Special Issue "Parasites, Zoonoses and War: A Themed Issue in Honor of Emeritus Professor John M Goldsmid"

A special issue of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease (ISSN 2414-6366). This special issue belongs to the section "Vector-Borne Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2019) | Viewed by 17205

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Richard S. Bradbury
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Health and Life Sciences, Federation University, Melbourne, Australia
Interests: epidemiology; tropical diseases; emerging infectious diseases; parasitic diseases; zoonotic diseases; infectious disease transmission; zoonoses; parasitology; molecular parasitology; infectious disease diagnostics; tropical medicine; helminthology; filariasis; neglected tropical diseases; soil-transmitted helminth

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is with the greatest of pleasure that I announce this Special Edition of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases dedicated to the life and work of Professor John Marsden Goldsmid.
John Goldsmid studied entomology at Rhodes University in South Africa, graduating with an M.Sc. based on the host finding behaviour of tick larvae. While at Rhodes, he met his future wife, Hilary, and after completing his MSc research, he moved to Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), where Hilary was working as a teacher. For a short while he worked as an entomologist, but then moved back into academia, being appointed to a teaching position in the Zoology Department at the University of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. With the formation of the Medical School at what had become the University of Rhodesia (now University of Zimbabwe), John transferred to the Pathology Department, and then to the newly formed Department of Medical Microbiology. John and Hilary were married in Salisbury, and Hilary provided magnificent support and encouragement throughout John’s career
The post at the University also involved running the Parasitology Department of the Harare Hospital Pathology Laboratory, and this allowed John to develop his interest in parasitic diseases and zoonoses based on the many rare and exotic parasitoses that he encountered in the laboratory. He concentrated on the intestinal nematode infections of humans, especially the hookworm species and Ternidens deminutus, the “false hookworm”.
John completed his PhD through the University of London and under the inspiring supervision of Professor George Nelson of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and was appointed as Professor and Head of the Department of Medical Microbiology, continuing and extending his research into parasitic and other infections, and their identification, diagnosis, and treatment.
At this point, Professor Goldsmid was commissioned as a Major in the Rhodesian Army Medical Corps (now the Zimbabwe National Army medical Corps) and became involved in developing a diagnostic pathology laboratory for the medical corps. With the extension of the Rhodesian Bush War, and the employment of army and police personnel into the more remote parts of Central Africa, the army was acutely aware of the problem and dangers of infectious and parasitic diseases, and thus the lab was developed and achieved recognition as a training laboratory, which allowed for the call up of medical technologists into the army laboratory, allowing them to utilise their professional skills and to continue their training during their call up periods.
In 1977, John emigrated to Australia and became a senior lecturer at the School of Medicine at the University of Tasmania. Here, he taught microbiology and continued his passionate work in parasitology and zoonotic diseases. He became an advocate for parasitology within professional organisations such as the Australian Society for Microbiology and the Australasian College of Tropical Medicine, and edited the journals of both societies for an extended period of time. He also was an early promotor of the field of travel medicine, even establishing a Tropical and Travel Medicine Elective unit at the University of Tasmania.
Professor Goldsmid’s impact as a diagnostician, researcher, teacher, and mentor has influenced many in the field of parasitic and zoonotic disease, and it is fitting that this Special Edition of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases is devoted to honour his outstanding work in these fields, both within Australia and internationally.
Professor Goldsmid continued to teach at the University of Tasmania until two years ago. He continues to live in Tasmania with Hilary, where he is now retired.

Dr. Richard S. Bradbury
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • parasites
  • zoonoses
  • helminths
  • protozoa
  • global health
  • diagnostics
  • military medicine

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Parasites, Zoonoses and War: A Themed Issue in Honor of Emeritus Professor John M. Goldsmid
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(2), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5020103 - 21 Jun 2020
Viewed by 895
Abstract
This Special Issue of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease is dedicated to the life and work of Emeritus Professor John Marsden Goldsmid [...] Full article

