COVID-19: Current Situation and Future Trends

A special issue of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease (ISSN 2414-6366). This special issue belongs to the section "Infectious Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 17722

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Division of Tropical Health and Medicine, College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia
2. School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, University of Galway, Galway, Ireland
Interests: neglected tropical diseases; lymphatic filariasis; dengue; malaria; occupational health; travel medicine; emerging public health threats
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Guest Editor
Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Institute of Preventive Medicine, Nonthaburi, Thailand
Interests: travel medicine; tropical medicine; global health

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Guest Editor
Division of Public Health Surveillance and Response, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg 2192, South Africa
Interests: public health; infectious disease surveillance; HIV; TB

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic, and the disease now affects nearly every country and region. Caused by SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 is more than two years later continuing to present significant challenges to health systems and public health in both hemispheres, as well as the economies of each country. The morbidity and mortality of the infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 have been significant, and various waves of disease outbreaks initially overwhelmed many hospitals and clinics, and with the return to international travel, COVID-19 is presenting new challenges to health systems. This influences everyone, and public health countermeasures have been dramatic in terms of their impact on employment, social systems, and mental health.

This Special Issue follows on from the Special Issue “COVID-19: Current Status and Future Prospects” and provides an avenue for authors from various disciplines to provide feedback on the response and our future preparedness around COVID-19 globally, as well as to disseminate critical information about the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the associated COVID-19 pandemic. We are accepting submissions from around the world, but we are particularly interested in submissions featuring perspectives from the southern hemisphere.

The scope of the issue shall encompass the following:

  • Original articles about COVID-19 (including epidemiology, modelling, clinical data, treatment, prevention, countermeasures, impact on tropical regions, vaccines, response, and preparedness);
  • Original articles about SARS-CoV-2, including new variants (microbiology, virology, diagnosis, transmission, pathology, and vaccinology);
  • Perspectives about COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 (comparisons with past coronavirus outbreaks, impactful local initiatives, novel responses and commentaries);
  • Reviews on COVID-19 (based on systematic and narrative reviews);
  • Innovations (vaccine development, drug trials, facilitating international travel and other countermeasures).

Prof. Dr. Peter A. Leggat
Dr. Parinda Wattanasri
Dr. Waasila Jassat
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • coronavirus
  • countermeasures
  • COVID-19
  • infectious disease
  • microbiology
  • new variants
  • origins
  • outbreak
  • pandemic
  • pathology
  • pneumonia
  • preparedness
  • psychological impacts
  • public health
  • response
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • severe respiratory distress syndrome
  • social effects
  • southern hemisphere
  • tourism
  • travel health
  • tropics
  • vaccines
  • virology
  • zoonosis

