Special Issue "Radiation Dose Management in Computed Tomography"

A special issue of Tomography (ISSN 2379-139X). This special issue belongs to the section "Artificial Intelligence in Medical Imaging".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 3 July 2023 | Viewed by 2309

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Yusuke Inoue
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kitasato University of School of Medicine, Sagamihara 252-0374, Japan
Interests: radiation protection; nuclear medicine; molecular imaging; small animal imaging

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

CT plays a crucial role in contemporary clinical medicine; however, harmful effects of radiation exposure is a major concern about the application of this advanced imaging. Biological and epidemiological researches are still ongoing to assess the effects of low-dose radiation exposure on human health. Advances in CT technologies, including efficient exposure modulation and noise-reduction image reconstruction techniques, aid to reduce radiation dose with preserving image quality and diagnostic performance. The volume CT dose index and dose-length product are recorded for all examinations as indices of radiation dose, and may be converted into the size-specific dose estimate or effective dose. Dose indices are monitored in daily clinical practice and analyzed to determine standard dose in each imaging facility, i.e., local diagnostic reference level (DRL). Radiation dose management systems are commercially available and support monitoring and analysis of recorded dose indices. The local DRLs for various protocols are compared periodically with national or regional DRLs for each facility to recognize need for further optimization, and national or regional DRLs are revised periodically. These efforts for radiation dose management are especially important for children because of their high radiosensitivity and long life expectancy.

This Special Issue will focus on research papers, perspectives, and reviews informing the readers about various aspects of radiation dose management in CT. Expected submissions include those describing summaries or future directions of biological and epidemiological studies, educational contents about CT technologies or dose indices, researches on novel technologies and its application, practical advice for daily and periodical radiation dose management, establishment and use of DRLs, and issues of pediatric imaging.

Dr. Yusuke Inoue
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • computed tomography
  • ionizing radiation
  • optimization
  • dianostic reference level
  • image reconstruction
  • pediatric imaging

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Automatic Exposure Control Attains Radiation Dose Modulation Matched with the Head Size in Pediatric Brain CT
Tomography 2022, 8(6), 2929-2938; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8060246 - 13 Dec 2022
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Abstract
We investigated the relationship between the head size and radiation dose in pediatric brain computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the validity of automatic exposure control (AEC). Phantom experiments were performed to assess image noise with and without AEC, and indicated that AEC decreased [...] Read more.
We investigated the relationship between the head size and radiation dose in pediatric brain computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the validity of automatic exposure control (AEC). Phantom experiments were performed to assess image noise with and without AEC, and indicated that AEC decreased differences in noise between slices of different section sizes. Retrospective analysis was conducted on 980 pediatric brain CT scans where the tube current was determined using AEC. The water equivalent diameter (WED) was employed as an index of the head size, and mean WED for each image set (WEDmean) and WED for each slice (WEDslice) were used for analysis. For the image-set-based analysis, volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) was compared to WEDmean. For the slice-based analysis, the tube current was compared to WEDslice using 20 of the 980 sets. Additionally, CTDIvol and WEDmean were compared between male and female patients matched for age, weight, or WEDmean. CTDIvol increased with increasing WEDmean, and an exponential curve was closely fitted to the relationship. Tube current changed similarly to the change in WEDslice for each image set, and an exponential curve was well-fitted to the plots of tube current against WEDslice when data from the 20 sets were pooled together. Although CTDIvol and WEDmean were slightly but significantly larger for male than female patients after matching for age or weight, a sex-dependent difference in CTDIvol was not found after matching for WEDmean. This study indicated successful dose modulation using AEC according to the head size for each patient and each slice location. The application of AEC to pediatric brain CT is recommended for radiation dose optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Dose Management in Computed Tomography)
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Article
Sample Size and Estimation of Standard Radiation Doses for Pediatric Brain CT
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2486-2497; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050207 - 01 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 663
Abstract
Estimation of the standard radiation dose at each imaging facility is required for radiation dose management, including establishment and utilization of the diagnostic reference levels. We investigated methods to estimate the standard dose for pediatric brain computed tomography (CT) using a small number [...] Read more.
Estimation of the standard radiation dose at each imaging facility is required for radiation dose management, including establishment and utilization of the diagnostic reference levels. We investigated methods to estimate the standard dose for pediatric brain computed tomography (CT) using a small number of data. From 980 pediatric brain CT examinations, 25, 50, and 100 examinations were randomly extracted to create small, medium, and large datasets, respectively. The standard dose was estimated by applying grouping and curve-fitting methods for 20 datasets of each sample size. For the grouping method, data were divided into groups according to age or body weight, and the standard dose was defined as a median value in each group. For the curve-fitting methods, logarithmic, power, and bilinear functions were fitted to plots of radiation dose against age or weight, and the standard dose was calculated at the designated age or weight using the derived equation. When the sample size was smaller, the random variations of the estimated standard dose were larger. Better estimation of the standard dose was achieved with the curve-fitting methods than with the grouping method. Power fitting appeared to be more effective than logarithmic and bilinear fittings for suppressing random variation. Determination of the standard dose for pediatric brain CT by the curve-fitting method is recommended to improve radiation dose optimization at facilities performing the imaging procedure infrequently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Dose Management in Computed Tomography)
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Article
Updated National Diagnostic Reference Levels and Achievable Doses for CT Protocols: A National Survey of Korean Hospitals
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2450-2459; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050203 - 29 Sep 2022
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Abstract
Background: In 2021, the Korean government proposed a new CT diagnostic reference level. This study performed a nationwide survey and developed new DRLs and AD for 13 common CT examinations. We compared other countries’ DRLs for CT examinations. Methods: This study investigated the [...] Read more.
Background: In 2021, the Korean government proposed a new CT diagnostic reference level. This study performed a nationwide survey and developed new DRLs and AD for 13 common CT examinations. We compared other countries’ DRLs for CT examinations. Methods: This study investigated the CTDIvol and DLP of the 12 types of CT protocols for adults and brain CT protocol for pediatrics. A total of 7829 CT examinations were performed using 225 scanners. We defined the DRLs values in the distribution of radiation exposure levels to determine the nationwide patient dose and distribution status of the dose. Results: This study showed that the new Korean national CT DRLs are slightly higher or similar to those of previous surveys and are similar or lower than those of other countries. In some protocols, although the DLP value increased, the CTDIvol decreased; therefore, it can be concluded that the patient’s dose in CT examinations was well managed. Conclusions: The new CT DRLs were slightly higher than or similar to that of the previous survey and were evaluated to be similar or lower than CT DRLs of other countries. These DRLs will be used for radiation optimization and effective dose calculation for an individual. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Dose Management in Computed Tomography)
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