Research

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Communication
Global Medicine, Parasites, and Tasmania
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5010007 - 01 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1397
Abstract
Until the 1970s, infectious disease training in most medical schools was limited to those diseases common in the area of instruction. Those wishing to explore a more globalised curriculum were encouraged to undertake specialist postgraduate training at schools or institutes of tropical medicine. [...] Read more.
Until the 1970s, infectious disease training in most medical schools was limited to those diseases common in the area of instruction. Those wishing to explore a more globalised curriculum were encouraged to undertake specialist postgraduate training at schools or institutes of tropical medicine. However, the increase in global trade and travel from the 1970s onward led to dramatic changes in the likelihood of returning travellers and new immigrants presenting with tropical infections in temperate regions. Furthermore, population growth and the changing relationships between animals, the environment, and man in agriculture accentuated the importance of a wider understanding of emerging infectious diseases, zoonotic diseases and parasitic infections. These epidemiological facts were not adequately reflected in the medical literature or medical curriculum at the time. The orientation on tropical infections needed specialised attention, including instruction on diagnosis and treatment of such infections. We describe key global health events and how the changing field of global medicine, from the 1970s to early 2000, impacted on medical education and research. We describe the impact of global health changes in the Tasmanian context, a temperate island state of Australia. We retrospectively analysed data of patients diagnosed with parasites and present a list of endemic and non-endemic parasites reported during this period. Finally, we reflect on the new approaches to the changing needs of global health and challenges that medical programmes, learners and educators face today. Full article
Article
Semi-Quantitative, Duplexed qPCR Assay for the Detection of Leishmania spp. Using Bisulphite Conversion Technology
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(4), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4040135 - 01 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1778
Abstract
Leishmaniasis is caused by the flagellated protozoan Leishmania, and is a neglected tropical disease (NTD), as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO). Bisulphite conversion technology converts all genomic material to a simplified form during the lysis step of the nucleic acid extraction [...] Read more.
Leishmaniasis is caused by the flagellated protozoan Leishmania, and is a neglected tropical disease (NTD), as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO). Bisulphite conversion technology converts all genomic material to a simplified form during the lysis step of the nucleic acid extraction process, and increases the efficiency of multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) reactions. Through utilization of qPCR real-time probes, in conjunction with bisulphite conversion, a new duplex assay targeting the 18S rDNA gene region was designed to detect all Leishmania species. The assay was validated against previously extracted DNA, from seven quantitated DNA and cell standards for pan-Leishmania analytical sensitivity data, and 67 cutaneous clinical samples for cutaneous clinical sensitivity data. Specificity was evaluated by testing 76 negative clinical samples and 43 bacterial, viral, protozoan and fungal species. The assay was also trialed in a side-by-side experiment against a conventional PCR (cPCR), based on the Internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1 region). Ninety-seven percent of specimens from patients that previously tested positive for Leishmania were positive for Leishmania spp. with the bisulphite conversion assay, and a limit of detection (LOD) of 10 copies per PCR was achieved, while the LOD of the ITS1 methodology was 10 cells/1000 genomic copies per PCR. This method of rapid, accurate and simple detection of Leishmania can lead to improved diagnosis, treatment and public health outcomes. Full article
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Review

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Review
A Devil of a Transmissible Cancer
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5020050 - 01 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2159
Abstract
Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) encompasses two independent transmissible cancers that have killed the majority of Tasmanian devils. The cancer cells are derived from Schwann cells and are spread between devils during biting, a common behavior during the mating season. The Centers for [...] Read more.
Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) encompasses two independent transmissible cancers that have killed the majority of Tasmanian devils. The cancer cells are derived from Schwann cells and are spread between devils during biting, a common behavior during the mating season. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines a parasite as “An organism that lives on or in a host organism and gets its food from, or at, the expense of its host.” Most cancers, including DFTD, live within a host organism and derive resources from its host, and consequently have parasitic-like features. Devil facial tumor disease is a transmissible cancer and, therefore, DFTD shares one additional feature common to most parasites. Through direct contact between devils, DFTD has spread throughout the devil population. However, unlike many parasites, the DFTD cancer cells have a simple lifecycle and do not have either independent, vector-borne, or quiescent phases. To facilitate a description of devil facial tumor disease, this review uses life cycles of parasites as an analogy. Full article
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Review
Ternidens deminutus Revisited: A Review of Human Infections with the False Hookworm
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(3), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4030106 - 18 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2214
Abstract
Ternidens deminutus, the false hookworm of humans and non-human primates, represents a truly neglected intestinal helminth infection. The similarity of the eggs of this nematode to those of hookworm both presents a diagnostic challenge and a potential confounder in prevalence surveys of [...] Read more.
Ternidens deminutus, the false hookworm of humans and non-human primates, represents a truly neglected intestinal helminth infection. The similarity of the eggs of this nematode to those of hookworm both presents a diagnostic challenge and a potential confounder in prevalence surveys of soil transmitted helminths (STH) in regions where T. deminutus is found. The helminth infects non-human primates throughout Africa and Asia, but reports of human infection are almost exclusively found in eastern and southern Africa. Historically, an infection prevalence up to 87% has been reported from some parts of Zimbabwe. Scarce reports of ternidensiasis have also been made in individuals in Suriname and one from Thailand. Little work has been performed on this parasite since the 1970s and it not known why human infection has not been reported more widely or what the current prevalence in humans from historically endemic areas is. This review serves to revisit this enigmatic parasite and provide detail to a modern audience of parasitologists on its history, clinical presentation, geographic distribution, life cycle, biology, morphology, diagnosis and treatment. Full article
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Other

