Special Issue "Health Promotion"

A special issue of Societies (ISSN 2075-4698).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2016) | Viewed by 42495

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Kristine Crondahl
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
The Department of Social and Behavioral Studies, University West, Sweden
Interests: empowerment; social determinants of health among vulnerable groups; social inequality

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues

It has been 30 years since the concept and approach of health promotion was presented in the Ottawa Charter as “… the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health.” (WHO, 1986, p. 1).  The goal was ‘Health for all by the year 2000’. This did not come true; but is it still reasonable to say that health promotion, so far, has achieved what was and is, needed?

Health promotion is the only public health area of action with a positive view of health, approaching people’s living conditions, health equity and emphasizing the equality of women and men (Potvin and Jones, 2011). The fields of action for health promotion are building healthy public policy, creating supportive environments for health, strengthening community action, developing personal skills, and reorienting health services. Key elements of health promotion are empowerment and people’s participation in the improvement of health and life situations. Participation of involved individuals, groups or community is central for the empowerment process to succeed (Rootman et al., 2001).

Socioeconomic, cultural and environmental conditions surrounding people’s lives are essential for health. Chronic diseases and unhealthy behavior are more common within socially and economically disadvantaged groups. However, health promotion efforts for reducing inequities in health has been criticized for focusing too much on individual behavioral changes rather than the broader aspects of social determinants of health needs (Baum and Fisher, 2014). Another concept that has been subject to the same criticism is health literacy. Also, health literacy has, to a large extent, been focusing on individualistic and behavioral aspects rather than the social determinants of health, which, according to critics, might undermine the success of such interventions.     

Contributions to this Special Issue will critically engage with some of the issues above. We also invite contributions that will critically engage other aspects relevant to contemporary health promotion.

Dr. Kristine Crondahl
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Societies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • Social determinants of health
  • Health literacy
  • Empowerment
  • Social mobilization
  • Health equity/inequalities in health

