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Special Issue "Towards Sustainable Pavement Materials and Structures"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Silvino Dias Capitão
E-Mail
Guest Editor
1. CERIS—Civil Engineering Research and Innovation for Sustainability, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
2. Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra, Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, Rua Pedro Nunes, 3030-199 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: asphalt mixtures; recycled concrete aggregate; reclaimed asphalt pavement; nano-materials for asphalt mixtures; asset management systems; urban environment road safety; dynamic traffic management; climate changes; circular economy
Prof. Dr. Luís Picado Santos
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Georesources, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: reclaimed asphalt pavement; circular economy; asphalt mixture; recycled concrete aggregate; electric arc furnace slag; pavement management systems; urban environment road safety; dynamic traffic management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The mobility of citizens and goods within the continental territories is demanding a rise in the consumption of natural resources for both building and maintaining highway and railway infrastructures. Because these resources are finite and they have been overexploited in the past, they are scarce in many territories and therefore their availability is at risk for future generations.

Moreover, the extraction of the most-used raw materials commonly applied in the pavement structures of highways and railways involves high levels of energy consumption and significant emissions and environmental impacts. Therefore, the scientific community is making efforts to find innovative solutions aiming at reducing the use of new non-renewable raw materials in the construction of maintenance works. At the same time, several other strategies are being developed to decrease carbon emission throughout the lifecycle of transport infrastructure pavements and to address the needs induced by climate changes.

When innovative paving technologies are developed, the level of uncertainty becomes higher. Indeed, new challenges arise concerning the design of pavement structures and requirements needed to guarantee a good performance of materials throughout the lifespan of the infrastructure.

This Special Issue entitled “Towards Sustainable Pavement Materials and Structures” is a contribution to gather information on the cutting-edge mindset oriented to sustainability, seeking a balance involving climate-change-induced needs, the support of mobility, and the reduction of environmental impacts associated with pavement construction and maintenance.

The main focus of this Special Issue is gathering papers on the ongoing research, case studies, models, technologies, laboratory studies, and related topics that might bring to light the efforts being made to find more sustainable paving materials and structures to address the challenges faced by the field.

All researchers and members of the technical and scientific community involved in the construction, maintenance, study, design, and management of sustainable transport infrastructures are invited to submit a manuscript.

