Special Issue "Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Samantha M. Wisely
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, 110 Newins-Ziegler Hall, PO Box 110430, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
Interests: molecular ecology; wildlife and vector-borne disease ecology; spatial ecology; wildlife biology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus is a globally distributed orbivirus that contributes significantly to the morbidity and mortality of a wide range of ruminant species. In the last 5 years, the scientific community has produced a number of significant findings regarding the geography, ecology, and virology of the virus. Studies of captive and farmed deer have increased our knowledge of the etiology of and immunological response to the virus; detailed entomological studies have uncovered new vector species; outbreak characterizations suggest the pathogen and vectors are moving northward, and new vaccine technologies promise to provide livestock industries with relief from this pathogen, which is a major source of production loss in some sectors. These discoveries invariably lead to new questions about epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, its vectors, and the hosts that it impacts. 

This Special Issue on epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus in Viruses will provide a multifaceted view of the latest research into epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus. I invite researchers of virology, geography, entomology, disease ecology, and veterinary sciences to contribute to this Special Issue. Both empirical and theoretically-based research are welcome, as are reviews and perspectives.

Prof. Dr. Samantha M. Wisely
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus
  • EHDV
  • orbivirus
  • reovirus
  • vector-borne disease
  • disease ecology
  • veterinary entomology
  • medical geography

