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Article

Significance of Viral Activity for Regulating Heterotrophic Prokaryote Community Dynamics along a Meridional Gradient of Stratification in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean

1
Department of Biological Oceanography, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands
2
Division of Marine Science, School of Ocean Science and Engineering, The University of Southern Mississippi, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(11), 1293; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12111293
Received: 25 September 2020 / Revised: 5 November 2020 / Accepted: 9 November 2020 / Published: 12 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses of Aquatic Ecosystems)
How microbial populations interact influences the availability and flux of organic carbon in the ocean. Understanding how these interactions vary over broad spatial scales is therefore a fundamental aim of microbial oceanography. In this study, we assessed variations in the abundances, production, virus and grazing induced mortality of heterotrophic prokaryotes during summer along a meridional gradient in stratification in the North Atlantic Ocean. Heterotrophic prokaryote abundance and activity varied with phytoplankton biomass, while the relative distribution of prokaryotic subpopulations (ratio of high nucleic acid fluorescent (HNA) and low nucleic acid fluorescent (LNA) cells) was significantly correlated to phytoplankton mortality mode (i.e., viral lysis to grazing rate ratio). Virus-mediate morality was the primary loss process regulating the heterotrophic prokaryotic communities (average 55% of the total mortality), which may be attributed to the strong top-down regulation of the bacterivorous protozoans. Host availability, encounter rate, and HNA:LNA were important factors regulating viral dynamics. Conversely, the abundance and activity of bacterivorous protozoans were largely regulated by temperature and turbulence. The ratio of total microbial mediated mortality to total available prokaryote carbon reveals that over the latitudinal gradient the heterotrophic prokaryote community gradually moved from a near steady state system regulated by high turnover in subtropical region to net heterotrophic production in the temperate region. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacterial production; marine viruses; mortality; lytic infection; lysogeny; protozoan grazing; carbon cycling; HNA; LNA bacterial production; marine viruses; mortality; lytic infection; lysogeny; protozoan grazing; carbon cycling; HNA; LNA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mojica, K.D.A.; Brussaard, C.P.D. Significance of Viral Activity for Regulating Heterotrophic Prokaryote Community Dynamics along a Meridional Gradient of Stratification in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean. Viruses 2020, 12, 1293. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12111293

AMA Style

Mojica KDA, Brussaard CPD. Significance of Viral Activity for Regulating Heterotrophic Prokaryote Community Dynamics along a Meridional Gradient of Stratification in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean. Viruses. 2020; 12(11):1293. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12111293

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mojica, Kristina D.A., and Corina P.D. Brussaard 2020. "Significance of Viral Activity for Regulating Heterotrophic Prokaryote Community Dynamics along a Meridional Gradient of Stratification in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean" Viruses 12, no. 11: 1293. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12111293

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