Hydropower Potential and Energy Efficiency in Water Supply Systems

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water-Energy Nexus".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2023) | Viewed by 7083

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy
Interests: water supply systems; energy recovery; hydropower potential; energy efficiency; experimental investigation; CFD modelling; pump-as-turbine
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Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Edile e Ambientale, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Napoli, Italy
Interests: energy-efficiency of hydraulic systems; optimization of water systems; computational fluid dynamics; theoretical and experimental study of hydraulic machines
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy
Interests: water supply systems; energy recovery; hydropower potential; energy efficiency; optimization methods

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The current status of water supply systems is an example of how the energy potential of many water infrastructures is not effectively managed, characterizing a relevant amount of unexploited resources. Indeed, energy challenges are emerging worldwide, bringing to explore and implement effective, cost-competitive and practical approaches able to foster innovative solutions to lower the energy dispersion.

This Special Issue aims to fill knowledge gaps and help develop methodologies, technologies and solutions for the assessment, development and implementation of innovative solutions for the integrated management of water systems.

Among the others, original contributions on the following topics are welcome:

  • Experimental and numerical investigation of the energy potential of water systems
  • Novel technologies for energy recovery in water supply systems
  • New strategies fostering the energy efficiency of water systems
  • Optimization modeling of water infrastructures aimed at the energy fine-tuning
  • Development of internet of things solutions for the effective management of smart water networks
  • Real-time control systems to handle the management of pressurized water systems
  • Multidisciplinary investigation of the water/energy/food/carbon nexus.

Relevant papers addressing this Special Issue’s objectives will be selected and published following a peer-review procedure.

Looking forward to receiving your valuable contributions,

Yours sincerely,

Dr. Francesco Pugliese
Prof. Dr. Oreste Fecarotta
Dr. Maria Cristina Morani
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • water supply systems
  • energy potential
  • energy recovery
  • experimental investigation
  • numerical model
  • optimization modelling
  • real-time control
  • internet of things
  • water/energy/food nexus

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

23 pages, 5726 KiB  
Article
Integrated Smart Management in WDN: Methodology and Application
by Helena M. Ramos, Maria Cristina Morani, Francesco Pugliese and Oreste Fecarotta
Water 2023, 15(6), 1217; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061217 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1760
Abstract
Urbanization and population growth have been responsible for a significant increase in consumption of water and energy at a global scale. A careful management of water resource and infrastructures is crucial for Energy Transition, as well as for achieving a sustainable efficiency of [...] Read more.
Urbanization and population growth have been responsible for a significant increase in consumption of water and energy at a global scale. A careful management of water resource and infrastructures is crucial for Energy Transition, as well as for achieving a sustainable efficiency of these systems. High pressure values along with the ageing of the systems contribute to high leakage levels of Water Distribution Networks (WDN). The simultaneous control of excess pressure and containment of water losses are mainly performed by using Pressure Reducing Valves (PRVs) in WDN, which dissipate the surplus of hydraulic energy. Instead of being dissipated, energy can be recovered by the transformation of the excess pressure into electrical energy with the use of Pump as Turbines (PAT), which results in an increased reliability, reduction of cost and an overall improvement in the efficiency of WDN. The work aims on presenting an integrated efficiency management methodology in terms of Effectiveness (E), capability (ηpi), reliability (μpi) and sustainability (χpi) with values between 47 to 98%, also associated with the pressure and leakage management, and energy recovery. This research presents a modelling of a real WDN of a District Metering Areas (DMA) of Beloura endowed with seasonal consumption variability to better show its applicability. Additionally, an economic analysis to assess the solution’s feasibility is presented concluding an annual energy recovered of 9.8 MWh and a saving of about 30% of water leakage, which correspond, in the analyzed case study, to about 3523 m3. The payback period found is around 9 or 12 years, for only one PAT or two different PATs installed, due to the small available energy of the analyzed case study. Acknowledging the synergy between water and energy efficiency and taking advantage of these integrated smart management methodology exemplification, it resulted in more efficient systems to achieve both effectiveness solutions, digital and energy transition in the water sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydropower Potential and Energy Efficiency in Water Supply Systems)
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27 pages, 7580 KiB  
Article
Algorithm for Appropriate Design of Hydroelectric Turbines as Replacements for Pressure Reduction Valves in Water Distribution Systems
by Admitos A. Bideris-Davos and Panagis N. Vovos
Water 2023, 15(3), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030554 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4480
Abstract
Gravity flow water distribution systems (WDSs) are used to permit water flow from an input point of highest elevation (source) to the terminal points of a system (consumers). In such WDSs, typically, there is no need for external power to maintain the flow [...] Read more.
Gravity flow water distribution systems (WDSs) are used to permit water flow from an input point of highest elevation (source) to the terminal points of a system (consumers). In such WDSs, typically, there is no need for external power to maintain the flow due to the typical high gradients that exist. However, those gradients cause high water velocity and pressure to some network areas that could potentially lead to pipes bursting. Currently, the only means to regulate pressure within allowable range are Pressure Reduction Valves (PRVs). They are installed at various locations, but they cannot utilize the existing hydropower potential in terms of electrical energy production. This paper provides a methodology for hydro-turbines dimensioning, so that they mimic PRV operation in terms of pressure regulation while producing power efficiently. This includes an algorithmic process within which the proper turbine design and performance prediction are initially determined, and then, via an interconnection between EPANET and MATLAB, the hydraulic behavior of their operation within the water network is modeled and simulated. The methodology has been tested with simulations of a typical urban WDS. The results indicate that the produced turbine geometries mimic PRV action at the respective locations with more than 1% accuracy during 70% of the time (2% maximum error), while producing electric energy with hydraulic efficiency over 60%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydropower Potential and Energy Efficiency in Water Supply Systems)
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