Special Issue "Pesticides in Formulations: Toxicological and Regulatory Assessments, New Developments"

A special issue of Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304). This special issue belongs to the section "Toxicology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 August 2022 | Viewed by 2614

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Gilles-Eric Seralini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Biology, University of Caen Normandy, Network on Risks, Quality and Sustainable Environment MRSH, Esplanade de la Paix, CS 14032 Caen CEDEX 5, France
Interests: long-term xenobiotic toxicology; mechanisms

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It appears to most of us that the long-term effects of pesticides in ecosystems need to be better understood and their use regulated. New discoveries regarding the compositions of fully marketed formulations with components other than the declared active ingredients are poorly studied and rarely taken into account when establishing admissible daily intakes, for instance. Comparisons of the effects of pesticides used in the environment versus those of the declared active ingredients alone are rarely studied; however, this is crucial to shed light on the real toxicity of pesticides.

The aim of this Special Issue is to explain new discoveries, particularly regarding the long-term toxicities of pesticides in whole ecosystems, and, importantly, how these are taken into consideration by health and regulatory agencies. The scope is to understand the new developments in the knowledge of full formulations, especially compared to the known effects of the declared active ingredients alone. The understanding of the nature and toxicities of formulants other than the declared active ingredients will be of interest. The major pesticides of the world, i.e., glyphosate-based herbicides, which are being debated in all continents, will be focused on.

Any knowledge in various sciences helping to understand this topic is welcome; even reviews and technical, biological, epidemiological, sociological, theoretical, historical or multidisciplinary approaches are encouraged. How was the regulation of pesticides established and how has it evolved? How quickly are new discoveries regarding undeclared or poorly declared components of the formulations used by humans, and mixtures in foods or the natural environment, considered? What is the difference between the effects of the mixtures and those of the declared active ingredients alone at a biological, population or molecular level? We will try to address these questions and related ones.

We look forward to receiving your contributions. If you are interested, please indicate if you could send us the manuscript this year.

Prof. Dr. Gilles-Eric Seralini
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • formulations
  • insecticides
  • herbicides
  • fungicides
  • long-term toxicity
  • ecosystem
  • advances in regulation
  • health
  • biodiversity

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Article
A Mixture of Endocrine Disruptors and the Pesticide Roundup® Induce Oxidative Stress in Rabbit Liver When Administered under the Long-Term Low-Dose Regimen: Reinforcing the Notion of Real-Life Risk Simulation
Toxics 2022, 10(4), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10040190 - 14 Apr 2022
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Abstract
Humans are exposed to xenobiotic mixtures daily through the long-term, low-dose regimen. Investigations designed to simulate this exposure profile approach the real-life risk simulation (RLRS) idea of modern toxicology. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 12-month exposure [...] Read more.
Humans are exposed to xenobiotic mixtures daily through the long-term, low-dose regimen. Investigations designed to simulate this exposure profile approach the real-life risk simulation (RLRS) idea of modern toxicology. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 12-month exposure of New Zealand rabbits to a xenobiotic mixture comprising seven endocrine disruptors (EDs), which are chemical substances raising great concerns for human health, as well as the herbicide glyphosate, and its commercial formulation Roundup®, on blood and tissues redox status. It is reported herein that at the systemic level, the administration of the EDs mixture induced perturbations of blood redox homeostasis at 3 months, whereas at 6 and 12 months, it activated redox adaptations. Contrariwise, exposure to glyphosate and Roundup®, individually, caused mainly disturbances of blood redox equilibrium. At the tissue level, particularly in the liver, the administration of both the EDs mixture and Roundup® induced oxidative stress, whereas glyphosate did not affect it. The RLRS notion appears to be confirmed through these findings. Indeed, the administration of the EDs mixture and Roundup®, under the long-term, low-dose regimen, elicited detrimental effects on the redox status of the liver, a crucial tissue with a valuable biological role in the detoxification of organisms from xenobiotics. Full article
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Review

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Review
Glyphosate, Roundup and the Failures of Regulatory Assessment
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060321 - 13 Jun 2022
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Abstract
Roundup is the most widely used herbicide in agriculture. It contains glyphosate as the ‘active ingredient’, together with formulants. There are various versions of Roundup, with somewhat different effects depending on the formulants. Most genetically-modified crops are designed to tolerate Roundup, thus allowing [...] Read more.
Roundup is the most widely used herbicide in agriculture. It contains glyphosate as the ‘active ingredient’, together with formulants. There are various versions of Roundup, with somewhat different effects depending on the formulants. Most genetically-modified crops are designed to tolerate Roundup, thus allowing spraying against weeds during the growing season of the crop without destroying it. Having been so heavily used, this herbicide is now found in the soil, water, air, and even in humans worldwide. Roundup may also remain as a residue on edible crops. Many studies have found harm to the environment and to health, making it imperative to regulate the use of Roundup and to ensure that its various formulations pose no danger when used in the long-term. Unfortunately, regulators may only assess the ‘active ingredient’, glyphosate, and ignore the toxicity of the formulants, which can be far more toxic than the active ingredient. This omission is in violation of a ruling by the Court of Justice of the European Union. There are close ties between the regulators and the industry they are supposed to regulate. Objectionable practices include ‘revolving doors’ between the regulators and the industry, heavy reliance on unpublished papers produced by the industry while dismissing papers published by independent scientists, and strong covert influence on the regulatory process by industry. Although this paper focuses on the European Union (EU), the situation is much the same in the United States. Full article

