co-existence of people and the rest of biodiversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seas under Anthropopressure)
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22 pages, 6659 KiB  
Article
Oil Discharge Trajectory Simulation at Selected Baltic Sea Waterway under Variability of Hydro-Meteorological Conditions
by Ewa Dąbrowska
Water 2023, 15(10), 1957; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15101957 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
The paper deals with an important issue related to the identification, modelling, and prediction of environmental pollution in aquatic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea caused by anthropopressure. Water ecosystems are in danger nowadays because of the negative influence of chemical releases in seas, [...] Read more.
The paper deals with an important issue related to the identification, modelling, and prediction of environmental pollution in aquatic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea caused by anthropopressure. Water ecosystems are in danger nowadays because of the negative influence of chemical releases in seas, oceans, or inland waters. The crucial issue is to prevent the oil spills and mitigate their consequences. Thus, there is a need for methods capable of reducing the water pollution and enhancing the effectiveness of port and marine environment preservation. The challenge in implementing actions to remove and prevent horizontal oil discharge lies in accurately determining its shape and direction of oil spreading. The author employed a self-designed software utilizing modified and developed mathematical probabilistic models to forecast the movement and dispersion of an oil spill in diverse hydrological and meteorological conditions. This involved determining the trajectory and movement of a spill domain, which consists of elliptical sub-domains undergoing temporal changes. The research results obtained are the initial results in the oil spill simulation problem. This approach represents an expanded and innovative method for determining the spill domain and tracking its movement, applicable to oceans and seas worldwide. It expands upon the methodologies firstly discussed, thereby broadening the range of available techniques in this field. A simple model of an oil spill trajectory simulation and a surface oil slick as an ellipse is illustrated using a time-series of selected hydro-meteorological factors that change at random times. The author proposes a Monte Carlo simulation method to determine the extent of an oil spill in an aquatic ecosystem, taking into account the influence of varying hydro-meteorological conditions. A semi-Markov model is defined to capture the dynamics of these conditions within the spill area and develop an enhanced algorithm for predicting changes in the shape and movement of the spill domain under changing these conditions. By applying the algorithm, a simulation is conducted to provide short-term prediction of the oil discharge trajectory in a selected Baltic Sea waterway. To enhance the accuracy of predicting the process of changing conditions, uniformly tested joint datasets from the open sea water area were incorporated. Finally, the potential future prospects and directions for further research in this field are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seas under Anthropopressure)
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14 pages, 2089 KiB  
Article
Effect of Diclofenac Concentration on Activated Sludge Conditions in a Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant
by Alina Dereszewska and Stanislaw Cytawa
Water 2023, 15(10), 1838; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15101838 - 11 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1741
Abstract
Significant quantities of pharmaceutical substances enter biological wastewater treatment plants, where they interact with activated sludge microorganisms. An example of a pharmaceutical commonly used is the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac (DCF). The presence of high concentrations of DCF in wastewater can disrupt nutrient [...] Read more.