Prof. Silvino Dias Capitão
Prof. Dr. Luís Picado Santos
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • asphalt mixture
  • reclaimed asphalt
  • circular economy
  • climatic changes
  • pavement performance
  • alternative materials
  • life cycle assessment
  • sustainable materials.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Fatigue and Thermal Cracking of Hot and Warm Bituminous Mixtures with Different RAP Contents
Sustainability 2020, 12(23), 9812; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12239812 - 24 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 599
Abstract
This paper presents results of laboratory tests on hot and warm bituminous mixtures produced with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP). Additives were used to produce warm bituminous mixtures. Fatigue behaviour and thermomechanical behaviour at low temperature were investigated. Fatigue was studied by analysing the [...] Read more.
This paper presents results of laboratory tests on hot and warm bituminous mixtures produced with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP). Additives were used to produce warm bituminous mixtures. Fatigue behaviour and thermomechanical behaviour at low temperature were investigated. Fatigue was studied by analysing the tension/compression fatigue test results. Four different failure criteria were used in order to evaluate fatigue life. The low temperature behaviour of the materials was characterized using the Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Test (TSRST). For each material, three replicates were performed. The experimental device was improved so that radial strains in two directions could be measured during the tests. Tri-dimensional behaviour could thus be investigated. The results of both tests were analysed and the influence of the void content, RAP content, type of additives and manufacturing process was evaluated. The results show that RAP addition and warm bituminous mixtures could be combined to obtain mixtures with performances comparable to classical hot mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Sustainable Pavement Materials and Structures)
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Article
High-Performance Sustainable Asphalt Mixtures for High-Volume Traffic Roads in Severe Climates
Sustainability 2020, 12(21), 8765; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12218765 - 22 Oct 2020
Viewed by 551
Abstract
This paper summarizes the work carried out in a research project whose main objective was to develop high-performance sustainable bituminous materials (using crumb rubber and additives to reduce their manufacturing temperature) to be used in roads that support high traffic volumes and/or severe [...] Read more.
This paper summarizes the work carried out in a research project whose main objective was to develop high-performance sustainable bituminous materials (using crumb rubber and additives to reduce their manufacturing temperature) to be used in roads that support high traffic volumes and/or severe environmental conditions. For this purpose, various studies were conducted both in a laboratory and in a real asphalt plant (at binder and mixture level). Later, these materials were used to construct a trial section in a highway at a mountain pass (at more than 1400 m above sea level) supporting more than 2600 heavy vehicles each day under severe environmental conditions (snow during winter, and high temperatures and many hours of solar radiation during the summer). The results indicate the viability of using these materials, since they provide a number of advantages such as improved workability at lower temperatures and an increase in the mechanical resistance against the main sources of distress that affect asphalt pavements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Sustainable Pavement Materials and Structures)
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Article
Laboratory Evaluation of the Residue of Rubber-Modified Emulsified Asphalt
Sustainability 2020, 12(20), 8383; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208383 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 545
Abstract
Emulsified asphalt has been widely used in various surface treatment methods such as chip seal for low-volume road preservation. Using modified emulsified asphalt made it possible to use chip seal technology on medium- and even high-volume traffic pavements. The main objective of the [...] Read more.
Emulsified asphalt has been widely used in various surface treatment methods such as chip seal for low-volume road preservation. Using modified emulsified asphalt made it possible to use chip seal technology on medium- and even high-volume traffic pavements. The main objective of the study is to quantify the residue characteristics of rubber-modified emulsified asphalt and to assess the effectiveness of using crumb rubber to modify emulsified asphalt binder. The four emulsified asphalt residues used the distillation procedure. Then, the rheology characteristics of emulsified asphalt residue were evaluated. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) test analyzed the chemical change of emulsified asphalt during the aging procedure. The results indicate that the evaporation method cannot remove all the water in emulsified asphalt. The mass change during the rolling thin film oven (RTFO) process only represented the component change of emulsified asphalt binder residue. Both the high-temperature and low-temperature performance grade of the two emulsified asphalt binders with rubber were lower. The original asphalt binder adopted to emulsification had a crucial influence on the performance of emulsified asphalt. The rubber modification enhanced the property of the emulsified asphalt binder at low temperatures, and the improvement effect was enhanced as the rubber content in the emulsified asphalt was raised. The C=O band was more effective in quantifying the aging condition of the residue. The findings of this study may further advance the emulsified asphalt technology in pavement construction and maintenance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Sustainable Pavement Materials and Structures)
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Article
The Influence of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement on the Mechanical Performance of Bituminous Mixtures. An Analysis at the Mortar Scale
Sustainability 2020, 12(20), 8343; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208343 - 10 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 609
Abstract
The main characteristics of bituminous mixtures manufactured with a considerable amount of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), compared to conventional mixtures, are a reduction in workability, an increase in stiffness, and a loss of ductility, due to the presence of the aged bitumen contained [...] Read more.
The main characteristics of bituminous mixtures manufactured with a considerable amount of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), compared to conventional mixtures, are a reduction in workability, an increase in stiffness, and a loss of ductility, due to the presence of the aged bitumen contained in the RAP particles. To minimize these impacts, softer binders or rejuvenators are commonly used in the design of these mixtures in order to restore part of the ductility lost and to reduce the stiffness. In spite of previous investigations demonstrating that the mortar plays an essential role in the workability, long-term performance, and durability of bituminous mixtures (where cracking, cohesion, and adhesion problems all start at this scale), not many studies have assessed the impacts caused by the presence of RAP. In response to this, the present paper analyzes the workability, fatigue performance, and water sensitivity of bituminous mortars containing different amounts of RAP (from 0% to 100%) and rejuvenators. Mortar specimens were compacted using a gyratory compactor and studied via dynamic mechanical analysis under three point bending configuration. The results demonstrated that the presence of RAP reduces the workability and ductility of asphalt mortars. However, it also causes an increase in their stiffness, which induces a more elastic response and causes an increase in their resistance to fatigue, which could compensate for the loss of ductility. This aspect, together with the low water sensitivity shown, when using Portland cement as an active filler, would make it possible to produce asphalt materials with high RAP contents with a similar long-term mechanical performance as traditional ones. In addition, the use of rejuvenators was demonstrated to effectively correct the negative workability and ductility impacts caused by using RAP, without affecting the fatigue resistance and material adhesion/cohesion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Sustainable Pavement Materials and Structures)
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Article
Full Recycling of Asphalt Concrete with Waste Cooking Oil as Rejuvenator and LDPE from Urban Waste as Binder Modifier
Sustainability 2020, 12(19), 8222; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12198222 - 06 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1263
Abstract
Some research projects have studied full recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). Several additives have been used to rejuvenate the RAP’s aged bitumen. The authors previously studied full recycling of RAP rejuvenated with waste cooking oil (WCO). The asphalt concrete (AC) manufactured revealed [...] Read more.
Some research projects have studied full recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). Several additives have been used to rejuvenate the RAP’s aged bitumen. The authors previously studied full recycling of RAP rejuvenated with waste cooking oil (WCO). The asphalt concrete (AC) manufactured revealed good mechanical behaviour except for rutting resistance. Therefore, they decided to also include in the asphalt mixtures low density polyethylene (LDPE) from urban waste as a low-cost polymer to improve that weak point and verify if this technique was feasible and with potential as a pavement material. A laboratory plan was conceived to evaluate the mechanical performance of two rejuvenated ACs with WCO and LDPE. Stiffness, water sensitivity, resistance to rutting and fatigue cracking were evaluated. The results showed that, despite some empirical parameters usually indicated in current specifications not being met, the performance of the studied asphalt mixtures was adequate and, thus, there are good expectations about the future use of these solutions in real pavements, particularly for low and intermediate traffic levels. Based on a global analysis of the performance observed, the main conclusion was that full recycling of AC with WCO and LDPE is feasible, and the score obtained was higher than that of a conventional AC used for comparison. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Sustainable Pavement Materials and Structures)
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Review

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Review
Recycling Tire Rubber in Asphalt Pavements: State of the Art
Sustainability 2020, 12(21), 9076; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12219076 - 31 Oct 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1410
Abstract
The use of recycled tire rubber in asphalt pavements to improve the overall performance, economy, and sustainability of pavements has gained considerable attention over the last few decades. Several studies have indicated that recycled tire rubber can reduce the permanent deformation of flexible [...] Read more.
The use of recycled tire rubber in asphalt pavements to improve the overall performance, economy, and sustainability of pavements has gained considerable attention over the last few decades. Several studies have indicated that recycled tire rubber can reduce the permanent deformation of flexible pavements and enhance its resistance to rutting, reduce pavement construction and maintenance costs, and improve the resistance to fatigue damage. This paper provides a systematic and critical overview of the research on and practice of using recycled tire rubber in asphalt pavements in terms of engineering properties, performance, and durability assessment. This critical analysis of the state-of-the-art should enhance the understanding of using recycled tire rubber in asphalt pavements, define pertinent recommendations, identify knowledge gaps, and highlight the need for concerted future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Sustainable Pavement Materials and Structures)
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