Radiation Dose Management in Computed Tomography

A special issue of Tomography (ISSN 2379-139X). This special issue belongs to the section "Artificial Intelligence in Medical Imaging".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (3 July 2023) | Viewed by 5851

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kitasato University of School of Medicine, Sagamihara 252-0374, Japan
Interests: radiation protection; nuclear medicine; molecular imaging; small animal imaging

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

CT plays a crucial role in contemporary clinical medicine; however, harmful effects of radiation exposure is a major concern about the application of this advanced imaging. Biological and epidemiological researches are still ongoing to assess the effects of low-dose radiation exposure on human health. Advances in CT technologies, including efficient exposure modulation and noise-reduction image reconstruction techniques, aid to reduce radiation dose with preserving image quality and diagnostic performance. The volume CT dose index and dose-length product are recorded for all examinations as indices of radiation dose, and may be converted into the size-specific dose estimate or effective dose. Dose indices are monitored in daily clinical practice and analyzed to determine standard dose in each imaging facility, i.e., local diagnostic reference level (DRL). Radiation dose management systems are commercially available and support monitoring and analysis of recorded dose indices. The local DRLs for various protocols are compared periodically with national or regional DRLs for each facility to recognize need for further optimization, and national or regional DRLs are revised periodically. These efforts for radiation dose management are especially important for children because of their high radiosensitivity and long life expectancy.

This Special Issue will focus on research papers, perspectives, and reviews informing the readers about various aspects of radiation dose management in CT. Expected submissions include those describing summaries or future directions of biological and epidemiological studies, educational contents about CT technologies or dose indices, researches on novel technologies and its application, practical advice for daily and periodical radiation dose management, establishment and use of DRLs, and issues of pediatric imaging.

Dr. Yusuke Inoue
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • computed tomography
  • ionizing radiation
  • optimization
  • dianostic reference level
  • image reconstruction
  • pediatric imaging

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 938 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Analysis of the Clinical Reasons Influencing the Frequency of Pediatric Head CT Examinations: A Single-Center Observation Study
by Takayasu Yoshitake, Osamu Miyazaki, Masayuki Kitamura, Koji Ono and Michiaki Kai
Tomography 2023, 9(2), 829-839; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography9020067 - 11 Apr 2023
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Abstract
Epidemiological studies on radiation exposure from pediatric CT scans have attracted attention in terms of radiological protection. These studies have not taken into account the reasons why CT examinations were performed. It is presumed that there are clinical reasons that justify more frequent [...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies on radiation exposure from pediatric CT scans have attracted attention in terms of radiological protection. These studies have not taken into account the reasons why CT examinations were performed. It is presumed that there are clinical reasons that justify more frequent CT examinations in children. The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical reasons why relatively high numbers of head CT examinations (NHCT) are frequently performed and to conduct a statistical analysis to determine the factors governing the NHCT. Patient information, the date of examination, and medical conditions for examination data stored on the radiology information system were used to investigate the reasons for undergoing CT examinations. The target facility was National Children’s Hospital; data were obtained from March 2002 to April 2017, and the age of the study population was less than 16 years old. Quantitative analysis of the factors associated with frequent examinations was conducted by Poisson regression analysis. Among all patients who had a CT scan, 76.6% had head CT examinations, and 43.4% of children were under 1 year old at the time of the initial examination. There were marked differences in the number of examinations depending on the disease. The average NHCT was higher for children younger than 5 days of age. Among children less than 1 year of age with surgery, there was a marked difference between hydrocephalus, with a mean = 15.5 (95% CI 14.3,16.8), and trauma, with a mean = 8.3 (95% CI 7.2,9.4). In conclusion, this study revealed that NHCT was significantly higher in children who had undergone surgery than in those who had not been to the hospital. The clinical reasons behind patients with higher NHCT should be considered in investigating a causal relationship between CT exposure and brain tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Dose Management in Computed Tomography)
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12 pages, 1265 KiB  
Article
Sample Size and Estimation of Standard Radiation Doses for Pediatric Brain CT
by Yusuke Inoue, Hiroyasu Itoh, Nao Shiibashi, Ryosuke Sasa and Kohei Mitsui
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2486-2497; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050207 - 1 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1658
Abstract
Estimation of the standard radiation dose at each imaging facility is required for radiation dose management, including establishment and utilization of the diagnostic reference levels. We investigated methods to estimate the standard dose for pediatric brain computed tomography (CT) using a small number [...] Read more.
Estimation of the standard radiation dose at each imaging facility is required for radiation dose management, including establishment and utilization of the diagnostic reference levels. We investigated methods to estimate the standard dose for pediatric brain computed tomography (CT) using a small number of data. From 980 pediatric brain CT examinations, 25, 50, and 100 examinations were randomly extracted to create small, medium, and large datasets, respectively. The standard dose was estimated by applying grouping and curve-fitting methods for 20 datasets of each sample size. For the grouping method, data were divided into groups according to age or body weight, and the standard dose was defined as a median value in each group. For the curve-fitting methods, logarithmic, power, and bilinear functions were fitted to plots of radiation dose against age or weight, and the standard dose was calculated at the designated age or weight using the derived equation. When the sample size was smaller, the random variations of the estimated standard dose were larger. Better estimation of the standard dose was achieved with the curve-fitting methods than with the grouping method. Power fitting appeared to be more effective than logarithmic and bilinear fittings for suppressing random variation. Determination of the standard dose for pediatric brain CT by the curve-fitting method is recommended to improve radiation dose optimization at facilities performing the imaging procedure infrequently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Dose Management in Computed Tomography)
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10 pages, 711 KiB  
Article
Updated National Diagnostic Reference Levels and Achievable Doses for CT Protocols: A National Survey of Korean Hospitals
by Sora Nam, Hyemin Park, Soonmu Kwon, Pyong-kon Cho, Yongsu Yoon, Sang-wook Yoon and Jungsu Kim
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2450-2459; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050203 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1998
Abstract
Background: In 2021, the Korean government proposed a new CT diagnostic reference level. This study performed a nationwide survey and developed new DRLs and AD for 13 common CT examinations. We compared other countries’ DRLs for CT examinations. Methods: This study investigated the [...] Read more.
Background: In 2021, the Korean government proposed a new CT diagnostic reference level. This study performed a nationwide survey and developed new DRLs and AD for 13 common CT examinations. We compared other countries’ DRLs for CT examinations. Methods: This study investigated the CTDIvol and DLP of the 12 types of CT protocols for adults and brain CT protocol for pediatrics. A total of 7829 CT examinations were performed using 225 scanners. We defined the DRLs values in the distribution of radiation exposure levels to determine the nationwide patient dose and distribution status of the dose. Results: This study showed that the new Korean national CT DRLs are slightly higher or similar to those of previous surveys and are similar or lower than those of other countries. In some protocols, although the DLP value increased, the CTDIvol decreased; therefore, it can be concluded that the patient’s dose in CT examinations was well managed. Conclusions: The new CT DRLs were slightly higher than or similar to that of the previous survey and were evaluated to be similar or lower than CT DRLs of other countries. These DRLs will be used for radiation optimization and effective dose calculation for an individual. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Dose Management in Computed Tomography)
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