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Article
“Self-Employed” in Caregivinghood: The Contribution of Swedish Informal Caregivers’ Environmental and Contextual Resistance Resources and Deficits
Societies 2017, 7(3), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc7030019 - 21 Jul 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2217
Abstract
Informal caregivers provide the majority of care for older adults residing in their own homes. Caregivinghood, a new evidence-based concept, describes a time of life when relatives provide care at home. These caregivers need knowledge regarding resources to help them resolve the challenges [...] Read more.
Informal caregivers provide the majority of care for older adults residing in their own homes. Caregivinghood, a new evidence-based concept, describes a time of life when relatives provide care at home. These caregivers need knowledge regarding resources to help them resolve the challenges they encounter. The theoretical framework underpinning this study is Antonovsky’s salutogenic theory of health. This study had two aims: (1) to examine the salutogenic core concepts Generalized and Specific Resistance Resources and Deficits (GRRs/SRRs and GRDs/SRDs) described by Swedish informal caregivers as originating from the environmental and contextual domain of caregivinghood and (2) to discuss how this new knowledge might contribute to the development of health promotion initiatives. This qualitative and theory driven study used inductive and deductive data analysis. Data were gathered through salutogenically guided face-to-face interviews of 32 Swedish informal caregivers. In addition, the study relied on the salutogenic core concepts Specific and Generalized Resistance Resources and Deficits originating from their environment and context. Being in empowering surroundings reflects the presence of usable SRRs/GRRs, whereas Struggling in impeding surroundings reflects the presence of SRDs/GRDs. The results indicate that health-enhancing support has to be individualized (SRRs/SRDs) and generalized (GRRs/GRDs). This study’s salutogenic approach and the methodology enhance the understanding of the mechanisms behind the development of Sense of Coherence. The results contribute both empirically and theoretically to strengthen health promotion research and practice when developing activities and support for caregivers in stressful situations, such as informal caregiving. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Promotion)
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Article
Health-Promoting Managerial Work: A Theoretical Framework for a Leadership Program that Supports Knowledge and Capability to Craft Sustainable Work Practices in Daily Practice and During Organizational Change
Societies 2017, 7(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc7020012 - 05 May 2017
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 7795
Abstract
The aim of this article is to describe a theoretical framework, i.e., theoretical underpinnings and pedagogical principles, for leadership programs that support managers’ evidence-based knowledge of health-promoting psychosocial work conditions, as well as their capability to apply, adapt, and craft sustainable managerial work [...] Read more.
The aim of this article is to describe a theoretical framework, i.e., theoretical underpinnings and pedagogical principles, for leadership programs that support managers’ evidence-based knowledge of health-promoting psychosocial work conditions, as well as their capability to apply, adapt, and craft sustainable managerial work practices. First, the theoretical framing is introduced, i.e., a system theory that integrates key work conditions with a practical perspective on managerial work and organization. Second, pedagogical principles and measures for leaders’ training in integrated handling across system levels are described. Last, we present summarized results from an intervention study applying the theoretical framework and pedagogical principles. The complexity of interactions among different factors in a work system, and the variety in possible implementation approaches, presents challenges for the capability of managers to craft sustainable and health-promoting conditions, as well as the evaluation of the program components. Nevertheless, the evaluation reveals the strength of the program, in providing holistic and context-sensitive approaches for how to train and apply an integrative approach for improving the work environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Promotion)
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Article
Principled Promotion of Health: Implementing Five Guiding Health Promotion Principles for Research-Based Prevention and Management of Diabetes
Societies 2017, 7(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc7020010 - 26 Apr 2017
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 6978
Abstract
Background: Based on widespread critique of the moralizing paradigm that has long characterized much of the work conducted within the field of health promotion, Steno Health Promotion Research has developed a comprehensive health promotion approach consisting of five principles that constitute the framework [...] Read more.
Background: Based on widespread critique of the moralizing paradigm that has long characterized much of the work conducted within the field of health promotion, Steno Health Promotion Research has developed a comprehensive health promotion approach consisting of five principles that constitute the framework for a new intervention paradigm. The five principles are: (1) A broad and positive health concept; (2) Participation and involvement; (3) Action and action competence; (4) A settings perspective and (5) Equity in health. Objectives: To describe a comprehensive health promotion approach consisting of five principles; to present research and development projects based on this set of principles; and to discuss experiences and results from implementing the health promotion principles in healthcare practices. Results and conclusion: The principle approach enables consolidation of hitherto disparate approaches into a single comprehensive approach. The principles have turned out to be productive and effective “management tools” that have led to new discoveries, but also helped to identify limitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Promotion)
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Article
Shared Participatory Research Principles and Methodologies: Perspectives from the USA and Brazil—45 Years after Paulo Freire’s “Pedagogy of the Oppressed”
Societies 2017, 7(2), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc7020006 - 13 Apr 2017
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3742
Abstract
The trajectory of participation in health research by community social actors worldwide has been built on a history of community participation from the Ottawa Charter Health Promotion call for community mobilization, to the emancipatory educational philosophy of Paulo Freire, to social movements and [...] Read more.
