Effects of Resistance Exercise Variables on Muscle Adaptation and Physical Performance

A special issue of Sports (ISSN 2075-4663).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021) | Viewed by 18587

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1 Institute of Sports Science, University of Hildesheim, Hildesheim, Germany;
2 Institute of Cardiovascular Research and Sports Medicine, Department for Molecular and Cellular Sports Medicine, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany
Interests: skeletal muscle adaptation; molecular signaling; mechanoprotection of skeletal muscle; resistance exercise; endurance exercise; exercise physiology; human performance
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Skeletal muscle is a prerequisite for directed movement of humans and physical performance in sports. Due to its ability to adapt to a wide range of mechanical and metabolic stimuli, exercise provides the fundamental basis for performance enhancement. Resistance exercise is a highly potent method to increase skeletal muscle mass and force generation in humans, a key factor for performance in many disciplines. Research in recent decades has generated a profound knowledge of molecular mechanisms that explain skeletal muscle adaptation towards resistance exercise. Major mechanisms that maintain skeletal muscle proteostasis in mechanically loaded human skeletal muscle, involve molecular networks that control synthesis and degradation of functional proteins within myofibers. However, it is of crucial importance for the athlete and the coach to estimate the effect of varying intensities, volumes, and modes of muscle contractions by resistance exercise on the outcome of myofiber adaptations and resulting muscle performance. For this Special Issue, we encourage international groups of muscle researchers, exercise physiologists, and sports scientists to submit papers that cover the interface between resistance exercise variables and biological muscle adaptations with a link to muscle or exercise performance. The Special Issue aims to further bridge the gap between theory and praxis of muscle adaptation in relation to performance enhancement in sports.

Prof. Dr. Sebastian Gehlert
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Skeletal muscle adaptation
  • Cellular adaptation
  • Resistance training variables
  • Molecular adaptation
  • Protein synthesis
  • Protein degradation
  • Muscle fibers
  • Force generation
  • Strength performance
  • Skeletal muscle growth

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 1034 KiB  
Article
Changes in Body Composition and Strength after 12 Weeks of High-Intensity Functional Training with Two Different Loads in Physically Active Men and Women: A Randomized Controlled Study
by Daniel P. Kapsis, Athanasios Tsoukos, Maria P. Psarraki, Helen T. Douda, Ilias Smilios and Gregory C. Bogdanis
Sports 2022, 10(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10010007 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 14649
Abstract
This study examined the effects of two different resistance loads during high-intensity Functional Training (HIFT) on body composition and maximal strength. Thirty-one healthy young individuals were randomly assigned into three groups: moderate load (ML: 70% 1-RM), low load-(LL: 30% 1-RM), and control (CON). [...] Read more.
This study examined the effects of two different resistance loads during high-intensity Functional Training (HIFT) on body composition and maximal strength. Thirty-one healthy young individuals were randomly assigned into three groups: moderate load (ML: 70% 1-RM), low load-(LL: 30% 1-RM), and control (CON). Each experimental group performed HIFT three times per week for 12 weeks with a similar total volume load. Body fat decreased equally in both experimental groups after 6 weeks of training (p < 0.001), but at the end of training it further decreased only in LL compared to ML (−3.19 ± 1.59 vs. −1.64 ± 1.44 kg, p < 0.001), with no change in CON (0.29 ± 1.08 kg, p = 0.998). Lean body mass (LBM) increased after 6 weeks of training (p = 0.019) in ML only, while after 12 weeks a similar increase was observed in LL and ML (1.11 ± 0.65 vs. ML: 1.25 ± 1.59 kg, p = 0.034 and 0.013, respectively), with no change in CON (0.34 ± 0.67 kg, p = 0.991). Maximal strength increased similarly in four out of five exercises for both experimental groups by between 9.5% and 16.9% (p < 0.01) at the end of training, with no change in CON (−0.6 to 4.9%, p > 0.465). In conclusion, twelve weeks of HIFT training with either low or moderate resistance and equal volume load resulted in an equal increase in LBM and maximal strength, but different fat loss. Full article
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11 pages, 2769 KiB  
Article
The Acute Effect of Accentuated Eccentric Overloading upon the Kinematics and Myoelectric Activity in the Eccentric and Concentric Phase of a Traditional Bench Press
by Eirik Lindset Kristiansen, Stian Larsen and Roland van den Tillaar
Sports 2022, 10(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10010006 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3001
Abstract
The target of this study was to investigate the acute effect of a supramaximal augmented eccentric load on the kinematics and myoelectric activity during the concentric phase of the lift in a traditional bench press. Ten resistance-trained males (age 24 ± 6.4 years, [...] Read more.
The target of this study was to investigate the acute effect of a supramaximal augmented eccentric load on the kinematics and myoelectric activity during the concentric phase of the lift in a traditional bench press. Ten resistance-trained males (age 24 ± 6.4 years, height 1.80 ± 0.07 m, body-mass 87.2 ± 16.9 kg) performed two repetitions at 110/85% of the 1-RM in the dynamic accentuated external resistance (DAER) group and two repetitions at 85/85% of the 1-RM for the control group in a traditional bench press. The barbell kinematics, joint kinematics and myoelectric activity of eight muscles were measured in the eccentric phase and the pre-sticking, sticking and post-sticking regions. The main findings were that the sticking region started at a lower barbell height and that a lower barbell velocity was observed in the sticking region during the second repetition in the DAER condition compared to the control condition. Additionally, the lateral deltoid muscle and clavicle part of the pectoralis were more active during the eccentric loading compared to the control condition for the second repetition. Furthermore, higher myoelectric activity was measured during the second repetition in the sticking region for the eccentric loading condition in both pectoralis muscles, while the sternal parts of the pectoralis and anterior deltoid were more active during the second repetition of the control condition in the post-sticking region. Based on our findings, it can be concluded that the supramaximal loading in the descending phase with 110% of the 1-RM in the bench press does not have an acute and positive effect of enhanced performance in the ascending phase of the lift at 85% of 1-RM. Instead, fatigue occurs when using this eccentric load during a bench press. Full article
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