Special Issue "Preserving Cultural Heritage: From Minero-petrographic and Chemical-physical Characterization to Cultural Sustainability"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Tourism, Culture, and Heritage".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Fabrizio Antonelli
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
LAMA - Laboratory for Analysing Materials of Ancient origin, University Iuav of Venice
Interests: Archaeometry of ancient marbles, stones, pigments, ceramics, mortars, and glass; Mineralogy and Petrography applied to cultural heritage; Damage diagnosis, deterioration proccesses, restoration and conservation of stone and lithic materials of the cultural heritage
Dr. Chiara Germinario
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Science and Technologies, University of Sannio
Interests: Cultural Heritage; Archaeometry; Damage diagnosis; Pottery; Pigments; Mortars; Mineralogy; Petrography

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Tangible Cultural Heritage (CH) consists of movable, immovable, and underwater (natural and manmade) resources and assets inherited from the past. It is an invaluable historic, artistic, social, and economic patrimony that we are called to pass on to future generations. Access, preservation, and education on CH are essential for humankind’s progression, representing, on the one hand, an essential source of inspiration, and on the other hand, a powerful call to a general sense of belonging to an "universal community". Nowadays, there is a basic need for further research aimed to better understand the relationship between heritage conservation and the various issues and scientific disciplines it involves, with particular attention paid to the effect on CH produced by natural hazards and climate change. The more and more dynamic, unstable, and aggressive environments in which CH materials are located (e.g., air pollution and atmospheric processes, changing temperature and thermal shock, and biological and/or anthropic activities) strongly contributed to their physical decay and chemical weathering (always in function of their mineralogical, chemical, and physical features).

In the last years, a wide range of new technologies in protecting, preserving and restoring CH are developing. Moreover, advanced digital methods provide easier access to CH, facilitating its documentation and recording in view of valorization and preventive conservation. Nevertheless, ancient and modern buildings, artifacts, and findings are mainly made of natural and artificial materials obtained from geological resources; therefore, a proper mineralogical-petrographic and chemical-physical characterization of these CH materials again plays a pivoting role for (i) exploring several aspects of the archaeological, architectural, and fine arts contexts; (ii) understanding the interaction of artefacts with the environment; and (iii) evaluating possible damage and consequent strategies for conservation within cultural sustainability.

Thus, the Special Issue of Sustainability, entitled “Preserving Cultural Heritage: From Minero-Petrographic and Chemical-Physical Characterization to Cultural Sustainability”, intends to facilitate the fundamental and strategic dialogue between natural and human sciences in this multidisciplinary research field. It is open to all contributions dealing with a wide framework of classical archaeometric studies as well as research concerning the CH conservation. The volume will also gather a selection of original interdisciplinary researches present at the XI Congress of Italian Association of Archaeometry (AIAr), which will be held in Naples (Italy) in March 2020.

Papers matching the following topics will be considered for publication:

  • Characterization, diagnosis, dating, provenance, and technology of architectural, archaeological, and artistic materials;
  • Evaluation of the conservation state of the CH materials in the environmental system and understanding of the processes and agents acting on;
  • Use of new products and methods in the sustainable conservation, cleaning, and restoration of CH;
  • Study of the stability of treatments used for the conservation of cultural heritage;
  • Documentation of CH with advanced digital methods for the strategic valorization of cultural resources and sustainable development;
  • Innovative, noninvasive, and nondestructive methods for the scientific investigation of CH.

Researchers of the archaeometry and cultural heritage community, such as scientists from Earth Sciences and from other disciplines—chemists, physicists, engineers, material scientists, archaeologists, conservators and restorers—are invited to present their contributions.

Prof. Dr. Fabrizio Antonelli
Dr. Chiara Germinario
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Cultural Heritage geomaterials
  • Archaeometry
  • Provenance and technology
  • Conservation and restoration
  • Cultural sustainability
  • Applied mineralogy and petrography
  • Chemistry and Physic for Cultural Heritage