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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12 pages, 1214 KiB  
Article
Inter-observer Variability in the Analysis of CO-RADS Classification for COVID-19 Patients
by Yassir Edrees Almalki, Mohammad Abd Alkhalik Basha, Maha Ibrahim Metwally, Ahmed Mohamed Housseini, Sharifa Khalid Alduraibi, Ziyad A. Almushayti, Asim S. Aldhilan, Mahmoud Mohamed Elzoghbi, Esraa Attia Gabr, Esaraa Manajrah, Reham Mohammed Farid Hijazy, Loujain Mohamed Khear Akbazli, Ayman El Mokadem, Ahmed M. A. Basha and Walid Mosallam
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2023, 8(12), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8120523 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1326
Abstract
During the early stages of the pandemic, computed tomography (CT) of the chest, along with serological and clinical data, was frequently utilized in diagnosing COVID-19, particularly in regions facing challenges such as shortages of PCR kits. In these circumstances, CT scans played a [...] Read more.
During the early stages of the pandemic, computed tomography (CT) of the chest, along with serological and clinical data, was frequently utilized in diagnosing COVID-19, particularly in regions facing challenges such as shortages of PCR kits. In these circumstances, CT scans played a crucial role in diagnosing COVID-19 and guiding patient management. The COVID-19 Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS) was established as a standardized reporting system for cases of COVID-19 pneumonia. Its implementation necessitates a high level of agreement among observers to prevent any potential confusion. This study aimed to assess the inter-observer agreement between physicians from different specialties with variable levels of experience in their CO-RADS scoring of CT chests for confirmed COVID-19 patients, and to assess the feasibility of applying this reporting system to those having little experience with it. All chest CT images of patients with positive RT-PCR tests for COVID-19 were retrospectively reviewed by seven observers. The observers were divided into three groups according to their type of specialty (three radiologists, three house officers, and one pulmonologist). The observers assessed each image and categorized the patients into five CO-RADS groups. A total of 630 participants were included in this study. The inter-observer agreement was almost perfect among the radiologists, substantial among a pulmonologist and the house officers, and moderate-to-substantial among the radiologists, the pulmonologist, and the house officers. There was substantial to almost perfect inter-observer agreement when reporting using the CO-RADS among observers with different experience levels. Although the inter-observer variability among the radiologists was high, it decreased compared to the pulmonologist and house officers. Radiologists, house officers, and pulmonologists applying the CO-RADS can accurately and promptly identify typical CT imaging features of lung involvement in COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Current Situation and Future Trends)
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12 pages, 427 KiB  
Article
Incidence of, and Risk Factors and Outcomes Associated with, Acute Kidney Injury in COVID-19 at the National Kidney and Transplant Institute, Philippines
by Melchor Altillero, Jr., Romina Danguilan and Mel Hatra Arakama
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2023, 8(8), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8080387 - 28 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1483
Abstract
(1) Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) in COVID-19 leads to an increase in patient mortality, especially among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. (2) Methods: A retrospective cohort of 519 adults admitted from 1 March 2020 to 1 March 2022 were reviewed for baseline [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) in COVID-19 leads to an increase in patient mortality, especially among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. (2) Methods: A retrospective cohort of 519 adults admitted from 1 March 2020 to 1 March 2022 were reviewed for baseline characteristics and their association with renal outcomes. Patients were divided into diagnosed CKD, undiagnosed CKD, and normal eGFR. Chronic dialysis and kidney-transplant patients were excluded. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis at 7, 14, and 30 days from admission was performed. (3) Results: The overall incidence of AKI was 45.66%; the proportions among patients with diagnosed CKD, undiagnosed CKD, and normal eGFR were 76.64%, 38.75%, and 7.59%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that being male and inotrope use were significant risk factors for AKI, while higher eGFR was protective. AKI was associated with dialysis, invasive ventilation (p < 0.0001), prolonged hospitalization (p = 0.0001), and mortality (p < 0.0001). Renal recovery was 64%, 59%, and 23% in stages 1, 2, and 3 AKI, respectively, until 14 days from discharge (p < 0.0001). Patient survival was lower in cases of AKI: 83.16%, 70.59%, and 47.5% compared to non-AKI figures of 91.27%, 87.82%, and 76.95% at 7, 14, and 30 days respectively(p = 0.0001). (4) Conclusion: There was a higher incidence of AKI with worsening renal function. Intensified preventive measures for AKI are crucial to prevent its devastating consequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Current Situation and Future Trends)
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12 pages, 1283 KiB  
Communication
Common Prognostic Biomarkers and Outcomes in Patients with COVID-19 Infection in Saudi Arabia
by Mashael Abujabal, Mohamed A. Shalaby, Layla Abdullah, Amr S. Albanna, Mohamed Elzoghby, Ghadeer Ghazi Alahmadi, Sidharth Kumar Sethi, Mohamad-Hani Temsah, Fadi Aljamaan, Khalid Alhasan and Jameela A. Kari