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Article
A Mortality-Based Description of EHDV and BTV Prevalence in Farmed White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Florida, USA
Viruses 2021, 13(8), 1443; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13081443 - 24 Jul 2021
Viewed by 554
Abstract
Hemorrhagic disease (HD) caused by bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is the most important viral disease of farmed and wild white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) and can cause substantial mortality in susceptible hosts. Captive cervid farming is an [...] Read more.
Hemorrhagic disease (HD) caused by bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is the most important viral disease of farmed and wild white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) and can cause substantial mortality in susceptible hosts. Captive cervid farming is an emerging industry in Florida, an HD-enzootic region. Morbidity and mortality due to HD are major concerns among deer farmers, but the impact of HD on Florida’s cervid farming industry is unknown. Our primary objective was to determine the prevalence of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) and bluetongue virus (BTV) among WTD submitted to the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Cervidae Health Research Initiative (CHeRI) for post-mortem diagnostics. Our secondary objectives were to identify the predominant circulating EHDV serotypes during each sampling year and to determine the age class with the greatest proportion of EHDV- and BTV-positive post-mortem specimens. From 2016 to 2020, spleen samples from 539 farmed WTD with unexplained mortality were tested for the presence of EHDV and BTV by RT-qPCR. Overall, the prevalence of EHDV, BTV, or EHDV/BTV coinfection was 26%, 16%, and 10%, respectively, and 44% of deer (237/539) were diagnosed with HD by RT-qPCR. The predominant circulating EHDV serotype varied by year. Overall, EHDV-2 was the most commonly identified serotype (55% of PCR-positive cases), and EHDV-1 was the least frequently identified serotype (16% of PCR-positive cases). The greatest proportion of EHDV/BTV positives among mortality cases was observed in young WTD aged 3–6 months (50%–82% positive). There was a significant difference in the prevalence of EHDV/BTV by age when comparing specimens from WTD over 1 year old (p = 0.029, n = 527). Among these samples, the number of reported mortalities and the prevalence of EHDV/BTV were highest in yearling animals (56%). These data provide the first estimate of EHDV and BTV prevalence and virus serotypes among farmed WTD in Florida, identify the WTD age groups with the greatest proportions of EHDV- and BTV-positive specimens, and suggest that HD caused by these two viruses may be a major source of mortality challenging the captive cervid farming industry in Florida. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Modeling Abundance of Culicoides stellifer, a Candidate Orbivirus Vector, Indicates Nonrandom Hemorrhagic Disease Risk for White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
Viruses 2021, 13(7), 1328; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13071328 - 09 Jul 2021
Viewed by 504
Abstract
(1) Background: Hemorrhagic diseases in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are caused by orbiviruses and have significant economic impact on the deer ranching industry in the United States. Culicoides stellifer is a suspected vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Hemorrhagic diseases in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are caused by orbiviruses and have significant economic impact on the deer ranching industry in the United States. Culicoides stellifer is a suspected vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), with recent field evidence from Florida, but its natural history is poorly understood. Studying the distribution and abundance of C. stellifer across the landscape can inform our knowledge of how virus transmission can occur locally. We may then target vector management strategies in areas where viral transmission can occur. (2) Methods: Here, we used an occupancy modeling approach to estimate abundance of adult C. stellifer females at various physiological states to determine habitat preferences. We then mapped midge abundance during the orbiviral disease transmission period (May–October) in Florida. (3) Results: We found that overall, midge abundance was positively associated with sites in closer proximity to large-animal feeders. Additionally, midges generally preferred mixed bottomland hardwood and agricultural/sand/water habitats. Female C. stellifer with different physiological states preferred different habitats. (4) Conclusions: The differences in habitat preferences between midges across states indicate that disease risk for deer is heterogeneous across this landscape. This can inform how effective vector management strategies should be implemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Duplex Fluorescent Microsphere Immunoassay for Detection of Bluetongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Antibodies in Cattle Sera
Viruses 2021, 13(4), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13040682 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes internationally reportable hemorrhagic disease in cattle, sheep, and white-tailed deer. The closely related, and often co-circulating, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus causes a clinically similar devastating disease in white-tailed deer, with increasing levels of disease in cattle in the past [...] Read more.
Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes internationally reportable hemorrhagic disease in cattle, sheep, and white-tailed deer. The closely related, and often co-circulating, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus causes a clinically similar devastating disease in white-tailed deer, with increasing levels of disease in cattle in the past 10 years. Transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, together, they constitute constant disease threats to the livelihood of livestock owners. In cattle, serious economic impacts result from decreased animal production, but most significantly from trade regulations. For effective disease surveillance and accurate trade regulation implementation, rapid, sensitive assays that can detect exposure of cattle to BTV and/or EHDV are needed. We describe the development and validation of a duplex fluorescent microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) to simultaneously detect and differentiate antibodies to BTV and EHDV in a single bovine serum sample. Performance of the duplex FMIA for detection and differentiation of BTV and EHDV serogroup antibodies was comparable, with higher sensitivity than commercially available single-plex competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (cELISA) for detection of each virus antibody separately. The FMIA adds to the currently available diagnostic tools for hemorrhagic orbiviral diseases in cattle as a sensitive, specific assay, with the benefits of serogroup differentiation in a single serum sample, and multiplexing flexibility in a high-throughput platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
Spatial Analysis of the 2017 Outbreak of Hemorrhagic Disease and Physiographic Region in the Eastern United States
Viruses 2021, 13(4), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13040550 - 25 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 534
Abstract
Hemorrhagic disease (HD) is considered one of the most significant infectious diseases of white-tailed deer in North America. Investigations into environmental conditions associated with outbreaks suggest drought conditions are strongly correlated with outbreaks in some regions of the United States. However, during 2017, [...] Read more.
Hemorrhagic disease (HD) is considered one of the most significant infectious diseases of white-tailed deer in North America. Investigations into environmental conditions associated with outbreaks suggest drought conditions are strongly correlated with outbreaks in some regions of the United States. However, during 2017, an HD outbreak occurred in the Eastern United States which appeared to be associated with a specific physiographic region, the Appalachian Plateau, and not drought conditions. The objective of this study was to determine if reported HD in white-tailed deer in 2017 was correlated with physiographic region. There were 456 reports of HD from 1605 counties across 26 states and 12 physiographic regions. Of the 93 HD reports confirmed by virus isolation, 76.3% (71/93) were identified as EHDV-2 and 66.2% (47/71) were from the Appalachian Plateau. A report of HD was 4.4 times more likely to occur in the Appalachian Plateau than not in 2017. Autologistic regression models suggested a statistically significant spatial dependence. The underlying factors explaining this correlation are unknown, but may be related to a variety of host, vector, or environmental factors. This unique outbreak and its implications for HD epidemiology highlight the importance for increased surveillance and reporting efforts in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Vector Competence of Florida Culicoides insignis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) for Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Serotype-2
Viruses 2021, 13(3), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13030410 - 05 Mar 2021
Viewed by 704
Abstract
Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV; family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus) is an arthropod-borne virus of ungulates, primarily white-tailed deer in North America. Culicoides sonorensis, the only confirmed North American vector of EHDV, is rarely collected from Florida despite annual virus outbreaks. [...] Read more.
Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV; family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus) is an arthropod-borne virus of ungulates, primarily white-tailed deer in North America. Culicoides sonorensis, the only confirmed North American vector of EHDV, is rarely collected from Florida despite annual virus outbreaks. Culicoides insignis is an abundant species in Florida and is also a confirmed vector of the closely related Bluetongue virus. In this study, oral challenge of C. insignis was performed to determine vector competence for EHDV serotype-2. Field-collected female midges were provided bovine blood spiked with three different titers of EHDV-2 (5.05, 4.00, or 2.94 log10PFUe/mL). After an incubation period of 10 days or after death, bodies and legs were collected. Saliva was collected daily from all females from 3 days post feeding until their death using honey card assays. All samples were tested for EHDV RNA using RT-qPCR. Our results suggest that C. insignis is a weakly competent vector of EHDV-2 that can support a transmissible infection when it ingests a high virus titer (29% of midges had virus positive saliva when infected at 5.05 log10PFUe/mL), but not lower virus titers. Nevertheless, due to the high density of this species, particularly in peninsular Florida, it is likely that C. insignis plays a role in the transmission of EHDV-2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Tracking Community Timing: Pattern and Determinants of Seasonality in Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Northern Florida
Viruses 2020, 12(9), 931; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12090931 - 25 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
Community dynamics are embedded in hierarchical spatial–temporal scales that connect environmental drivers with species assembly processes. Culicoides species are hematophagous arthropod vectors of orbiviruses that impact wild and domestic ruminants. A better sense of Culicoides dynamics over time is important because sympatric species [...] Read more.
Community dynamics are embedded in hierarchical spatial–temporal scales that connect environmental drivers with species assembly processes. Culicoides species are hematophagous arthropod vectors of orbiviruses that impact wild and domestic ruminants. A better sense of Culicoides dynamics over time is important because sympatric species can lengthen the seasonality of virus transmission. We tested a putative departure from the four seasons calendar in the phenology of Culicoides and the vector subassemblage in the Florida panhandle. Two years of weekly abundance data, temporal scales, persistence and environmental thresholds were analyzed using a tripartite Culicoides β-diversity based modeling approach. Culicoides phenology followed a two-season regime and was explained by stream flow and temperature, but not rainfall. Species richness fit a nested pattern where the species recruitment was maximized during spring months. Midges were active year-round, and two suspected vectors species, Culicoides venustus and Culicoides stellifer, were able to sustain and connect the seasonal modules. Persistence suggests that Orbivirus maintenance does not rely on overwintering and that viruses are maintained year-round, with the seasonal dynamics resembling subtropical Culicoides communities with temporal-overlapping between multivoltine species. Viewing Culicoides-borne orbiviruses as a time-sensitive community-based issue, our results help to recommend when management operations should be delivered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop