Compound Coastal Flooding in a Changing Climate

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Oceans and Coastal Zones".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 December 2023) | Viewed by 12227

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering ICEA, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
Interests: coastal engineering; coastal flooding hazard; coastal management; port engineering; wave energy converters; experimental modelling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, Roma Tre University, 00146 Rome, Italy
Interests: coastal engineering; tsunami; wave numerical modelling; experimental modelling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Compound coastal flooding is determined by the combined occurrence of extreme sea conditions (high waves and storm surges), intense rainfalls and large river overflow. These different drivers, acting at different temporal and spatial scales, are responsible for inundations that, in rare circumstances, could be further exacerbated by other non-meteorological processes (i.e., tsunamis). Furthermore, the expected climate change trends could lead to longer and more widespread “compound flooding” events. The understanding of compound coastal floods and the expected intensification of these events is a topic of growing interest that needs to be investigated to facilitate coastal adaptation and long-term management.

This Special Issue aims to highlight the recent progress and help define the future directions of compound coastal flooding and, in general, floods in the littoral zone. Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Statistical methods of combined occurrence of different drivers that cause coastal floods considering the future climate.
  • Data analysis.
  • Numerical modelling of inundation in coastal areas.
  • Analysis of relevant coastal flood impacts (e.g., beach morphodynamics, dune overwash and breaching, wave overtopping).
  • Integrated flood risk and hazard analyses to facilitate decision-making during flood events and long-term coastal management.
  • Real-time forecasting and Early Warning Systems.
  • Analysis of case studies.

Dr. Chiara Favaretto
Prof. Dr. Claudia Cecioni
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • coastal flooding
  • littoral zone
  • statistical methods
  • risk and hazard
  • waves and storm surges
  • dune overwash
  • dune breaching
  • rainfalls
  • river overflows
  • tsunamis
  • coastal engineering
  • coastal management

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 18746 KiB  
Article
Sea Level Rise-Induced Transition from Rare Fluvial Extremes to Chronic and Compound Floods
by Kazi Samsunnahar Mita, Philip Orton, Franco Montalto, Firas Saleh and Julia Rockwell
Water 2023, 15(14), 2671; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142671 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 2167
Abstract
Flooding is becoming more frequent along U.S. coastlines due to the rising impacts of fluvial and coastal flood sources, as well as their compound effects. However, we have a limited understanding of mechanisms whereby sea level rise (SLR) changes flood drivers and contributes [...] Read more.
Flooding is becoming more frequent along U.S. coastlines due to the rising impacts of fluvial and coastal flood sources, as well as their compound effects. However, we have a limited understanding of mechanisms whereby sea level rise (SLR) changes flood drivers and contributes to flood compounding. Additionally, flood mitigation studies for fluvial floodplains near tidal water bodies often overlook the potential future contribution of coastal water levels. This study investigates the role of SLR in inducing high-tide flooding (HTF) and compound flooding in a neighborhood that lies on a fluvial floodplain. Eastwick, Philadelphia, is a flood-prone neighborhood that lies on the confluence of two flashy, small tributaries of the tidal Delaware River. We develop a combined 1D-2D HEC-RAS fluvial-coastal flood model and demonstrate the model’s accuracy for low-discharge tidal conditions and the extreme discharge conditions of tropical Cyclone (TC) Isaias (2020) (e.g., Root Mean Square Error 0.08 and 0.13 m, respectively). Simulations show that Eastwick may experience SLR-induced HTF as soon as the 2060s, and the flood extent (34.4%) could become as bad as present-day extreme event flooding (30.7% during TC Isaias) as soon as the 2080s (based on 95th percentile SLR projections). Simulations of Isaias flooding with SLR also indicate a trend toward compounding of extreme fluvial flooding. In both cases the coastal flood water enters Eastwick through a different pathway, over a land area not presently included in some fluvial flood models. Our results show that SLR will become an important contributor to future flooding even in fluvial floodplains near tidal water bodies and may require development of compound flood models that can capture new flood pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compound Coastal Flooding in a Changing Climate)
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19 pages, 5843 KiB  
Article
Extreme Rainfall and Flood Risk Prediction over the East Coast of South Africa
by Frederick M. Mashao, Mologadi C. Mothapo, Rendani B. Munyai, Josephine M. Letsoalo, Innocent L. Mbokodo, Tshimbiluni P. Muofhe, Willem Matsane and Hector Chikoore
Water 2023, 15(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010050 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 9428
Abstract
Extreme rainfall associated with mid-tropospheric cut-off low (COL) pressure systems affected the entire east coast of South Africa during April 2022, leading to flooding and destruction of homes, electricity power lines, and road infrastructure, and leaving 448 people confirmed dead. Therefore, this study [...] Read more.
Extreme rainfall associated with mid-tropospheric cut-off low (COL) pressure systems affected the entire east coast of South Africa during April 2022, leading to flooding and destruction of homes, electricity power lines, and road infrastructure, and leaving 448 people confirmed dead. Therefore, this study investigated the evolution of the two COLs and their impacts, including the occurrence of extreme rainfall and cold weather over the southeast coast of the country. We analysed observed and reanalysis meteorological data and mapped areas at risk to impacts of flood hazards on the east coast of South Africa. Extreme rainfall (>500 mm) accumulated over 16 days was observed along the east coast, with the amount of rainfall progressively decreasing inland. We found that the rainfall associated with the first COL was significantly enhanced by the interactions between a strong low-level onshore airflow across the Agulhas Current and the coastal escarpment, resulting in deep convection and lifting. An unusual surface cyclone with tropical characteristics developed over the subtropical southwest Indian Ocean, driving onshore southeasterly winds which enhanced low-level convergence. Moreover, the flood risk results revealed that, amongst others, land cover/use (52.8%), elevation (16.8%) and lithology (15.5%) were the most important flood predictor variables in this study. Much of the study area was found to have very low (28.33%), low (31.82%), and moderate (21.66%) flood risk, whilst the high- and very-high-risk areas accounted for only 17.5% of the total land area. Nonetheless, the derived flood risk map achieved an acceptable level of accuracy of about 89.9% (Area Under Curve = 0.899). The findings of this study contribute to understanding extreme rainfall events and the vulnerability of settlements on South Africa’s east coast to flood risk, which can be used towards natural disaster risk reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compound Coastal Flooding in a Changing Climate)
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