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Stability of Treatment from Earth-Based Mortar in Conservation of Stone Structures in Tanais, Russia
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 2220; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042220 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 559
Abstract
Identification of materials, masonry elements, their shapes, physical and mechanical parameters and type of connection is crucial for the conservation works related to ancient masonry structures. In the case of the archaeological site where the research was carried out (Tanais in Russia), some [...] Read more.
Identification of materials, masonry elements, their shapes, physical and mechanical parameters and type of connection is crucial for the conservation works related to ancient masonry structures. In the case of the archaeological site where the research was carried out (Tanais in Russia), some irregular masonries made of limestone and earth-based mortar were stated. Such type of structures is a common finding during the archaeological excavations in the Black Sea basin carried out by the Division of Fundamental of Building of the Civil Engineering Faculty of the Warsaw University of Technology in cooperation with the Institute of Archaeology of the University of Warsaw and the Antiquity in Southeastern Europe Research Center. The structure of such walls is degraded to a large extent, has low strength, internal cohesion and, as a result—low durability. At the same time, due to their historical importance, proper conservation, as well as the development of the whole methodology for selecting the best composition of earth-based mortar, is of great importance. Presented in the article, research on earth-based mortars were carried out to determine the best way to strengthen them, using cement (creating an earth-based mortar stabilized with cement with the most appropriate recipe) and other substances available in the region where conservation works are carried out not only to improve the durability physical and mechanical parameters but also to achieve the desired esthetic effect in the form of a suitable tone together with the compatibility of repair mortar with the substrate and constitutes the primary stage of creating the whole methodology of selecting a proper composition of earth-based mortar for the conservation of ancient stone structures. In this stage, four criteria were taken into consideration: mechanical (compressive strength test), conservation (compatibility, reversibility, color, texture and surface profile), durability (freeze–thaw test, the appropriate finish of the surface, shrinkage, workability) and technological one (application of materials, technology and techniques available at the conservation area). Applied treatment was evaluated in the next two years of the conservation works. Parameters of repair earth-based mortar stabilized with cement fulfilled all of the above-mentioned requirements. Full article
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Article
Response of Organic Lime Mortars to Thermal and Electrical Shocks Due to Lightning Strikes
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 7181; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177181 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 635
Abstract
Lightning strikes are prevalent and inevitable natural phenomena that might cause damages during interaction with building structures and, in some cases, culminate in fires. During the last decades, several lightning strikes have caused considerable damages to cultural and heritage buildings. Furthermore, recent studies [...] Read more.
Lightning strikes are prevalent and inevitable natural phenomena that might cause damages during interaction with building structures and, in some cases, culminate in fires. During the last decades, several lightning strikes have caused considerable damages to cultural and heritage buildings. Furthermore, recent studies indicated a plausible connection between climate changes due to global warming and variations in the frequency and intensity of lightning. The evaluation of the structural efficiency and resilience of cultural buildings to global changes and natural risks appears significant in the light of the current scientific debate. This research aims at the assessment of lightning strikes’ effects on ancient heritage binding materials through the characterization of their thermal and electrical conductivity properties. This study focused on the performance evaluation of green and low-cost mortars based on the use of organic additives. Lime samples were reverse engineered by using a mixture of organics (fig, jaggery, black grape, banana, kadukai), which comprises the most common additives used in traditional Indian mortars. The reliability of the organic mixture in enhancing the resilience of masonry to lightning strikes was analyzed by using electromagnetic field simulation. Full article
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Article
Damage Indices and Photogrammetry for Decay Assessment of Stone-Built Cultural Heritage: The Case Study of the San Domenico Church Main Entrance Portal (South Calabria, Italy)
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 5198; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125198 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 808
Abstract
In recent decades, increasing attention is being paid to the multidisciplinary approach that allows the performance of both a preventive conservation and a more invasive restoration action. In this context, the present study aims to acquire information and data from field surveys undertaken [...] Read more.
In recent decades, increasing attention is being paid to the multidisciplinary approach that allows the performance of both a preventive conservation and a more invasive restoration action. In this context, the present study aims to acquire information and data from field surveys undertaken in San Domenico Church, Southern Calabria, in order to provide a tool for the recording and the inventory of damage and decay phenomena, and assess their causes and scale. The subsequent calculation of damage indices also provided useful information in order to allow the prioritization of conservation and preservation responses. Full article
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Article
A Sustainable Approach for the Management and Valorization of Underwater Cultural Heritage: New Perspectives from the TECTONIC Project
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 5000; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125000 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1085
Abstract
Documentation and conservation of underwater cultural heritage (UCH) are crucial to preserving humankind’s history and traditions, safeguarding tangible testimonies of past human life while ensuring its accessibility to future generations. The TECTONIC (Technological Consortium TO develop sustainability of underwater Cultural Heritage) project is [...] Read more.
Documentation and conservation of underwater cultural heritage (UCH) are crucial to preserving humankind’s history and traditions, safeguarding tangible testimonies of past human life while ensuring its accessibility to future generations. The TECTONIC (Technological Consortium TO develop sustainability of underwater Cultural Heritage) project is promoting an intersectoral collaboration between academic and non-academic professionals (i.e., archaeologists, conservators, geologists, engineers, etc.) working on different topics related to UCHs, to find solutions to the issues still existing in the field. The overall aim is the exchange of skills for the improvement and assessment of innovative materials and techniques to develop solutions and marketable products for the conservation and management of the UCH, sustainably. To achieve its overall aim, TECTONIC is undertaking activities driven by the following objectives: (a) the study, documentation, and mapping of selected UCHs; (b) the creation of decision-support tools for UCH risk assessment in a changing environment; (c) the initiation of conservation studies and protocols for conservation activities; (d) the development of open and low-cost robotic solutions for the inspection of UCH; and (e) the raising of public awareness and knowledge about UCH. All the objectives are devoted to stimulating new sustainable ideas that would bring the growth of cultural tourism and the development of new marketable products by capitalizing on the research results. Full article
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