Special Issue "Recent Advances in Herpesviruses Research: What's in the Pipeline?"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Sherif T. S. Hassan Website E-Mail
Department of Natural Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Palackého tř. 1946/1, 612 42 Brno, Czech Republic
Interests: pharmacology and toxicology; molecular mechanisms of pharmacological action; natural products chemistry; infectious diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, infection with herpesviruses has become a global concern due to its great threat to public health. Herpesviruses are infectious agents belonging to the virus family Herpesviridae that cause latent and lytic infections in humans and in a wide range of animals. There are eight herpesvirus types currently known to infect humans, including Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2), varicella-zoster virus, Epstein–Barr virus, human herpesvirus 6 (variants A and B), human herpesvirus 7, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, and human cytomegalovirus. Although the efficacy of the treatments of herpesviruses infection has improved during the past two decades, the increasing use of antiviral drugs has resulted in drug resistance, which, in turn, has switched researchers’ attention toward more effective therapeutic strategies based on novel antiviral drugs associated with decreased resistance, less undesirable side effects, and various mechanisms of action. This Special Issue aims to shed light on the recent advances in both preclinical and clinical studies on herpesviruses and in therapeutic developments in the treatment of herpesviruses infection.

Dr. Sherif T. S. Hassan
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • herpesviruses infection
  • antiviral therapeutics
  • resistance
  • vaccine development
  • preclinical and clinical studies
  • host–pathogen interactions
  • viral pathogenesis

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication
Role of Herpes Simplex Envelope Glycoprotein B and Toll-Like Receptor 2 in Ocular Inflammation: An ex vivo Organotypic Rabbit Corneal Model
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 819; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090819 - 04 Sep 2019
Abstract
It has been recently reported, using in vitro studies, that the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encoded envelope glycoprotein B (gB1) interacts with cell surface toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and induces the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL8), a representative marker of inflammatory cytokine activation. [...] Read more.
It has been recently reported, using in vitro studies, that the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encoded envelope glycoprotein B (gB1) interacts with cell surface toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and induces the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL8), a representative marker of inflammatory cytokine activation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of gB1 in activating host inflammatory responses by using a secreted form of gB1 (gB1s) and an ex vivo organotypic rabbit corneal model. Abraded corneas exposed to gB1s alone or to the recombinant protein mixed with anti gB polyclonal antibody were cultured in an air–liquid interface. The corneas exposed to gB1s show the appearance of mydriasis and high levels of TLR2 and IL-8 mRNAs transcripts were detected in the superficial layer of corneal epithelial cells. Histological stain and immunohistochemical analyses revealed morphological changes in the epithelium of the treated corneas and variations in expression and localization of TLR2. Collectively these findings provide new insight into the pathogenesis of HSV-1 ocular infection by demonstrating the leading role of gB in activating an inflammatory response and in the appearance of mydriasis, a sign of HSV-1 anterior uveitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Herpesviruses Research: What's in the Pipeline?)
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Open AccessArticle
Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 Evolves In Vitro through an Assemblage of Haplotypes that Alternatively Become Dominant or Under-Represented
Viruses 2019, 11(8), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080754 - 15 Aug 2019
Abstract
Viruses are able to evolve in vitro by mutations after serial passages in cell cultures, which can lead to either a loss, or an increase, of virulence. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), a 295-kb double-stranded DNA virus, is the etiological agent of the koi [...] Read more.
Viruses are able to evolve in vitro by mutations after serial passages in cell cultures, which can lead to either a loss, or an increase, of virulence. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), a 295-kb double-stranded DNA virus, is the etiological agent of the koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD). To assess the influence of serial passages, an isolate of CyHV-3 (KHV-T) was passaged 99 times onto common carp brain (CCB) cells, and virus virulence was evaluated during passages through the experimental infections of common carp. After 78 CCB passages, the isolate was much less virulent than the original form. A comparative genomic analysis of these three forms of KHV-T (P0, P78 and P99) revealed a limited number of variations. The largest one was a deletion of 1363 bp in the predicted ORF150, which was detected in P78, but not in P99. This unexpected finding was confirmed by conventional PCR and digital PCR. The results presented here primarily suggest that, CyHV-3 evolves, at least in vitro, through an assemblage of haplotypes that alternatively become dominant or under-represented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Herpesviruses Research: What's in the Pipeline?)
