Membranes in Water and Wastewater Treatment

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 November 2023) | Viewed by 1155

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Water Supply, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Moscow, Russia
Interests: desalination; ground water treatment; surface water treatment; wastewater treatment; landfill leachate treatment; reverse osmosis; nanofiltration; ultrafiltration; antiscalants; scale control; membrane fouling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Research and Education Centre 'Water Supply and Waste Water Treatment", Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Moscow, Russia
Interests: treatment of wastewater with membranes; membrane bioreactors design; optimization of membrane bioreactors operation; membrane technologies; post-treatment with membranes; urban wastewater management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since its first industrial introduction for desalination purposes, membrane production has continued to grow, and the variety of membranes available is expanding. In the water industry, membrane techniques are increasingly being replacing conventional techniques such as clarification and filtration, ion exchange softening and deonization, evaporation, organic removal by sorption, and biological wastewater treatment. Membrane techniques demonstrate technical capabilities and efficiency due to their low chemical and power consumption, high product water quality, and small footprint. The distinguishing quality of membrane techniques, however, is their constant improvement that enables them to conquer more and more application fields: new developments provide dramatic a recovery increase, low energy consumption, reduced scaling and fouling, increase in concentrations of chemical brines, and harvesting of their valuable components.

This issue aims to collect new examples of membrane developments that demonstrate breakthroughs in industrial and drinking water applications, as well as wastewater treatment. We welcome new research results in desalination, membrane module design, scaling and fouling control, wastewater treatment and post-treatment, wastewater reuse, MBR applications, concentrate and brine reduction and harvesting, landfill leachate treatment, water recycling, and the development of new wasteless technologies.

Dr. Alexei G. Pervov
Dr. Nikolay Makisha
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • reverse osmosis
  • nanofiltration
  • ultrafiltration
  • scaling
  • fouling
  • antiscalants
  • membrane cleaning
  • concentrates handling
  • brine harvesting
  • recovery increase
  • production of drinking water
  • wastewater post-treatment and reuse
  • membrane bioreactors
  • industrial water production
  • industrial wastes treatment
  • landfill leachate treatment