Other

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Study Protocol
In Vivo Estimation of the Biological Effects of Endocrine Disruptors in Rabbits after Combined and Long-Term Exposure: Study Protocol
Toxics 2022, 10(5), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10050246 - 12 May 2022
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Abstract
Recently, an increasing number of chemical compounds are being characterized as endocrine disruptors since they have been proven to interact with the endocrine system, which plays a crucial role in the maintenance of homeostasis. Glyphosate is the active substance of the herbicide Roundup [...] Read more.
Recently, an increasing number of chemical compounds are being characterized as endocrine disruptors since they have been proven to interact with the endocrine system, which plays a crucial role in the maintenance of homeostasis. Glyphosate is the active substance of the herbicide Roundup®, bisphenol A (BPA) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are used as plasticizers, while triclosan (TCS), methyl (MePB), propyl (PrPB), and butyl (BuPB) parabens are used as antimicrobial agents and preservatives mainly in personal care products. Studies indicate that exposure to these substances can affect humans causing developmental problems and problems in the endocrine, reproductive, nervous, immune, and respiratory systems. Although there are copious studies related to these substances, there are few in vivo studies related to combined exposure to these endocrine disruptors. The aim of the present pilot study is the investigation and assessment of the above substances’ toxicity in rabbits after twelve months of exposure to glyphosate (both pure and commercial form) and to a mixture of all the above substances at subtoxic levels. The lack of data from the literature concerning rabbits’ exposure to these substances and the restrictions of the 3Rs Principle will result in a limited number of animals available for use (four animals per group, twenty animals in total). Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: A mixture of endocrine disruptors and the pesticide Roundup induce perturbations in liver redox equilibrium when are chronically administered to rabbits in very low doses: Reinforcing the notion of real-life risk simulation
Authors: Periklis Vardakas1, Aristidis S. Veskoukis2, Christos Gournikis1, Vasiliki Karzi3, Aristides M. Tsatsakis3, Demetrios Kouretas1*
Affiliation: 1 Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Thessaly, Viopolis, Mezourlo, 41500 Larissa, Greece 2 Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Thessaly, Argonafton 1, 42132, Trikala, Greece 3 Department of Toxicology, Medical School of University of Crete, Iraklion, Greece. *Corresponding author: Demetrios Kouretas, Professor, University of Thessaly, Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Viopolis, Mezourlo, Larissa 41500, Greece.

Title: Exploring the mechanisms of toxicity of eight major herbicide active ingredients and their commercial formulations
Authors: Scarlett Ferguson, Robin Mesnage & Michael N Antoniou
Affiliation: King’s College London​

 

Title: Glyphosate, Roundup and the failures of regulatory assessment
Authors: Eva Novotny
Affiliation: Clare Hall, University of Cambridge

Title: Effects of residual concentrations of pyraclostrobin on the fat body morphophysiology in foragers of Africanized honey bee
Authors: Caio E. C. Domingues1, Inoue L. V. B.2, Gregorc A.1, Silva-Zacarin E. C.3 M. and Malaspina O.2
Affiliation: 1 University of Maribor, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Pivola, Slovenia 2 Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) - “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, Instituto de Biociências (IB), Departamento de Biologia, Centro de Estudos de Insetos Sociais (CEIS), Rio Claro, SP, Brazil 3 Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar), Departamento de Biologia (DBio), Laboratório de Ecotoxicologia e Análise de Integridade Ambiental (LEIA), Sorocaba, SP, Brazil

Title: Impact of biological control using Basalt powder “Farina di Basalto” compared to two plant extracts on Aphis punicae and Planococcus citri and plant growth parameters in an organic pomegranate orchard
Authors: Mohamed Elimem1, Rim Jaouadi1, Maha Kalboussi1, Chaima Lahfef1,2, Slim Rouz1, Hassan Kharroubi3, Naceur Boulila4, Sofien Kouki3, Giuliano Ragnoni5, Gianluca Pizzuti5, Fabio Primavera5, Alessandro Ricc
Affiliation: 1High School of Agriculture of Mograne (ESAM), Mograne, Zaghouane, University of Carthage, Tunisia 2Higher Institute of Agronomy of Tunis, Tunis, University of Carthage, Tunisia 3Higher School of Engineer of Medjez El Beb, MedjezElBeb, Béja, University of Jendouba, Tunisia 4Laboratory of Natural Substances, National Institute of Research and Physico-chemical Analyses, Biotechpole of Sidi Thabet, Ariana, 2020, Tunisia 5Basalti Orvieto srl –Loc Cornale, 05014-CASTEL VISCARDO (TR), Italy

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