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Open AccessCommunication
Shedding of the Salmonid Herpesvirus-3 by Infected Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush)
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070580 - 26 Jun 2019
Abstract
Salmonid Herpesvirus-3, commonly known as the Epizootic Epitheliotropic Disease virus (EEDV), causes a disease of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) that has killed millions of fish over the past several decades. Currently, most aspects of EEDV disease ecology remain unknown. In this [...] Read more.
Salmonid Herpesvirus-3, commonly known as the Epizootic Epitheliotropic Disease virus (EEDV), causes a disease of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) that has killed millions of fish over the past several decades. Currently, most aspects of EEDV disease ecology remain unknown. In this study, we investigated EEDV shedding in experimentally challenged (intracoelomic injection) lake trout that were individually microchipped. In order to assess viral shedding, each infected fish was placed in individual static, aerated aquaria for a period of 8 h, after which the water was assessed for the presence of EEDV DNA using quantitative PCR. Water sampling was conducted every seven days for 93 days post-infection (pi), followed by additional sampling after one year. Results demonstrated that lake trout began shedding EEDV into the water as early as 9 days pi. Shedding peaked approximately three weeks pi and ceased after nine weeks pi. In contrast, mortalities did not occur until 40 days pi. Although mortality reached 73.9%, surviving fish ceased shedding and continued to grow. However, additional shedding was detected 58 weeks after infection in 66% of surviving fish. Findings of this study demonstrate that EEDV is shed into the water by infected lake trout hosts for extended periods of time, a mechanism that favors virus dissemination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Herpesviruses Research: What's in the Pipeline?)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Herpes Virus, Oral Clinical Signs and QoL: Systematic Review of Recent Data
Viruses 2019, 11(5), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11050463 - 21 May 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
This manuscript aims to highlight all the clinical features of the herpes virus, with a particular focus on oral manifestations and in the maxillofacial district about Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) and Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2). Oral herpes virus is a very common and [...] Read more.
This manuscript aims to highlight all the clinical features of the herpes virus, with a particular focus on oral manifestations and in the maxillofacial district about Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) and Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2). Oral herpes virus is a very common and often debilitating infectious disease for patients, affecting oral health and having important psychological implications. The collection of relevant data comes from the scientific databases Pubmed, Embase; initially this collection obtained an extremely high number of results, 1415. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, as well as a manual screening, the results included in this review were limited to 14. The results were expressed by evaluating all the signs and symptoms that this pathology entails during the study, paying attention to the characteristics linked to the quality of life and the psychological implications. This pathology has numerous therapies, which often make the healing phase of the manifestations of this viral pathology more comfortable. The therapies currently used for the treatment of this viral infection are pharmacological, topical, systemic, or instrumental, for example with laser devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Herpesviruses Research: What's in the Pipeline?)
Open AccessReview
Terminase Large Subunit Provides a New Drug Target for Herpesvirus Treatment
Viruses 2019, 11(3), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11030219 - 05 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Herpesvirus infection is an orderly, regulated process. Among these viruses, the encapsidation of viral DNA is a noteworthy link; the entire process requires a powered motor that binds to viral DNA and carries it into the preformed capsid. Studies have shown that this [...] Read more.
Herpesvirus infection is an orderly, regulated process. Among these viruses, the encapsidation of viral DNA is a noteworthy link; the entire process requires a powered motor that binds to viral DNA and carries it into the preformed capsid. Studies have shown that this power motor is a complex composed of a large subunit, a small subunit, and a third subunit, which are collectively known as terminase. The terminase large subunit is highly conserved in herpesvirus. It mainly includes two domains: the C-terminal nuclease domain, which cuts the viral concatemeric DNA into a monomeric genome, and the N-terminal ATPase domain, which hydrolyzes ATP to provide energy for the genome cutting and transfer activities. Because this process is not present in eukaryotic cells, it provides a reliable theoretical basis for the development of safe and effective anti-herpesvirus drugs. This article reviews the genetic characteristics, protein structure, and function of the herpesvirus terminase large subunit, as well as the antiviral drugs that target the terminase large subunit. We hope to provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of herpesvirus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Herpesviruses Research: What's in the Pipeline?)
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