Published Papers (2 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

16 pages, 3647 KiB  
Article
Control of the Ionic Composition of Nanofiltration Membrane Permeate to Improve Product Water Quality in Drinking Water Supply Applications
by Alexei Pervov and Dmitry Spitsov
Water 2023, 15(16), 2970; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162970 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 884
Abstract
Reverse osmosis is efficiently used for producing drinking water from groundwater sources containing dissolved impurities, including fluoride, ammonia, lithium, strontium, boron, arsenic, etc. The principal problems of utilizing reverse osmosis include scaling on membrane surfaces, concentrate discharges, and low permeate TDS that often [...] Read more.
Reverse osmosis is efficiently used for producing drinking water from groundwater sources containing dissolved impurities, including fluoride, ammonia, lithium, strontium, boron, arsenic, etc. The principal problems of utilizing reverse osmosis include scaling on membrane surfaces, concentrate discharges, and low permeate TDS that often require conditioning. The main goal of this work was to demonstrate the viability of a newly developed methodology that relies on low-rejection nanofiltration membranes to improve product water quality by increasing its TDS and calcium content, and its economic efficiency compared to conventionally used reverse osmosis. Disadvantages of employing reverse osmosis for the production of drinking water are attributed to the fact that several pollutants (including lithium, ammonia, and boron) are monovalent ions and, as such, are poorly rejected by membranes as compared to calcium, sodium, sulfate, and chloride ions. Thus, in cases in which lithium or ammonia are present in high concentrations, high rejection membranes are usually used that result in low TDS of the product water. This article presents the results of research aimed at developing a new approach to changing the ratio of monovalent and divalent ions in product water. The new method described in this paper relies on low rejection membranes in a two-stage application that enables us to reduce monovalent impurities and increase the concentration of calcium and TDS values in product water while leaving lithium concentration unchanged. This is achieved by applying a two-stage scheme with low-rejection membranes instead of the reverse osmosis stage. The two-stage treatment using nanofiltration membranes results in the same rejection of lithium and product water quality as reverse osmosis. However, the ratio value of calcium and lithium concentrations in the concentrate of nanofiltration membranes appears to be significantly higher compared with the ratio measured in the feed groundwater. This can be attributed to different rejections of these ions by membranes. Therefore, concentration (reduction of volume) of the feed water with nanofiltration membranes and further dilution of the concentrate with deionized water produce the same concentration of lithium and are associated with an increase of 2–4 times the concentration of calcium. Treatment of this water in the second nanofiltration membrane stage produces drinking-quality water with the required lithium content and increased calcium concentration. We focus on the real-world example of groundwater treatment in Yakutia, Russia, an area where lithium concentration exceeds drinking standards by 24 times. The paper presents a technique of ion separation and demonstrates experimental results that provide lithium removal while increasing the calcium concentration and TDS value. The resulting concentrations are 2–5 times lower than those obtained via conventional use of reverse osmosis membranes. A series of experiments were conducted to remove lithium from groundwater and demonstrate the efficiency of the newly developed method of ion separation. Experimental results of the concentration of obtained values of lithium, calcium, and TDS in permeate and concentrate flows at each membrane stage demonstrate that they provide separation of monovalent and divalent ions and increase product water TDS without increasing lithium. This experimental approach increases calcium and TDS values in product water by 2–4 times compared with the use of reverse osmosis membranes. Calculations of operational costs for different options (the use of reverse osmosis, two-stage nanofiltration, and ion separation in a two-stage approach) are presented. These results confirm the economic advantage of nanofiltration membrane applications to remove lithium as compared to the use of high-rejection reverse osmosis membranes. The increase in product water TDS facilitates the further reduction of concentrate flow rate and operational costs. The economic comparison involved the calculation of the required membrane area and number of membrane elements at each stage, calcium carbonate scaling rates, reagent consumption to prevent scaling, and amounts of concentrate discharged into the sewer. Experimentally obtained results confirmed the feasibility of increasing the calcium concentration and TDS values in product water by 2–5 times while leaving the lithium concentration at the same level. Design characteristics to calculate operational costs for conventional and new options are calculated and demonstrate a sufficient (30–40%) reduction of operational costs compared to conventional use of reverse osmosis. The reduction in reagent consumption is attributed to the utilization of low-rejection nanofiltration membranes that have lower scaling propensities compared with reverse osmosis membranes and a smaller payment for concentrate discharge. The developed approach to using two-stage nanofiltration instead of single-stage reverse osmosis provides multiple advantages that include improved product water quality, lower concentrate consumption, and lower reagent consumption that are attributable to the use of low-rejection membranes. Different case studies are planned to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed techniques to reduce ammonia, fluoride, and boron in drinking water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes in Water and Wastewater Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 7558 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Fabrication Conditions on the Physical Properties and Water Treatment Efficiency of Cellulose Acetate Porous Membranes
by Rania E. Morsi, Franco Corticelli, Vittorio Morandi, Denis Gentili, Massimiliano Cavallini, Alberto Figoli, Francesca Russo, Francesco Galiano, Annalisa Aluigi and Barbara Ventura
Water 2023, 15(6), 1061; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061061 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1178
Abstract
In membrane-based water purification technology, control of the membrane pore structure is fundamental to defining its performance. The present study investigates the effect of the preparation conditions on the final pore size distribution and on the dye removal efficiency of cellulose acetate membranes. [...] Read more.
In membrane-based water purification technology, control of the membrane pore structure is fundamental to defining its performance. The present study investigates the effect of the preparation conditions on the final pore size distribution and on the dye removal efficiency of cellulose acetate membranes. The membranes were fabricated by means of phase inversion (using different speeds of film casting and different thicknesses of the casted solution) and introducing modifications in the preparation conditions, such as the use of a coagulation bath instead of pure water and the addition of a surfactant as a solution additive. Both isotropic and anisotropic membranes could be fabricated, and the membranes’ pore size, porosity, and water permeability were found to be greatly influenced by the fabrication conditions. The removal capacity towards different types of water contaminants was investigated, considering, as model dyes, Azure A and Methyl Orange. Azure A was removed with higher efficiency due to its better chemical affinity for cellulose acetate, and for both dyes the uptake could be fitted using a pseudo-second order model, evidencing that the rate-limiting step is chemisorption involving valency forces through the sharing or exchange of electrons between the dye and the membrane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes in Water and Wastewater Treatment)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop