The Effects of Pre-Workout Supplementation on Exercise Performance

A special issue of Sports (ISSN 2075-4663).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 39969

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Kinesiology and Physical Education, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115, USA
Interests: nutritional supplements; ergogenic aids; electromyography; muscle fatigue
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Pre-workout supplementation is a very popular nutritional strategy that typically involves consuming a mixture of several bioactive compounds and dietary ingredients prior to exercise for performance benefits. The vast majority of research on pre-workout supplements has focused on measures of anaerobic performance such as total resistance training volume and repetitions to failure for upper and lower body exercises. There are limited data, however, regarding the effect of these products on aerobic performance measures and associated factors (metabolic, psychological, etc.).

Recent studies have shown that pre-workout supplements on average contain over 18 total ingredients and many of these substances are included in proprietary blends at undisclosed quantities. In addition, it has been demonstrated that caffeine is the only main ingredient that is consistently provided at or above its suggested ergogenic level. Collectively, these factors make it difficult to ascertain: 1) which ingredients are responsible for any potential benefit; 2) if there are any synergistic effects among ingredients; and 3) if caffeine is solely responsible for any ergogenic effect. Thus, the comparison of pre-workout supplements versus single ingredients (e.g., caffeine, beta-alanine) or other supplements (e.g., caffeine-free pre-workout) would provide new insights into these products.

The aim of this Special Issue is to deliver novel insights into the effectiveness of pre-workout supplements and their associated performance, metabolic, and psychological benefits during various types of exercise. This information can be used by health/sport professionals, coaches, and trainers working with athletes and clients with a wide range of training goals.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Clayton L. Camic
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • multi-ingredient
  • pre-workout
  • supplementation
  • performance
  • exercise
  • metabolic
  • exertion
  • caffeine
  • beta-alanine
  • dietary

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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8 pages, 809 KiB  
Article
Acute Supplementation with Capsaicin Enhances Upper-Limb Performance in Male Jiu-Jitsu Athletes
by Bruno Victor Corrêa da Silva, Gustavo R. Mota, Moacir Marocolo, Jeffrey S. Martin and Luciano Sales Prado
Sports 2022, 10(8), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10080120 - 9 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1872
Abstract
The present study investigated whether acute capsaicin (CAP) supplementation improves mean power output (MPO) and peak velocity (PV) during the performance of the free bench press exercise (FBP). Twelve (n = 12) male Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) athletes (age: 24.3 ± 1.5 years, [...] Read more.
The present study investigated whether acute capsaicin (CAP) supplementation improves mean power output (MPO) and peak velocity (PV) during the performance of the free bench press exercise (FBP). Twelve (n = 12) male Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) athletes (age: 24.3 ± 1.5 years, height: 1.74 ± 0.1 m, body mass: 75.7 ± 10.1 kg) participated in this randomized, placebo (PLA)-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial. For each condition, 45 min after CAP (12 mg purified) or PLA (12 mg of Celulomax E) consumption, the participants performed four sets of five repetitions of FBP at a load of 60% of body mass with five-min rest intervals. The MPO (t = 5.6, df = 11, p = 0.001, EF = 0.3, IC 95% = −0.55 to 1.05) and PV (t = 5.4, df = 11, p = 0.001, EF = 0.5, IC 95% = −0.32 to 1.30) were significantly higher with CAP supplementation versus PLA. Acute CAP supplementation appears to improve MPO and PV during FBP in male BJJ athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effects of Pre-Workout Supplementation on Exercise Performance)
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9 pages, 605 KiB  
Article
Combined but Not Isolated Ingestion of Caffeine and Taurine Improves Wingate Sprint Performance in Female Team-Sport Athletes Habituated to Caffeine
by Raci Karayigit, Alireza Naderi, Bryan Saunders, Scott C. Forbes, Juan Del Coso, Erfan Berjisian, Ulas Can Yildirim and Katsuhiko Suzuki
Sports 2021, 9(12), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9120162 - 27 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4358
Abstract
Previous studies have investigated caffeine (CAF) and taurine (TAU) in isolation and combined during exercise in males. However, the potential synergistic effect during high-intensity exercise remains unknown in female athletes. Seventeen female team-sport athletes participated (age: 23.4 ± 2.1 years; height: 1.68 ± [...] Read more.
Previous studies have investigated caffeine (CAF) and taurine (TAU) in isolation and combined during exercise in males. However, the potential synergistic effect during high-intensity exercise remains unknown in female athletes. Seventeen female team-sport athletes participated (age: 23.4 ± 2.1 years; height: 1.68 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 59.5 ± 2.2 kg). All participants were habitual caffeine consumers (340.1 ± 28.6 mg/day). A double-blind randomized crossover design was used. Participants completed four experimental trials: (i) CAF and TAU (6 mg/kg body mass of CAF + 1 g of TAU), (ii) CAF alone; (iii) TAU alone; and (iv) placebo (PLA). Supplements were ingested 60 min before a 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). Heart rate and blood lactate (BL) were measured before and immediately after the WAnT; and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded immediately after the WAnT. Peak power (PP) was significantly higher following co-ingestion of CAF+TAU compared to PLA (p = 0.03) and TAU (p = 0.03). Mean power (MP) was significantly higher following co-ingestion of CAF+TAU compared to PLA (p = 0.01). No other differences were found between conditions for PP and MP (p > 0.05). There were also no observed differences in fatigue index (FI), BL; heart rate; and RPE between conditions (p > 0.05). In conclusion, compared to PLA the combined ingestion of 6 mg/kg of CAF and 1 g of TAU improved both PP and MP in female athletes habituated to caffeine; however; CAF and TAU independently failed to augment WAnT performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effects of Pre-Workout Supplementation on Exercise Performance)
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13 pages, 821 KiB  
Article
Effects of a Multi-Ingredient Preworkout Supplement Versus Caffeine on Energy Expenditure and Feelings of Fatigue during Low-Intensity Treadmill Exercise in College-Aged Males
by Daniel J. Lutsch, Clayton L. Camic, Andrew R. Jagim, Riley R. Stefan, Brandon J. Cox, Rachel N. Tauber and Shaine E. Henert
Sports 2020, 8(10), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8100132 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4263
Abstract
The primary purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of a multi-ingredient (i.e., caffeine, green tea extract, Yohimbe extract, capsicum annum, coleus extract, L-carnitine, beta-alanine, tyrosine) preworkout supplement versus a dose of caffeine (6 mg·kg−1) on energy expenditure [...] Read more.
The primary purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of a multi-ingredient (i.e., caffeine, green tea extract, Yohimbe extract, capsicum annum, coleus extract, L-carnitine, beta-alanine, tyrosine) preworkout supplement versus a dose of caffeine (6 mg·kg−1) on energy expenditure during low-intensity exercise. The effects of these treatments on substrate utilization, gas exchange, and psychological factors were also investigated. Twelve males (mean ± SD: age = 22.8 ± 2.4 years) completed three bouts of 60 min of treadmill exercise on separate days after consuming a preworkout supplement, 6 mg·kg−1 of caffeine, or placebo in a randomized fashion. The preworkout and caffeine supplements resulted in significantly greater energy expenditure (p < 0.001, p = 0.006, respectively), V˙O2 (p < 0.001, p = 0.007, respectively), V˙CO2 (p = 0.006, p = 0.049, respectively), and V˙E (p < 0.001, p = 0.007, respectively) compared to placebo (collapsed across condition). There were no differences among conditions, however, for rates of fat or carbohydrate oxidation or respiratory exchange ratio. In addition, the preworkout supplement increased feelings of alertness (p = 0.015) and focus (p = 0.005) 30-min postingestion and decreased feelings of fatigue (p = 0.014) during exercise compared to placebo. Thus, the preworkout supplement increased energy expenditure and measures of gas exchange to the same extent as 6 mg·kg−1 of caffeine with concomitant increased feelings of alertness and focus and decreased feelings of fatigue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effects of Pre-Workout Supplementation on Exercise Performance)
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Review

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11 pages, 786 KiB  
Review
Effects of Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) Ingestion on Endurance Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Jozo Grgic and Pavle Mikulic
Sports 2021, 9(9), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9090126 - 6 Sep 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 28118
Abstract
Several studies explored the effects of paracetamol (acetaminophen) ingestion on endurance performance, but their findings are conflicting. Therefore, this review aimed to conduct a meta-analysis examining the effects of paracetamol ingestion on endurance performance. Five databases were searched to find relevant studies. The [...] Read more.
Several studies explored the effects of paracetamol (acetaminophen) ingestion on endurance performance, but their findings are conflicting. Therefore, this review aimed to conduct a meta-analysis examining the effects of paracetamol ingestion on endurance performance. Five databases were searched to find relevant studies. The PEDro checklist was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. Data reported in the included studies were pooled in a random-effects meta-analysis. A total of ten studies with good or excellent methodological quality were included in the meta-analysis (pooled n = 141). All included studies had a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. In the main meta-analysis, there was no significant difference between the effects of placebo and paracetamol on endurance performance (Cohen’s d = 0.09; 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.04, 0.22; p = 0.172). However, an ergogenic effect was found when we considered only the studies that provided paracetamol 45 to 60 min before exercise (Cohen’s d = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.21; p < 0.001). In a subgroup analysis that focused on time-to-exhaustion tests, there was a significant ergogenic effect of paracetamol ingestion (Cohen’s d = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.33; p = 0.006). There was no significant difference between placebo and paracetamol in a subgroup analysis that focused on time trial tests (Cohen’s d = 0.05; 95% CI: −0.12, 0.21; p = 0.561). In conclusion, paracetamol ingestion appears to enhance performance (a) in time-to-exhaustion endurance tests and (b) when consumed 45 to 60 min before exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effects of Pre-Workout Supplementation on Exercise Performance)
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