Special Issue "Flavivirus Vaccines"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Antivirals & Vaccines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 21 October 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Ashley L. St. John
Website
Guest Editor
Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-National University of Singapore, 8 College Road, Singapore 169857, Singapore
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
Pathology Department, SingHealth Duke-NUS Global Health Institute, Singapore 168753, Singapore
Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Dr. Abhay P.S. Rathore
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, United States

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Flaviviruses consist of diverse group of pathogens responsible for hundreds of millions of human infections annually. While there are highly effective vaccines to certain flaviviruses, such as Yellow Fever Virus, other Flavivirus vaccines are largely in developmental stages. Many factors may govern natural infection clearance or vaccine effectiveness, including but not limited to the initiation of immune responses at the site of infection, the time between exposures to vaccines or natural infections, and the vaccine composition. Due to their close antigenic relationships, flaviviruses evoke immune responses that are cross-reactive, and this presents complex challenges for vaccine development. These cross-reactive immune responses could potentially be pathogenic or may provide Flavivirus cross-protection. In this Special Issue, we will highlight advances in Flavivirus vaccine development and in the understanding of host immune responses that can inform vaccine design. We also welcome research that will broaden our understanding of Flavivirus cross-reactive immune responses.

Dr. Ashley L. St. John
Dr. Abhay P.S. Rathore
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mosquito borne flaviviruses including Dengue, Zika, West Nile, Kunjin, Usutu, Ntaya, Japanese encephalitis, Yellow fever, and more
  • Tick-borne flaviviruses including but not limited to Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Powassan, and Kyasanur forest disease
  • Vaccines and vaccine platforms
  • Adjuvants
  • Adaptive immunity and Immune memory (T and B cell responses)
  • Flavivirus cross-reactive immune responses
  • Skin immunity
  • Host–virus protein interactions that may influence vaccine effectiveness

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Transcutaneous Administration of Dengue Vaccines
Viruses 2020, 12(5), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12050514 - 06 May 2020
Abstract
In the present study, we evaluated the immunological responses induced by dengue vaccines under experimental conditions after delivery via a transcutaneous (TC) route. Vaccines against type 2 Dengue virus particles (DENV2 New Guinea C (NGC) strain) combined with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) heat-labile [...] Read more.
In the present study, we evaluated the immunological responses induced by dengue vaccines under experimental conditions after delivery via a transcutaneous (TC) route. Vaccines against type 2 Dengue virus particles (DENV2 New Guinea C (NGC) strain) combined with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) heat-labile toxin (LT) were administered to BALB/c mice in a three-dose immunization regimen via the TC route. As a control for the parenteral administration route, other mouse groups were immunized with the same vaccine formulation via the intradermic (ID) route. Our results showed that mice vaccinated either via the TC or ID routes developed similar protective immunity, as measured after lethal challenges with the DENV2 NGC strain. Notably, the vaccine delivered through the TC route induced lower serum antibody (IgG) responses with regard to ID-immunized mice, particularly after the third dose. The protective immunity elicited in TC-immunized mice was attributed to different antigen-specific antibody properties, such as epitope specificity and IgG subclass responses, and cellular immune responses, as determined by cytokine secretion profiles. Altogether, the results of the present study demonstrate the immunogenicity and protective properties of a dengue vaccine delivered through the TC route and offer perspectives for future clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavivirus Vaccines)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Effects of Pre-Existing Antibodies on Live-Attenuated Viral Vaccines
Viruses 2020, 12(5), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12050520 - 08 May 2020
Abstract
Live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) have achieved remarkable successes in controlling virus spread, as well as for other applications such as cancer immunotherapy. However, with rapid increases in international travel, globalization, geographic spread of viral vectors, and widespread use of vaccines, there is an increasing [...] Read more.
Live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) have achieved remarkable successes in controlling virus spread, as well as for other applications such as cancer immunotherapy. However, with rapid increases in international travel, globalization, geographic spread of viral vectors, and widespread use of vaccines, there is an increasing need to consider how pre-exposure to viruses which share similar antigenic regions can impact vaccine efficacy. Pre-existing antibodies, derived from either from maternal–fetal transmission, or by previous infection or vaccination, have been demonstrated to interfere with vaccine immunogenicity of measles, adenovirus, and influenza LAVs. Immune interference of LAVs can be caused by the formation of virus–antibody complexes that neutralize virus infection in antigen-presenting cells, or by the cross-linking of the B-cell receptor with the inhibitory receptor, FcγRIIB. On the other hand, pre-existing antibodies can augment flaviviral LAV efficacy such as that of dengue and yellow fever virus, especially when pre-existing antibodies are present at sub-neutralizing levels. The increased vaccine immunogenicity can be facilitated by antibody-dependent enhancement of virus infection, enhancing virus uptake in antigen-presenting cells, and robust induction of innate immune responses that promote vaccine immunogenicity. This review examines the literature on this topic and examines the circumstances where pre-existing antibodies can inhibit or enhance LAV efficacy. A better knowledge of the underlying mechanisms involved could allow us to better manage immunization in seropositive individuals and even identify possibilities that could allow us to exploit pre-existing antibodies to boost vaccine-induced responses for improved vaccine efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavivirus Vaccines)
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