Significant quantities of pharmaceutical substances enter biological wastewater treatment plants, where they interact with activated sludge microorganisms. An example of a pharmaceutical commonly used is the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac (DCF). The presence of high concentrations of DCF in wastewater can disrupt nutrient removal processes, which are highly sensitive to external environmental factors. This paper discusses the effect of high DCF concentrations (1.04 mg/dm3–12.5 mg/dm3; 0.25 mg/gTS–3.0 mg/gTS) on the efficiency of nitrifying, denitrifying and phosphate-accumulating organisms in the wastewater treatment cycle. The condition of the activated sludge was assessed on the basis of the oxygen and nitrogen uptake rates values and the ability to biologically remove phosphorus compounds from the wastewater. The effect of DCF on the ability of methane-forming bacteria to produce biogas in the anaerobic digester was also investigated. None of the biochemical reactions of activated sludge were inhibited at applied DCF concentrations. A 33% reduction in biogas production was observed at a DCF dose of 0.0391 mg/gTS. Slight deviations from the typical course of biochemical transformation of ammonium compounds were recorded at a DCF concentration of 3 mg/gTS of sludge. However, in the concentration range studied, no negative effect of DCF, on the operation of the activated sludge, was found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seas under Anthropopressure)
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33 pages, 2812 KiB  
Article
Monte Carlo Simulation Approach to Shipping Accidents Consequences Assessment
by Magdalena Bogalecka and Ewa Dąbrowska
Water 2023, 15(10), 1824; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15101824 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1697
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to present and apply an innovative technique to model environmental consequences of shipping accidents in relations to events initiating those accidents. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is used to model shipping accidents and chemical release consequences within [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to present and apply an innovative technique to model environmental consequences of shipping accidents in relations to events initiating those accidents. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is used to model shipping accidents and chemical release consequences within the world’s sea and ocean waters. The model was created based on the previously designed novel general probabilistic approach to critical infrastructure accident consequences, including three models: the process of initiating events generated by a critical infrastructure accident, the process of environmental threats coming from released chemicals that are a result of initiating events, and the process of environmental degradation stemming from environmental threats. It is a new approach that has never been proposed and applied before. The Monte Carlo simulation method is used under the assumption of the semi-Markov model of these three processes. A procedure for the realization and generation of this process and evaluation of its characteristics is proposed and applied in the preparation of the C# program. Using this program, the processes’ characteristics are predicted for a specific sea area. Namely, for the considered processes, the limit values of transient probabilities between the states and the mean values of total sojourn times at the particular states for the fixed time are determined. The results obtained can be used practically by maritime practitioners involved in making decisions related to the safety of maritime transport and to mitigation actions concerned with maritime accidents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seas under Anthropopressure)
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28 pages, 675 KiB  
Article
Hazards in Seafood Notified in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) in 1996–2020
by Marcin Pigłowski
Water 2023, 15(3), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030548 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4333
Abstract
Seafood covering fish, crustaceans, molluscs and cephalopods is broadly recognised for its nutritional value and popularity, but it can pose some hazards to health to the potential consumer. The aim of the study was to analyse Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed [...] Read more.
Seafood covering fish, crustaceans, molluscs and cephalopods is broadly recognised for its nutritional value and popularity, but it can pose some hazards to health to the potential consumer. The aim of the study was to analyse Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) notifications for seafood over the period 1996–2020 by hazard, year, product, notifying country, country of origin, notification type, notification basis, distribution status and action taken. The research applied cluster analysis using the joining and two-way joining methods. The main reported hazards were micro-organisms (Listeria, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Vibrio, norovirus, mesophiles, Enterobacteriaceae and histamine), heavy metals (mercury and cadmium), veterinary products (nitrofuran, chloramphenicol and leucomalachite green), controls (poor temperature control and hygienic state), parasites (Anisakis) and additives/allergens (sulphite). The reported seafood products originated mainly from European and Asian countries and were notified on the basis of official or border controls, respectively. In order to minimize or eliminate risks, it is important to have the right activity of control authorities, appropriate legislation at the European and national levels and awareness at the different stages of the food chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seas under Anthropopressure)
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15 pages, 1632 KiB  
Article
A New Horizon-Scanning Tool to Identify Potential Aquatic Invasive Alien Species Introduced into the Baltic Sea by Shipping
by Aldona Dobrzycka-Krahel and Silvia Medina-Villar
Water 2023, 15(3), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030531 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2261
Abstract
Some invasive alien species (IAS) may constitute an important threat to global biodiversity due to major ecological impacts. In 2014, the European Union (EU) introduced a regulation (EU) No 1143/201 on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of IAS. EU [...] Read more.