The trajectory of participation in health research by community social actors worldwide has been built on a history of community participation from the Ottawa Charter Health Promotion call for community mobilization, to the emancipatory educational philosophy of Paulo Freire, to social movements and organizing for health and social justice. This paper builds on this history to expand our global knowledge about community participation in research through a dialogue between experiences and contexts in two prominent countries in this approach; the United States and Brazil. We first focus on differences in political and scientific contexts, financing, and academic perspectives and then present how, despite these differences, similarities exist in values and collaborative methodologies aimed at engaging community partners in democratizing science and knowledge construction. We present three case studies, one from the U.S. and two from Brazil, which illustrate similar multi-level processes using participatory research tools and Freirian dialogue to contribute to social mobilization, community empowerment, and the transformation of inequitable societal conditions. Despite different processes of evolution, we observed a convergence of participatory health research strategies and values that can transform science in our commitment to reduce health and social inequities and improve community wellbeing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Promotion)
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Article
Advocating for Health Promotion Policy in Norway: The Role of the County Municipalities
Societies 2017, 7(2), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc7020005 - 12 Apr 2017
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2287
Abstract
Background: The Norwegian National government has developed public health policies that reflect health promotion principles, and these are particularly reflected in the recent Public Health Act (PHA). The counties (CMs) have been given a central role in the implementation of the PHA, and [...] Read more.
Background: The Norwegian National government has developed public health policies that reflect health promotion principles, and these are particularly reflected in the recent Public Health Act (PHA). The counties (CMs) have been given a central role in the implementation of the PHA, and in this paper we explore how the CMs fill this role. Methods: Qualitative as well as quantitative data have been applied; a survey, a document study and personal interviews have been conducted. Results: The findings show that the CMs find it challenging to influence all sectors to change the focus from classical lifestyle issues to a focus on the social determinants of health. The Directorate of Health has the main responsibility for implementing the PHA, but the signals from the Directorate are not always consistent. The Directorate still launches campaigns and interventions to improve diets and stimulate physical activity, without launching them in the context of the PHA. Conclusion: The CMs regard the supporting role toward the municipalities as their highest priority. However, they find it hard to anchor and integrate the principles of the PHA. They explain this partly with the sectorised government organisation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Promotion)
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Article
Coaches’ Health Promotion Activity and Substance Use in Youth Sports
Societies 2017, 7(2), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc7020004 - 07 Apr 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2769
Abstract
There is an increasing amount of evidence suggesting youth sports clubs are an important setting for health promotion. Adolescents in sport club settings can benefit from exposures of positive and negative consequences to health. To better understand the sport club context and coaches’ [...] Read more.
There is an increasing amount of evidence suggesting youth sports clubs are an important setting for health promotion. Adolescents in sport club settings can benefit from exposures of positive and negative consequences to health. To better understand the sport club context and coaches’ health promotion activity in substance use prevention, this study compares sport club members with non-members aged between 14–16 years old on their experience and use of alcohol, smoking and snuff and coaches’ health promotion activity on substances. Methods: Adolescents (n = 671) from sports clubs and from matched schools (n = 1442) were recruited in this study. Multiple binary logistic regressions were performed on substance use. Results: Higher prevalence of substance use was associated with discussions of substances, often held by coaches. Significantly fewer girls who are sport club members had experiences in alcohol, smoking or snuff than their non-member counter-parts, the differences among boys varied by substance. Fewer sport club members experienced smoking than non-members. More boys used snuff than girls. Conclusions: The most salient points for health promotion were that girls who were sport club members used fewer substances and for boys the picture was more complicated. Coaches could be using reactive strategies through informal learning to address substance use in clubs, although more effective training on substance use for coaches is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Promotion)
Article
A Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the ICECAP-O: Test–Retest Reliability and Item Relevance in Swedish 70-Year-Olds
Societies 2016, 6(4), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc6040030 - 30 Sep 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2519
Abstract
Background: While there is a plethora of Quality of Life (QoL) measures, the Investigating Choice Experiments for the Preferences of Older People—CAPability index (ICECAP-O) is one of the few that taps into the concept of capability, i.e., opportunities to 'do' and 'be' the [...] Read more.
Background: While there is a plethora of Quality of Life (QoL) measures, the Investigating Choice Experiments for the Preferences of Older People—CAPability index (ICECAP-O) is one of the few that taps into the concept of capability, i.e., opportunities to 'do' and 'be' the things that one deems important in life. We aimed to examine test–retest reliability of the ICECAP-O in a Swedish context and to study item relevance. Methods: Thirty-nine 70-year-olds who took part in a population-based health study completed the Swedish version of the ICECAP-O on two occasions. We analyzed the test–retest reliability for the index and for the individual items. Participants also rated the relevance of each item on a visual analogue scale (0–100). Results: Test–retest reliability for the index score was in good agreement with an ICC of 0.80 (95% CI 0.62–0.90). However, Kappa was low for each item and ranged from 0.18 (control) to 0.41 (role). For attachment, we found a systematic disagreement with lower ratings at the second test occasion. Participants gave their highest relevance rating to attachment and lowest to enjoyment. Conclusion: The Swedish version of the ICECAP-O had good test–retest agreement, similar to that observed for the English version. Item level agreement was problematic, however, highlighting a need for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Promotion)
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Review