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2023, 8(5), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8050260 - 30 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1721
Abstract
Background: COVID-19 is a respiratory disease that eventually became a pandemic, with 300 million people infected around the world. Alongside the improvement in COVID-19 management and vaccine development, identifying biomarkers for COVID-19 has recently been reported to help in early prediction and managing [...] Read more.
Background: COVID-19 is a respiratory disease that eventually became a pandemic, with 300 million people infected around the world. Alongside the improvement in COVID-19 management and vaccine development, identifying biomarkers for COVID-19 has recently been reported to help in early prediction and managing severe cases, which might improve outcomes. Our study aimed to find out if there is any correlation between clinical severity and elevated hematological and biochemical markers in COVID-19 patients and its effect on the outcome. Methods: We have collected retrospective data on socio-demographics, medical history, biomarkers, and disease outcomes from five hospitals and health institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Results: Pneumonia was the most common presentation of COVID-19 in our cohort. The presence of abnormal inflammatory biomarkers (D-dimer, CRP, troponin, LDH, ferritin, and t white blood cells) was significantly associated with unstable COVID-19 disease. In addition, patients with evidence of severe respiratory disease, particularly those who required mechanical ventilation, had higher biomarkers when compared to those with stable respiratory conditions (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Identifying biomarkers predicts outcomes for COVID-19 patients and may significantly help in their management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Current Situation and Future Trends)
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15 pages, 657 KiB  
Article
Factors Related to Severity, Hospitalization, and Mortality of COVID-19 Infection among Patients with Autoimmune Diseases
by Alvina Widhani, Sukamto Koesnoe, Suzy Maria, Annisa Layalia Widjanarko, Teguh Harjono Karjadi, Anshari Saifuddin Hasibuan, Evy Yunihastuti, Iris Rengganis and Samsuridjal Djauzi
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2023, 8(4), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8040227 - 18 Apr 2023
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Abstract
Patients with an autoimmune disease could be at higher risk of a poor outcome when contracting COVID-19 infection due to aberrant immune responses and use of immunosuppressant therapies for chronic autoimmune treatment. Here, we conducted a retrospective study to identify the factors related [...] Read more.
Patients with an autoimmune disease could be at higher risk of a poor outcome when contracting COVID-19 infection due to aberrant immune responses and use of immunosuppressant therapies for chronic autoimmune treatment. Here, we conducted a retrospective study to identify the factors related to severity, hospitalization, and mortality among patients with autoimmune diseases. We found 165 cases of patients with pre-existing autoimmune diseases who had contracted COVID-19 between March 2020 and September 2022. Data on demographical characteristics; autoimmune diagnosis and treatment; COVID-19 vaccination status; and time, severity, and outcome of COVID-19 infection were collected. Most of the subjects were female (93.3%) and autoimmune diagnoses included systemic lupus erythematosus (54.5%), Sjogren’s syndrome (33.5%), antiphospholipid syndrome (23%), vasculitis (5.5%), autoimmune thyroid disease (3.6%), rheumatoid arthritis (3.03%), and inflammatory bowel disease (3.03%) among other autoimmune diseases. There were four COVID-19-related deaths in this study. Factors associated with moderate to severe COVID-19 infection in patients with autoimmune diseases included not being vaccinated against COVID-19, taking a steroid of ≥10 mg prednisone-equivalent per day, and having a cardiovascular disease. Taking a steroid of ≥10 mg prednisone-equivalent per day was also associated with hospitalization in the event of COVID-19 infection, while cardiovascular diseases also showed a significant correlation to mortality in patients with autoimmune diseases who had been hospitalized with COVID-19 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Current Situation and Future Trends)
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16 pages, 6590 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with COVID-19 Death in a High-Altitude Peruvian Setting during the First 14 Months of the Pandemic: A Retrospective Multicenter Cohort Study in Hospitalized Patients
by Fátima Concha-Velasco, Ana G. Moncada-Arias, María K. Antich, Carolina J. Delgado-Flores, Cesar Ramírez-Escobar, Marina Ochoa-Linares, Lucio Velásquez-Cuentas, Homero Dueñas de la Cruz and Steev Loyola
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2023, 8(3), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8030133 - 22 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1564
Abstract
Risk factors for COVID-19 death in high-altitude populations have been scarcely described. This study aimed to describe risk factors for COVID-19 death in three referral hospitals located at 3399 m in Cusco, Peru, during the first 14 months of the pandemic. A retrospective [...] Read more.