Perspective
Acute Lymphatic Filariasis Infection in United States Armed Forces Personnel Deployed to the Pacific Area of Operations during World War II Provides Important Lessons for Today
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5020063 - 17 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1236
Abstract
The deployment of United States (US) Armed Forces personnel into the central Pacific islands of Samoa and Tonga, which is highly-endemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF), resulted in thousands of cases of the acute form of this disease and greatly reduced their ability to [...] Read more.
The deployment of United States (US) Armed Forces personnel into the central Pacific islands of Samoa and Tonga, which is highly-endemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF), resulted in thousands of cases of the acute form of this disease and greatly reduced their ability to carry out their mission. The major driving factor for the intensity of transmission was the aggressiveness and efficiency of the Aedes species mosquito vectors, especially the day-biting Ae. Polynesiensis. The paper reminds us of the danger that tropical diseases can pose for troops sent into endemic areas and constant and careful surveillance that is required to prevent rapid resurgence of Aedes-transmitted LF in populations, where the LF elimination program has been successful. Full article
Case Report
Gnathostomiasis Acquired by Visitors to the Okavango Delta, Botswana
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5010039 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1431
Abstract
Gnathostomiasis is a zoonotic nematode parasite disease, most commonly acquired by eating raw or undercooked fish. Although the disease is well known in parts of Asia and Central and South America, relatively few cases have been reported from Africa. Raw fish consumed in [...] Read more.
Gnathostomiasis is a zoonotic nematode parasite disease, most commonly acquired by eating raw or undercooked fish. Although the disease is well known in parts of Asia and Central and South America, relatively few cases have been reported from Africa. Raw fish consumed in the Okavango River delta area of Botswana, and in nearby western Zambia, has previously produced laboratory-proven gnathostomiasis in tourists. The purpose of this communication is to record additional cases of the infection acquired in the Okavango delta, and to alert visitors to the inadvisability of eating raw freshwater fish in the southern African region. Full article
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Commentary
The Importance of Understanding Social and Cultural Norms in Delivering Quality Health Care—A Personal Experience Commentary
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5010022 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2230
Abstract
The objectives of this paper are to provide a review of the author’s personal experiences working in culturally diverse environments and to emphasize the importance of recognizing the social determinants of health. While some determinants of health are modifiable others are not, in [...] Read more.
The objectives of this paper are to provide a review of the author’s personal experiences working in culturally diverse environments and to emphasize the importance of recognizing the social determinants of health. While some determinants of health are modifiable others are not, in addition it is emphasized that cultural safety in delivering health care is crucial if services provided are to be appropriate and acceptable to health care seekers. Cultural sensitivity is needed if one is to make a change in health outcomes in culturally diverse environments. The development and delivery of culturally safe services is more acceptable to community members and is important if a difference is to be made in health inequities. Training in delivering culturally safe services should include both theoretical and practical components. Practical training should be conducted under supervision in remote settings so that trainees appreciate what their clients experience on a daily basis. Culturally “unsafe” clinical service has serious adverse effects. This commentary discusses the above factors and provides example cases from the author’s own career of where such factors have affected the health of individuals or groups. Full article
Brief Report
e-Diagnosis in Medical Parasitology
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5010008 - 03 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
Over the past decade or two, the teaching of laboratory diagnostic parasitology has been neglected in Australasia, as parasitic infections are relatively uncommon. As a consequence, expertise in medical parasitology is dwindling. A team of international experts (including Professor John Goldsmid) has been [...] Read more.
Over the past decade or two, the teaching of laboratory diagnostic parasitology has been neglected in Australasia, as parasitic infections are relatively uncommon. As a consequence, expertise in medical parasitology is dwindling. A team of international experts (including Professor John Goldsmid) has been formed to help in the diagnosis of human parasitic infections. The team includes experts from Australia, Europe, South Africa and the USA. Some senior members of the team are excellent morphologists, and we have both human and veterinary parasitologists who help with molecular diagnosis in difficult cases. Full article
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Case Report
Percutaneous Emergence of Gnathostoma spinigerum Following Praziquantel Treatment
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(4), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4040145 - 14 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1947
Abstract
A Bangladeshi patient with prior travel to Saudi Arabia was hospitalized in the United States for a presumptive liver abscess. Praziquantel was administered following a positive Schistosoma antibody test. Ten days later, a subadult worm migrated to the skin surface and was identified [...] Read more.
A Bangladeshi patient with prior travel to Saudi Arabia was hospitalized in the United States for a presumptive liver abscess. Praziquantel was administered following a positive Schistosoma antibody test. Ten days later, a subadult worm migrated to the skin surface and was identified morphologically as Gnathostoma spinigerum. This case highlights the challenges of gnathostomiasis diagnosis, raising questions on potential serologic cross-reactivity and the possible role of praziquantel in stimulating outward migration of Gnathostoma larvae/subadults. Full article
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