Special Issue "Direct and Indirect Effects of Agricultural Pesticides on Insects"

A special issue of Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304). This special issue belongs to the section "Ecotoxicology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. John D. Stark
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Ecotoxicology Program, Department of Entomology, Washington State University, Research and Extension Center, Puyallup, WA, 98371, USA
Interests: risk assessment; aquatic organisms; pesticides; ecotoxicology; demographic toxicology
Prof. Dr. John E. Banks
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
California State University, Monterey Bay, 100 Campus Center, Seaside, CA 93955, USA
Interests: agricultural ecology; conservation science; ecotoxicology; quantitative ecology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Insecticides are used to control pests of crops worldwide and have been instrumental in providing a safe and abundant food supply in many nations. However, insecticides have been shown to have negative effects on non-target organisms; these include both direct and indirect effects. Direct effects happen when non-target species are directly exposed to the insecticide. This may occur through sprays impacting the body of an organism, inhalation of droplets or aerosols, as an organism moves over and picks up insecticide applied to treat surfaces, or through ingestion of treated food. Direct toxic effects include acute and chronic mortality, negative effects on reproduction, reductions in weight gain, reduced longevity, increased time to first reproduction, and behavioral changes. Insecticides may also have indirect effects on certain species. Indirect effects are effects on resources, such as food and habitat, that have a negative effect on a species that has not been directly exposed. Here, a food source may be reduced or the food web and/or habitat is altered in such a way that it negatively impacts the species in question. The goal of this Special Issue is to publish a series of papers by experts on the direct and indirect effects of insecticides to various non-target organisms. These articles will cover a range of agroecosystems as well as aquatic ecosystems.

Prof. Dr. John D. Stark
Prof. Dr. John E. Banks
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • insecticides
  • direct effects
  • indirect effects
  • non-target organisms

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Indirect Effect of Pesticides on Insects and Other Arthropods
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9080177 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1179
Pesticides released to the environment can indirectly affect target and non-target species in ways that are often contrary to their intended use. Such indirect effects are mediated through direct impacts on other species or the physical environment and depend on ecological mechanisms and [...] Read more.
Pesticides released to the environment can indirectly affect target and non-target species in ways that are often contrary to their intended use. Such indirect effects are mediated through direct impacts on other species or the physical environment and depend on ecological mechanisms and species interactions. Typical mechanisms are the release of herbivores from predation and release from competition among species with similar niches. Application of insecticides to agriculture often results in subsequent pest outbreaks due to the elimination of natural enemies. The loss of floristic diversity and food resources that result from herbicide applications can reduce populations of pollinators and natural enemies of crop pests. In aquatic ecosystems, insecticides and fungicides often induce algae blooms as the chemicals reduce grazing by zooplankton and benthic herbivores. Increases in periphyton biomass typically result in the replacement of arthropods with more tolerant species such as snails, worms and tadpoles. Fungicides and systemic insecticides also reduce nutrient recycling by impairing the ability of detritivorous arthropods. Residues of herbicides can reduce the biomass of macrophytes in ponds and wetlands, indirectly affecting the protection and breeding of predatory insects in that environment. The direct impacts of pesticides in the environment are therefore either amplified or compensated by their indirect effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct and Indirect Effects of Agricultural Pesticides on Insects)
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