Special Issue "Viruses of Aquatic Ecosystems"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Télesphore Sime-Ngando
Website
Guest Editor
LMGE, Laboratoire “Micro-organismes: Génome et Environnement”, CNRS UMR 6023, Université Clermont Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France
Interests: aquatic viral ecology; phage–prokaryote interactions; phage- vs. grazer-induced bacterial mortality; nutrient effects on bacterivory vs. bacteriolysis; viral genomics; virome
Dr. Markus G. Weinbauer
Website
Guest Editor
Sorbonne Universités, UPMC, Université Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche (LOV), 181 Chemin du Lazaret, 06230 Villefranche-sur-Mer, France
Interests: aquatic viral ecology; prokaryote viruses; effect of aerosols on microorganisms; interactions between microorganisms and metazoans

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As biological entities of size between macromolecules and living cells, viruses are obligatory cellular parasites. Despite the difficulties of observing nanoscale particles and the lack of evolutionary tracers such as ribosomal RNA, viruses are considered to be the largest reservoirs of the uncharacterized genetic diversity of our planet. Omnipresent in aquatic ecosystems, some contain genes encoding biological functions, whose circulation makes host populations powerful vectors of genetic exchanges in the environment. Phages are abundant in aquatic ecosystems, generally more so than cellular microbes whose activity conditions their proliferation. Their role is essential in various processes structuring the dynamics of aquatic microbial biodiversity: cell mortality, biogeochemical cycles, horizontal gene transfer, etc. Viral studies are also sources of basic scientific questions cutting across environmental sciences, such as competitive exclusion, niche expansion, etc.

Indeed, recent advances in the study of viruses in aquatic ecosystems have given rise to a growing interest in the general context of environmental sciences, as sources of novel knowledge related to the biodiversity of living things, the functioning of ecosystems, the evolution of the cellular world, and the ecosystem services to the living beings, as well as to methodological innovations. This Special Issue is designed to provide an up-to-date view of all these processes and more, related to viruses and other nanoparticles in aquatic ecosystems.

Dr. Télesphore Sime-Ngando
Dr. Markus G. Weinbauer
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

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Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Indigenous versus Lessepsian Hosts: Nervous Necrosis Virus (NNV) in Eastern Mediterranean Sea Fish
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12040430 - 10 Apr 2020
Abstract
Viruses are among the most abundant and diverse biological components in the marine environment. In finfish, viruses are key drivers of host diversity and population dynamics, and therefore, their effect on the marine environment is far-reaching. Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) is a [...] Read more.
Viruses are among the most abundant and diverse biological components in the marine environment. In finfish, viruses are key drivers of host diversity and population dynamics, and therefore, their effect on the marine environment is far-reaching. Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) is a disease caused by the marine nervous necrosis virus (NNV), which is recognized as one of the main infectious threats for marine aquaculture worldwide. For over 140 years, the Suez Canal has acted as a conduit for the invasion of Red Sea marine species into the Mediterranean Sea. In 2016–2017, we evaluated the prevalence of NNV in two indigenous Mediterranean species, the round sardinella (Sardinella aurita) and the white steenbras (Lithognathus mormyrus) versus two Lessepsian species, the Randall’s threadfin bream (Nemipterus randalli) and the Lessepsian lizardfish (Saurida lessepsianus). A molecular method was used to detect NNV in all four fish species tested. In N. randalli, a relatively newly established invasive species in the Mediterranean Sea, the prevalence was significantly higher than in both indigenous species. In S. lessepsianus, prevalence varied considerably between years. While the factors that influence the effective establishment of invasive species are poorly understood, we suggest that the susceptibility of a given invasive fish species to locally acquired viral pathogens such as NVV may be important, in terms of both its successful establishment in its newly adopted environment and its role as a reservoir ‘host’ in the new area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses of Aquatic Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle
Diversity and Host Interactions among Virulent and Temperate Baltic Sea Flavobacterium Phages
Viruses 2020, 12(2), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12020158 - 30 Jan 2020
Abstract
Viruses in aquatic environments play a key role in microbial population dynamics and nutrient cycling. In particular, bacteria of the phylum Bacteriodetes are known to participate in recycling algal blooms. Studies of phage–host interactions involving this phylum are hence important to understand the [...] Read more.
Viruses in aquatic environments play a key role in microbial population dynamics and nutrient cycling. In particular, bacteria of the phylum Bacteriodetes are known to participate in recycling algal blooms. Studies of phage–host interactions involving this phylum are hence important to understand the processes shaping bacterial and viral communities in the ocean as well as nutrient cycling. In this study, we isolated and sequenced three strains of flavobacteria—LMO6, LMO9, LMO8—and 38 virulent phages infecting them. These phages represent 15 species, occupying three novel genera. Additionally, one temperate phage was induced from LMO6 and was found to be competent at infecting LMO9. Functions could be predicted for a limited number of phage genes, mainly representing roles in DNA replication and virus particle formation. No metabolic genes were detected. While the phages isolated on LMO8 could infect all three bacterial strains, the LMO6 and LMO9 phages could not infect LMO8. Of the phages isolated on LMO9, several showed a host-derived reduced efficiency of plating on LMO6, potentially due to differences in DNA methyltransferase genes. Overall, these phage–host systems contribute novel genetic information to our sequence databases and present valuable tools for the study of both virulent and temperate phages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses of Aquatic Ecosystems)
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