Risk factors for COVID-19 death in high-altitude populations have been scarcely described. This study aimed to describe risk factors for COVID-19 death in three referral hospitals located at 3399 m in Cusco, Peru, during the first 14 months of the pandemic. A retrospective multicenter cohort study was conducted. A random sample of ~50% (1225/2674) of adult hospitalized patients who died between 1 March 2020 and 30 June 2021 was identified. Of those, 977 individuals met the definition of death by COVID-19. Demographic characteristics, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, invasive respiratory support (IRS), disease severity, comorbidities, and clinical manifestation at hospital admission were assessed as risk factors using Cox proportional-hazard models. In multivariable models adjusted by age, sex, and pandemic periods, critical disease (vs. moderate) was associated with a greater risk of death (aHR: 1.27; 95%CI: 1.14–1.142), whereas ICU admission (aHR: 0.39; 95%CI: 0.27–0.56), IRS (aHR: 0.37; 95%CI: 0.26–0.54), the ratio of oxygen saturation (ROX) index ≥ 5.3 (aHR: 0.87; 95%CI: 0.80–0.94), and the ratio of SatO2/FiO2 ≥ 122.6 (aHR: 0.96; 95%CI: 0.93–0.98) were associated with a lower risk of death. The risk factors described here may be useful in assisting decision making and resource allocation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Current Situation and Future Trends)
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18 pages, 2987 KiB  
Article
Liver Injury in Favipiravir-Treated COVID-19 Patients: Retrospective Single-Center Cohort Study
by Amal Oweid Almutairi, Mahmoud Zaki El-Readi, Mohammad Althubiti, Yosra Zakariyya Alhindi, Nahla Ayoub, Abdullah R. Alzahrani, Saeed S. Al-Ghamdi and Safaa Yehia Eid
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2023, 8(2), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8020129 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2015
Abstract
(1) Background: Favipiravir (FVP) is a new antiviral drug used to treat COVID-19. It has been authorized to be used in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the treatment of COVID-19. The mechanism of action of FVP is working as a specific inhibitor [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Favipiravir (FVP) is a new antiviral drug used to treat COVID-19. It has been authorized to be used in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the treatment of COVID-19. The mechanism of action of FVP is working as a specific inhibitor for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of the RNA chain virus. FVP has the potential to be hepatotoxic because of the structure similarity with pyrazinamide. This retrospective study aimed to determine the prevalence of liver injury in FVP-treated COVID-19 patients in General East Jeddah Hospital, Saudi Arabia, during the COVID-19 pandemic. (2) Methods: A total of 6000 patients infected with COVID-19 and treated at the East Jeddah Hospital were included, with a sample size of 362 patients. The participants ranged from 18 to 70 years of age, both males and females, with normal hepatic and renal function and had a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 infection. Patients who had gouty arthritis, hepatic and renal dysfunction, dead patients, pregnant women, and breastfeeding mothers were all excluded from this study. A retrospective cohort study compared two groups of patients treated with and without FVP and who followed the Saudi Ministry of Health protocol to manage COVID-19 infection. (3) Results: An adverse effect of FVP on the liver was found that ranged from mild to severe. Stopping treatment with FVP was associated with an observed important increase in the levels of liver enzymes AST (p < 0.001), ALT (p < 0.001), alkaline phosphatase (p < 0.03), total bilirubin (p < 0.001), and direct bilirubin (p < 0.001) in the treated compared with the untreated group. (4) Conclusion: This study showed a significant difference between the treated and the untreated groups with FVP in liver injury. FVP influences the liver, increasing the blood levels of the liver function parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Current Situation and Future Trends)
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7 pages, 241 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Function of Respiratory Muscles in Patients after COVID-19 Infection and Respiratory Rehabilitation
by Anna Romaszko-Wojtowicz, Michał Szalecki, Karolina Olech and Anna Doboszyńska
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2023, 8(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8010057 - 12 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1927
Abstract
Objectives: The MIP (maximum inspiratory pressure) and MEP (maximum expiratory pressure) are sensitive indicators of respiratory muscle function. The aim of the study was to assess the function of respiratory muscles in patients after COVID-19 infection, before and after hospitalisation at the Pulmonary [...] Read more.
Objectives: The MIP (maximum inspiratory pressure) and MEP (maximum expiratory pressure) are sensitive indicators of respiratory muscle function. The aim of the study was to assess the function of respiratory muscles in patients after COVID-19 infection, before and after hospitalisation at the Pulmonary Rehabilitation Ward. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on a group of 19 people with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection, who, in the period from 1 February to 31 May 2021, were hospitalised at the Independent Public Pulmonary Hospital and underwent respiratory rehabilitation in hospital conditions. A statistical analysis was performed using the STATISTICA package, ver. 10. A respiratory pressure meter (RP Check) was used to measure muscle strength. Measurements were performed twice on each patient—before admission and after hospitalisation in the Pulmonary Rehabilitation Ward. Results: We show that conducting pulmonary rehabilitation contributes to the increase in MIP and MEP, which are associated with increased strength of the inspiratory and expiratory muscles. The average value of MIP increased by 11.95 cmH2O and MEP by 26.16 cmH2O. The improvement was visible in both female and male patients. Conclusions: Pulmonary rehabilitation contributes to the improvement of respiratory muscle function indicators among patients after COVID-19 infection. Assessment of the MIP and MEP indices is a simple and quick way to reliably assess the function of the respiratory muscles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Current Situation and Future Trends)