Some invasive alien species (IAS) may constitute an important threat to global biodiversity due to major ecological impacts. In 2014, the European Union (EU) introduced a regulation (EU) No 1143/201 on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of IAS. EU member states are required to carry out an analysis of the introduction and spread of potential IAS in their territories. In the case of aquatic alien species, shipping is considered as the main pathway for their introduction. In this study, a horizon-scanning tool was applied for identifying potential aquatic IAS introduced by shipping into the EU Baltic Sea Region (BSR) countries. This tool has mostly been applied on a country level, but it is more reasonable to study the invasive potentiality at a regional scale, especially for aquatic species that generally disperse over long distances. Individual Baltic countries may also benefit from the results of this study. The result of the horizon-scanning method that we applied produced a list of 27 potential aquatic invaders for the EU BSR countries introduced by international marine and inland shipping. In order, Asia (34% of the species), North America (27% of the species), and Indo-Pacific (23% of the species) were the most frequently listed geographical origins of concern. Marine habitat was the most frequent of the potential IAS, accounting for 41% of the species. Fish (26% of the species), Mollusks (18% of the species), and Crustacea (15% of the species) were the most frequent taxonomic groups. The list of potential IAS was prioritized from highest to lowest probability of invasion (establishment, spread, and impact). Eight species reached the highest probability of invasion. One of the potential IAS, Mytilus galloprovincialis, is native to the Mediterranean Region. These results provide valuable information that policy makers can use to develop more efficient prevention strategies for IAS introduced by shipping into the Baltic Sea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seas under Anthropopressure)
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17 pages, 4663 KiB  
Article
Degradability of Polylactide in Natural Aqueous Environments
by Katarzyna Krasowska and Aleksandra Heimowska
Water 2023, 15(1), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010198 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2011
Abstract
This study aims to estimate the degradation process of polylactide (PLA) in natural aqueous environments. The biological degradation of PLA took place in the Baltic Sea and in the natural pond over a period of 1 to 16 months. The characteristic abiotic parameters [...] Read more.
This study aims to estimate the degradation process of polylactide (PLA) in natural aqueous environments. The biological degradation of PLA took place in the Baltic Sea and in the natural pond over a period of 1 to 16 months. The characteristic abiotic parameters of both environments were monitored during incubation time, and their influence on the PLA degradation was discussed. The changes in weight, chemical structure, mechanical properties and surface morphology of investigated samples were also tested during incubation. The obtained results indicate that polylactide is not very susceptible to an enzymatic attack of microorganisms present in natural aqueous environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seas under Anthropopressure)
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Review

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20 pages, 5191 KiB  
Review
The Baltic Sea under Anthropopressure—The Sea of Paradoxes
by Aldona Dobrzycka-Krahel and Magdalena Bogalecka
Water 2022, 14(22), 3772; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223772 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 6864
Abstract
The Baltic Sea is a unique ecosystem that is especially sensitive to anthropogenic pressure. We analysed human pressure in this sea, which may be considered as paradoxes. One of these, is paradox of “marine” pollution. The Baltic Sea is almost totally surrounded by [...] Read more.
The Baltic Sea is a unique ecosystem that is especially sensitive to anthropogenic pressure. We analysed human pressure in this sea, which may be considered as paradoxes. One of these, is paradox of “marine” pollution. The Baltic Sea is almost totally surrounded by land and therefore sources of marine pollution are located mainly on the land. Another paradox is connected with shipping traffic intensity and maritime accidents. The Baltic Sea is characterised by the large shipping traffic, but the last decades’ data show only more than 100, usually insignificant and minor, accidents and incidents at the Baltic Sea every year. Although the Baltic Sea is characterised by a relatively low native species number compared to most marine systems, it is home to alien species. Moreover, despite the common opinion that a sea is a source of living marine resources, available riches in the Baltic Sea under anthropopressure are limited and the sea does not give expected benefits—it is the next paradox. The fact that the Baltic Sea is warming rapidly due to climate change and more suitable for bathing when the weather is favourable, massive algae growth often prevents it. Therefore, strong human impact on the Baltic Sea should be limited and sustainable use of this sea should be prioritised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seas under Anthropopressure)
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