Special Issue "Inductive Charging for Electric Vehicles: Towards a Safe and Efficient Technology"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Mauro Zucca
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Guest Editor
Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica – INRiM, Torino, Italy
Interests: Wireless power transfer, Electrical metrology, Energy harvesting, Energy efficiency, Shielding, Electromagnetic Dosimetry
Dr. Vincenzo Cirimele
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Energy “Galileo Ferraris”, Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy
Interests: static and dynamic inductive power transfer for electric vehicles, human protection from exposure to electromagnetic field at industrial frequency, modeling of non-conventional electromagnetic devices

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) or Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) for the charging of electric vehicles is an opportunity for the widespread adoption of electric vehicles in public and private transports. The vehicle battery represents an important cost item and also a significant weight to carry for the vehicle. The possibility of recharging the battery in many places, at the home or work parking lot, at the supermarket parking or at the traffic lights, can lead to lighter and less expensive batteries, more performing cars and, above all, lead to a reduction in the vehicle energy footprint. This can be further emphasized by dynamic charging, the so-called charging while driving, which goes perfectly with the concept of autonomous driving. Dynamic charging aims at powering the vehicle during the motion by eliminating range-limitation, the most important limit in the adoption of electric vehicles for long trips.

The prospect of these advantages of inductive charging has the cost of lower charging efficiency compared to conductive charging, mainly due to large air gap between the coils and losses in the converters both on the ground and onboard the vehicle. Besides, magnetic emissions can be a brake for manufacturers in developing and adopting this type of technology. It is up to academy and research to prove that this technology is safe and efficient and that benefits outweigh disadvantages.

This Special Issue aims to address the subjects of efficiency, safety, impact and perspectives of IPT charging systems for vehicles. In particular, all the following studies are welcome: experimental studies on IPT systems or archetypes; studies conducted through mathematical and numerical models; studies concerning the modeling of IPT systems as a whole, or limited to the coils arrangement; studies focusing on the architecture and or efficiency of the ac-dc and dc-ac conversion systems. Furthermore, studies concerning magnetic field emissions, dosimetry and/or implanted medical devices will be considered.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Modeling systems and devices for IPT systems
  • Measurement and characterization of wireless charging stations and components
  • Design and optimization of IPT systems and components
  • Efficiency of IPT systems; modeling and/or measurements
  • Efficiency of power converters in IPT systems
  • Improved couplers for wireless charging systems
  • Safety assessment for IPT systems for vehicles
  • Electromagnetic modeling and simulation of wireless charging systems
  • Human exposure assessment
  • Life cycle assessment
  • Technological sustainability
  • Safety and protection for users
  • Accountability and billing
  • ICT framework
Dr. Mauro Zucca
Dr. Vincenzo Cirimele
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • Inductive power transfer
  • Wireless power transfer
  • Measurements
  • Power converters
  • Efficiency and losses
  • Electric vehicle
  • Electromagnetic safety
  • Civil infrastructure
  • Urban infrastructure
  • Electric Roads
  • Optimization
  • ICT
  • LCA

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Exposure to Electric Vehicle Inductive Power Transfer Systems: Experimental Measurements and Numerical Dosimetry
Sustainability 2020, 12(11), 4573; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114573 - 03 Jun 2020
Abstract
High-power inductive power transfer (IPT) systems for charging light and heavy electric vehicles pose safety concerns if they are installed in uncontrolled environments. Within the framework of the European Project EMPIR-16ENG08 MICEV, a wide experimental and numerical study was conducted to assess the [...] Read more.
High-power inductive power transfer (IPT) systems for charging light and heavy electric vehicles pose safety concerns if they are installed in uncontrolled environments. Within the framework of the European Project EMPIR-16ENG08 MICEV, a wide experimental and numerical study was conducted to assess the exposure of the general public to IPT stray magnetic fields for two different exposure scenarios: (1) for an IPT model system derived from the SAE J2954 standard operating at 85 kHz for a light electric vehicle coupled with the model of a realistic car-body model; and (2) for an IPT model system with a maximum rated power of 50 kW at 27.8 kHz for a real minibus that was reproduced with some simplifications in two different 3D finite element method (FEM) simulation tools (Opera 3D and CST software). An ad hoc measurement survey was carried out at the minibus charging station to validate the simulations of the real bus station for both aligned and misaligned IPT coils. Based on this preliminary study, a safety factor was chosen to ensure a conservative dosimetric analysis with respect to the model approximations. As highlighted in this study, the vehicle-body serves as an efficient screen to reduce the magnetic field by at least three orders of magnitude close to the coils. By applying FEM, computed spatial distribution to the Sim4Life software, the exposure of three Virtual Population human anatomical phantoms (one adult, one child, and a newborn) was assessed. The three phantoms were placed in different postures and locations for both exposure scenarios. The basic restriction limits, established by the current guidelines, were never exceeded within the vehicles; however, the basic restrictions were exceeded when an adult crouched outside the minibus, i.e., near the coils, or when a newborn was placed in the same location. Borderline values were observed in the light car. In the case of the bus, limits coming from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) guidelines are never exceeded, while basic restrictions coming from the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines are exceeded up to 12% for an adult and up to 38% for a newborn. This paper presents novel dosimetric data generated in an IPT system for heavy vehicles and confirms some of the literature data on light vehicles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dual-Frequency Programmed Harmonics Modulation-based Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer System via a Common Resonance Link
Sustainability 2020, 12(10), 4189; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12104189 - 20 May 2020
Abstract
Most simultaneous wireless information and power transmission (SWIPT) systems currently operate at a single frequency, where the power and information transmission affect the resonance state of each other. This paper proposes a structure using dual-frequency programmed harmonics modulation (DFPHM). The primary-side inverter outputs [...] Read more.
Most simultaneous wireless information and power transmission (SWIPT) systems currently operate at a single frequency, where the power and information transmission affect the resonance state of each other. This paper proposes a structure using dual-frequency programmed harmonics modulation (DFPHM). The primary-side inverter outputs a dual-frequency (DF) wave containing the power transmission and information transmission frequencies, while the DF wave is coupled to the secondary side through a common inductive link. After the power and information are transmitted to the secondary side, they are demodulated in different branches. Wave trappers are designed on each branch to reduce the interference of information transmission on power transmission. There is no tight coupling transformer in the system to inject information, so the system order is not high. Experiments verified that the proposed structure based on DFPHM is effective. Full article
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