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14 pages, 1130 KiB  
Brief Report
The Predicted Potential Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Tuberculosis Epidemic in Tamil Nadu, South India
by Malaisamy Muniyandi, Karikalan Nagarajan, Kavi Mathiyazhagan, Prathiksha Giridharan, Kannan Thiruvengadam and Rajendran Krishnan
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2024, 9(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed9010012 - 04 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Objective: To estimate the prevalence and incidence of TB before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Tamil Nadu, south India. Methods: In the present study, the effect of COVID-19 epidemiology on the TB epidemic was assessed by the SEIR (Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered), a compartmental epidemiological [...] Read more.
Objective: To estimate the prevalence and incidence of TB before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Tamil Nadu, south India. Methods: In the present study, the effect of COVID-19 epidemiology on the TB epidemic was assessed by the SEIR (Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered), a compartmental epidemiological model. The model input parameters on compartments of TB and incidence of COVID-19 were collected from the published literature. Based on the data collected, point prevalence and incidence of TB per 100,000 population is calculated with and without COVID-19. A prediction was conducted up to 2025, trend analysis was performed, and a trend chi-square test and chi-square test of independence were used to test the difference between the prevalence with and without COVID-19. R software 2000 (R 4.0.0) was used for analysis. Results: The TB prevalence without and with COVID-19 decreases from 289 in 2020 to 271 in 2025 and from 289 in 2020 to 269 in 2025, respectively. Similarly, the incidence of TB was decreasing from 144 in 2020 to 135 in 2025 without COVID-19 and 143 in 2020 to 134 in 2025 with COVID-19. Though the TB burden is decreasing over the years, the trend was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). With respect to the district level, the prevalence and incidence of TB with and without COVID-19 is also found to be decreasing over the years. It was also found that the difference in the prevalence and incidence of TB with and without COVID-19 was not statically significant. Conclusion: The results of our study shows that there was an annual decline of around 2% from 2020 to 2025 in the trend of the prevalence and incidence of TB with and without COVID-19. Overall, there is a reduction, but it was not significant, and there is no significant effect of COVID-19 on TB in Tamil Nadu. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Current Situation and Future Trends)
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6 pages, 230 KiB  
Brief Report
Laboratory Evaluation of a SARS-CoV-2 RT-LAMP Test
by Sandra Menting, Annette Erhart and Henk D. F. H. Schallig
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2023, 8(6), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8060320 - 13 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1049
Abstract
There is a need to have more accessible molecular diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 disease in low- and middle-income countries. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) may provide an attractive option as this technology does not [...] Read more.
There is a need to have more accessible molecular diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 disease in low- and middle-income countries. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) may provide an attractive option as this technology does not require a complex infrastructure. In this study, the diagnostic performance of a SARS-CoV-2 RT-LAMP was evaluated using RT-PCR-confirmed clinical specimens of COVID-19-positive (n = 55) and -negative patients (n = 55) from the Netherlands. The observed sensitivity of the RT-LAMP test was 97.2% (95% CI: 82.4–98.0%) and the specificity was 100% (95% CI: 93.5–100%). The positive predictive value of the RT-LAMP was 100%, the negative predictive value 93.2% (95% CI: 84.3–97.3%), and the diagnostic accuracy was 96.4% (95% CI: 91.0–99.0%). The agreement between the RT-LAMP and the RT-PCR was “almost perfect” (κ-value: 0.92). The evaluated RT-LAMP might provide an attractive alternative molecular diagnostic tool for SARS-CoV-2 in resource limited settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Current Situation and Future Trends)
10 pages, 396 KiB  
Case Report
Concurrent Infection with SARS-CoV-2 and Orientia tsutsugamushi during the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Maldives
by Rajib Kumar Dey, Hisham Ahmed Imad, Pyae Linn Aung, Mohamed Faisham, Muaz Moosa, Mariyam Hasna, Aminath Afaa, Thundon Ngamprasertchai, Wasin Matsee, Wang Nguitragool, Emi E. Nakayama and Tatsuo Shioda
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2023, 8(2), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8020082 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1700
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic was the worst public-health crisis in recent history. The impact of the pandemic in tropical regions was further complicated by other endemic tropical diseases, which can cause concurrent infections along with COVID-19. Here, we describe the clinical course of a [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic was the worst public-health crisis in recent history. The impact of the pandemic in tropical regions was further complicated by other endemic tropical diseases, which can cause concurrent infections along with COVID-19. Here, we describe the clinical course of a patient with concurrent COVID-19 and scrub typhus infection. The patient’s de-identified clinical data were retrieved retrospectively. The patient had progressive breathlessness at the time of presentation and was hospitalized for COVID-19. Respiratory examination revealed dyspnea, tachypnea, and coarse crepitations bilaterally over the entire lung field. Oxygenation was impaired, and a PaO2/FiO2 ratio of 229 suggested acute respiratory distress syndrome. Laboratory tests indicated leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, ferritinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and transaminitis. Upon revaluation for persistent fever, physical examination revealed an eschar in the right antecubital fossa. Serology further confirmed scrub typhus, with IgM and IgG antibody positivity. A remarkable clinical recovery was achieved with doxycycline. The COVID-19 pandemic might have masked endemic tropical diseases. Clinicians working in endemic regions must always consider common tropical diseases that may present as a co-infection, as in our case. Travel and exposure history are critical guides for narrowing down a differential diagnosis. Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Current Situation and Future Trends)
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