Animal Models for Virology Research

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2024) | Viewed by 3806

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Antiviral Research, Department of Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Sciences, 5600 Old Main Hill, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322, USA
Interests: enterovirus; influenza virus; animal model

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Antiviral Research, Department of Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Sciences, 5600 Old Main Hill, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322, USA
Interests: immune response; animal model

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The use of cell culture models in virology is critical to understand the cell and molecular biology of virus infections. However, cell culture models have limitations, in that they do not allow the evaluation of virus tissue tropism, virus spread and pathogenesis in the host, or the host immune response to infection. Animal models are required to establish the natural history (time course) of infection from initial virus exposure, spread within the host, pathogenesis and clinical signs, and the host response to infection, until the outcome of recovery from illness or mortality.

This Special Issue aims to provide an overview of animal models used for virology research. Models used for the study of viral pathogenesis and the immune response to infection, including models used to evaluate the efficacy of antiviral therapeutics and vaccines, will be emphasized. The goal of this Special Issue is to stimulate future research and innovation in this important and challenging field.

Dr. Bart Tarbet
Dr. Brett L. Hurst
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • animal model
  • viral pathogenesis
  • antiviral therapeutics
  • therapeutic models
  • vaccine models

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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22 pages, 3750 KiB  
Article
Prior Influenza Infection Mitigates SARS-CoV-2 Disease in Syrian Hamsters
by Caterina Di Pietro, Ann M. Haberman, Brett D. Lindenbach, Peter C. Smith, Emanuela M. Bruscia, Heather G. Allore, Brent Vander Wyk, Antariksh Tyagi and Caroline J. Zeiss
Viruses 2024, 16(2), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16020246 - 3 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Seasonal infection rates of individual viruses are influenced by synergistic or inhibitory interactions between coincident viruses. Endemic patterns of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza infection overlap seasonally in the Northern hemisphere and may be similarly influenced. We explored the immunopathologic basis of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza [...] Read more.
Seasonal infection rates of individual viruses are influenced by synergistic or inhibitory interactions between coincident viruses. Endemic patterns of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza infection overlap seasonally in the Northern hemisphere and may be similarly influenced. We explored the immunopathologic basis of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A (H1N1pdm09) interactions in Syrian hamsters. H1N1 given 48 h prior to SARS-CoV-2 profoundly mitigated weight loss and lung pathology compared to SARS-CoV-2 infection alone. This was accompanied by the normalization of granulocyte dynamics and accelerated antigen-presenting populations in bronchoalveolar lavage and blood. Using nasal transcriptomics, we identified a rapid upregulation of innate and antiviral pathways induced by H1N1 by the time of SARS-CoV-2 inoculation in 48 h dual-infected animals. The animals that were infected with both viruses also showed a notable and temporary downregulation of mitochondrial and viral replication pathways. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed a decrease in the SARS-CoV-2 viral load and lower cytokine levels in the lungs of animals infected with both viruses throughout the course of the disease. Our data confirm that H1N1 infection induces rapid and transient gene expression that is associated with the mitigation of SARS-CoV-2 pulmonary disease. These protective responses are likely to begin in the upper respiratory tract shortly after infection. On a population level, interaction between these two viruses may influence their relative seasonal infection rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models for Virology Research)
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Article
Exploring the Susceptibility of C3H Mice to Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Infection: Implications for Co-Infection Models and Understanding of the Disease
by Stefania Porcelli, Aurélie Heckmann, Anne-Claire Lagrée, Clémence Galon, Sara Moutailler and Pierre Lucien Deshuillers
Viruses 2023, 15(11), 2270; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15112270 - 17 Nov 2023
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Abstract
Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are increasingly recognized as a critical One Health concern. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), a severe neuro infection caused by the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), has emerged as a significant global public health threat. Laboratory animals, particularly mice, have played [...] Read more.
Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are increasingly recognized as a critical One Health concern. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), a severe neuro infection caused by the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), has emerged as a significant global public health threat. Laboratory animals, particularly mice, have played a pivotal role in advancing our understanding of TBD pathogenesis. Notably, BALB/c mice have been employed as models due to their heightened susceptibility to TBEV. However, the use of C3H mice, valued for other tick-borne pathogens, has remained unexplored for TBEV until now. This study aimed to assess the susceptibility of C3H mice to TBEV infection, laying the groundwork for future co-infection models involving TBEV and Borrelia. Experiments revealed that C3H mice are susceptible to TBEV infection through subcutaneous inoculation. While 102 PFU/mouse appeared necessary for full infection, 103 PFU/mouse induced consistent symptoms. However, subsequent assessment of ticks’ acquisition of TBEV from infected mice met with limited success, raising questions about optimal infectious doses for natural infection. These findings suggest the potential of C3H mice for studying TBEV and co-infections with other pathogens, particularly Borrelia. Further exploration of the interplay between these pathogens, their transmission dynamics, and disease severity could enhance prevention and control strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models for Virology Research)
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Review

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39 pages, 673 KiB  
Review
Experimental Infection Models and Their Usefulness for White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Research in Shrimp
by Natasja Cox, Evelien De Swaef, Mathias Corteel, Wim Van Den Broeck, Peter Bossier, Hans J. Nauwynck and João J. Dantas-Lima
Viruses 2024, 16(5), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16050813 - 20 May 2024
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Abstract
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is marked as one of the most economically devastating pathogens in shrimp aquaculture worldwide. Infection of cultured shrimp can lead to mass mortality (up to 100%). Although progress has been made, our understanding of WSSV’s infection process and [...] Read more.
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is marked as one of the most economically devastating pathogens in shrimp aquaculture worldwide. Infection of cultured shrimp can lead to mass mortality (up to 100%). Although progress has been made, our understanding of WSSV’s infection process and the virus–host–environment interaction is far from complete. This in turn hinders the development of effective mitigation strategies against WSSV. Infection models occupy a crucial first step in the research flow that tries to elucidate the infectious disease process to develop new antiviral treatments. Moreover, since the establishment of continuous shrimp cell lines is a work in progress, the development and use of standardized in vivo infection models that reflect the host–pathogen interaction in shrimp is a necessity. This review critically examines key aspects of in vivo WSSV infection model development that are often overlooked, such as standardization, (post)larval quality, inoculum type and choice of inoculation procedure, housing conditions, and shrimp welfare considerations. Furthermore, the usefulness of experimental infection models for different lines of WSSV research will be discussed with the aim to aid researchers when choosing a suitable model for their research needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models for Virology Research)
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