Special Issue "Effects of Advanced Oxidation Treatment Processes on the Ecotoxicity of Wastewater"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 September 2022) | Viewed by 4134

Special Issue Editors

Dr. João Gomes
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CIEPQPF, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: advanced oxidation process; wastewater treatment; ozonation; chemical engineering; water recovery; biofiltration; ecotoxicology assessment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Rui C. Martins
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: advanced oxidation processes; wastewater treatment; waste management; separation processes; chemical reactors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Joana Luísa Pereira
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CESAM—Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Biology, University of Aveiro. Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: freshwater ecology and ecotoxicology; ecological quality of water; water quality assessment; environmental risk assessment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) such as pharmaceutical and personal care products have been appearing with great relevance in water processes. This appearance is related to the inefficiency of the conventional wastewater treatments against such contaminants. In this way, advanced oxidation processes have been considered as suitable solutions for CEC abatement. Among others, ozonation and photocatalysis present great potential for removal of CECs, and can be used together to improve the treatment capacity. An important feature that must be evaluated when such treatments are applied is the the toxicity over aquatic species of the treated wastewater. In fact, when pollutants oxidation is not total, some toxic by-products can be generated. Thus, the optimization of the treatment must bear in mind the variation of the resultant ecotoxicological impact of the treated waters. The aim of this Special Issue is to gather knowledge regarding the application of advanced oxidation processes on the abatement of CEC and their efficiency regarding the decrease in the environmental hazardous potential of water and wastewater.

Dr. João Gomes
Dr. Rui C. Martins
Dr. Joana Luísa Pereira
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • contaminants of emerging concern
  • advanced oxidation processes
  • ecotoxicological assessment
  • wastewater treatment
  • aquatic species
  • by-products
  • environmental impact

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Ecotoxicological Consequences of the Abatement of Contaminants of Emerging Concern by Ozonation—Does Mixture Complexity Matter?
Water 2022, 14(11), 1801; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111801 - 02 Jun 2022
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Abstract
Ozonation has been used to degrade persistent water contaminants, namely, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). However, ozonation can lead to by-products that can be more toxic than the parent compounds. This work aims to assess whether the ecotoxicological effects of ozonation are [...] Read more.
Ozonation has been used to degrade persistent water contaminants, namely, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). However, ozonation can lead to by-products that can be more toxic than the parent compounds. This work aims to assess whether the ecotoxicological effects of ozonation are modified as the initial matrix being treated increases in complexity, considering mixtures of 2, 3, 4 and 5 PPCPs. The following PPCPs were used: two parabens (metylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP)), paracetamol (PCT), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and carbamazepine (CBZ). The following model species were used to assess toxicity: the crustacean Daphnia magna, the microalgae Raphidocelis subcapitata, the macrophyte Lemna minor and the watercress Lepidium sativum. There was a trend of increased toxicity with increasing mixture complexity of the untreated samples, except for D. magna. The same was observed after ozonation with the exception of the mixture MP+PP, which showed high toxicity to all the tested species, namely 100% immobilization of D. magna. The toxicity of SMX to the primary producers decreased pronouncedly after ozonation, except for L. minor. This study highlights the importance of considering the complexity of the matrix being treated and of using an ecotoxicological test battery with a wide diversity of species for assessing ozonation efficiency. Full article
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Article
Ion Exchange to Capture Iron after Real Effluent Treatment by Fenton’s Process
Water 2022, 14(5), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14050706 - 23 Feb 2022
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Abstract
The main drawback of Fenton′s process is the formation of ferric sludge. In this work, ion exchange (IE) appears as a complement to the Fenton process, allowing, on the one hand, to remove the iron excess present in the sludge, as well as [...] Read more.
The main drawback of Fenton′s process is the formation of ferric sludge. In this work, ion exchange (IE) appears as a complement to the Fenton process, allowing, on the one hand, to remove the iron excess present in the sludge, as well as reduce the COD of the real olive oil industry extraction wastewater (OOIEW) from the Fenton process. The Fenton process uses iron (II) sulfate as catalyst, therefore concentrations of iron up to 2 g L−1 could be present in the treated OOIEW. The iron and COD adsorption equilibrium behavior has been modelized by Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. Moreover, the resin efficiency was tested in a continuous fixed-bed column. It was concluded that the resin maintains iron adsorption capacity over at least three reuse cycles. Overall Fenton’s process followed by ion exchange seems to be a promising approach for the treatment of cumbersome industrial wastewaters. Full article
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Article
Novel AOPs-Based Dual-Environmental Digestion Method for Determination of Total Dissolved Nitrogen in Water
Water 2021, 13(19), 2751; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192751 - 04 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 761
Abstract
Based on a synergistic digestion method of ultraviolet combined with ozone (UV/O3), this article investigates the reaction characteristics of nitrogen-containing compounds (N-compounds) in water and the influence of ions on digestion efficiency. In this respect, a novel and efficient AOPs-based dual-environmental [...] Read more.
Based on a synergistic digestion method of ultraviolet combined with ozone (UV/O3), this article investigates the reaction characteristics of nitrogen-containing compounds (N-compounds) in water and the influence of ions on digestion efficiency. In this respect, a novel and efficient AOPs-based dual-environmental digestion method for the determination of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) in waters with complex components is proposed, in the hopes of improving the detection efficiency and accuracy of total nitrogen via online monitoring. The results show that inorganic and organic N-compounds have higher conversion rates in alkaline and acidic conditions, respectively. Meanwhile, the experimental results on the influence of Cl, CO32−, and HCO3 on the digestion process indicate that Cl can convert to radical reactive halogen species (RHS) in order to promote digestion efficiency, but CO32− and HCO3 cause a cyclic reaction consuming numerous •OH, weakening the digestion efficiency. Ultimately, to verify the effectiveness of this novel digestion method, total dissolved nitrogen samples containing ammonium chloride, urea, and glycine in different proportions were digested under the optimal conditions: flow rate, 0.6 L/min; reaction temperature, 40 °C; pH in acidic conditions, 2; digestion time in acidic condition, 10 min; pH in alkaline conditions, 11; digestion time in alkaline conditions, 10 min. The conversion rate (CR) of samples varied from 93.23% to 98.64%; the mean CR was greater than 95.30%. This novel and efficient digestion method represents a potential alternative for the digestion of N-compounds in the routine analysis or online monitoring of water quality. Full article
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Review

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Review
An Overview of Polymer-Supported Catalysts for Wastewater Treatment through Light-Driven Processes
Water 2022, 14(5), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14050825 - 06 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 929
Abstract
In recent years, alarm has been raised due to the presence of chemical contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in water. This concern is due to the risks associated with their exposure, even in small amounts. These complex compounds cannot be removed or degraded [...] Read more.
In recent years, alarm has been raised due to the presence of chemical contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in water. This concern is due to the risks associated with their exposure, even in small amounts. These complex compounds cannot be removed or degraded by existing technologies in wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, advanced oxidation processes have been studied, with the objective of developing a technology capable of complementing the conventional water treatment plants. Heterogenous photocatalysis stands out for being a cost-effective and environmentally friendly process. However, its most common form (with suspended catalytic particles) requires time-consuming and costly downstream processes. Therefore, the heterogeneous photocatalysis process with a supported catalyst is preferable. Among the available supports, polymeric ones stand out due to their favorable characteristics, such as their transparency, flexibility and stability. This is a relatively novel process; therefore, there are still some gaps in the scientific knowledge. Thus, this review article aims to gather the existing information about this process and verify which questions are still to be answered. Full article
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