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Review
Children of Imprisoned Parents and Their Coping Strategies: A Systematic Review
Societies 2017, 7(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc7020015 - 24 May 2017
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4686
Abstract
Children of imprisoned parents have a two times greater risk of health problems, including difficulties in their environment, academic and behavioural problems as well as social stigma. Focusing on children who have parents in prison has not been a priority for research. This [...] Read more.
Children of imprisoned parents have a two times greater risk of health problems, including difficulties in their environment, academic and behavioural problems as well as social stigma. Focusing on children who have parents in prison has not been a priority for research. This review aims to describe current knowledge on children who have imprisoned parents in a global context and highlight areas for additional research. This review highlights the coping strategies that children of imprisoned parents use and explores interventions that exist to support children of imprisoned parents. This review employed a qualitative narrative synthesis. The database search yielded 1989 articles, of which 11 met inclusion and quality criteria. Stigmatizing children due to parental imprisonment was a widespread problem. Children’s coping strategies included maintaining distance from the imprisoned parent, normalizing the parent’s situation and taking better control over their lives through distraction, sports, supportive people and therapy. Children received the best support in school-based interventions or mentoring programmes. The overall low quality of the included studies indicates a need for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Promotion)
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Review
Management and Leadership Approaches to Health Promotion and Sustainable Workplaces: A Scoping Review
Societies 2017, 7(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc7020014 - 23 May 2017
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5778
Abstract
Whole-system approaches linking workplace health promotion to the development of a sustainable working life have been advocated. The aim of this scoping review was to map out if and how whole-system approaches to workplace health promotion with a focus on management, leadership, and [...] Read more.
Whole-system approaches linking workplace health promotion to the development of a sustainable working life have been advocated. The aim of this scoping review was to map out if and how whole-system approaches to workplace health promotion with a focus on management, leadership, and economic efficiency have been used in Nordic health promotion research. In addition, we wanted to investigate, in depth, if and how management and/or leadership approaches related to sustainable workplaces are addressed. Eighty-three articles were included in an analysis of the studies’ aims and content, research design, and country. For a further in-depth qualitative content analysis we excluded 63 articles in which management and/or leadership were only one of several factors studied. In the in-depth analysis of the 20 remaining studies, four main categories connected to sustainable workplaces emerged: studies including a whole system understanding; studies examining success factors for the implementation of workplace health promotion; studies using sustainability for framing the study; and studies highlighting health risks with an explicit economic focus. Aspects of sustainability were, in most articles, only included for framing the importance of the studies, and only few studies addressed aspects of sustainable workplaces from the perspective of a whole-system approach. Implications from this scoping review are that future Nordic workplace health promotion research needs to integrate health promotion and economic efficiency to a greater extent, in order to contribute to societal effectiveness and sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Promotion)
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Other

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Commentary
The Role of Health Promotion in Disease Outbreaks and Health Emergencies
Societies 2017, 7(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc7010002 - 10 Feb 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3446
Abstract
Health promotion has a key role to play in disease outbreaks and health emergencies because it can offer well-established bottom-up approaches that engage with people to be an active part of a response. International agencies did learn from their earlier mistakes in, for [...] Read more.
Health promotion has a key role to play in disease outbreaks and health emergencies because it can offer well-established bottom-up approaches that engage with people to be an active part of a response. International agencies did learn from their earlier mistakes in, for example, the recent Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, even though an attempt to engage with communities was not initially widely implemented. Many agencies preferred to use pre-packaged approaches which had an emphasis on individual behavior changes and health care delivery. This had a questionable effect because disease outbreaks and health emergencies must actively communicate with and involve people to be successful. Health promotion practice recognizes the value of community capacity-building, participation and empowerment—aspects that are already intrinsic to many health promotion programs. An understanding of how this is achieved in practice will help agencies to find an appropriate way forward to involve and better communicate with communities when the next disease outbreak inevitably occurs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Promotion)
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