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Special Issue "Advanced Technologies and Techniques for Microwave and Wireless Sensors"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2016).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Ferran Martín
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CIMITEC, Departament d'Enginyeria Electrònica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
Interests: metamaterials; microwave engineering; microwave sensors; RFID
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Jordi Naqui
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
CIMITEC, Departament d'Enginyeria Electrònica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
Interests: microwave engineering; microwave sensors; chipless RFID; circuit modeling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sensors have progressively increased their presence in our daily lives, and are expected to be key elements in the future for the remote and wireless sensing and monitoring of objects, beings, infrastructures, people, and so on, within the paradigm of the so-called Internet-of-Things (IoT), for their potential in contributing to make a smarter world (smart systems, smart cities, etc.), or for their applications in specific areas, such as space, health, security, or energy, among others. Within this framework, high-performance microwave and wireless sensors and sensor networks based on advanced technologies and techniques are required. This Special Issue is focused on this topic, and papers related to the following areas are solicited:

  • Wireless sensors and sensor networks
  • Smart sensors and systems
  • Microfluidic sensors
  • MEMS-based sensors
  • Metamaterial-based or inspired sensors
  • RFID sensors
  • Microwave, millimeter-wave and THz sensors
  • Microwave sensors for health applications and biosensors
  • Microwave sensors for space applications
  • Microwave sensors for security
  • Novel sensor concepts and technologies

Prof. Dr. Ferran Martín
Guest Editor

Dr. Jordi Naqui
Co-Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Customization of UWB 3D-RTLS Based on the New Uncertainty Model of the AoA Ranging Technique
Sensors 2017, 17(2), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17020227 - 25 Jan 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
The increased potential and effectiveness of Real-time Locating Systems (RTLSs) substantially influence their application spectrum. They are widely used, inter alia, in the industrial sector, healthcare, home care, and in logistic and security applications. The research aims to develop an analytical method to [...] Read more.
The increased potential and effectiveness of Real-time Locating Systems (RTLSs) substantially influence their application spectrum. They are widely used, inter alia, in the industrial sector, healthcare, home care, and in logistic and security applications. The research aims to develop an analytical method to customize UWB-based RTLS, in order to improve their localization performance in terms of accuracy and precision. The analytical uncertainty model of Angle of Arrival (AoA) localization in a 3D indoor space, which is the foundation of the customization concept, is established in a working environment. Additionally, a suitable angular-based 3D localization algorithm is introduced. The paper investigates the following issues: the influence of the proposed correction vector on the localization accuracy; the impact of the system’s configuration and LS’s relative deployment on the localization precision distribution map. The advantages of the method are verified by comparing them with a reference commercial RTLS localization engine. The results of simulations and physical experiments prove the value of the proposed customization method. The research confirms that the analytical uncertainty model is the valid representation of RTLS’ localization uncertainty in terms of accuracy and precision and can be useful for its performance improvement. The research shows, that the Angle of Arrival localization in a 3D indoor space applying the simple angular-based localization algorithm and correction vector improves of localization accuracy and precision in a way that the system challenges the reference hardware advanced localization engine. Moreover, the research guides the deployment of location sensors to enhance the localization precision. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Configurations of Splitter/Combiner Microstrip Sections Loaded with Stepped Impedance Resonators (SIRs) for Sensing Applications
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2195; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16122195 - 20 Dec 2016
Cited by 11
Abstract
In this paper, several configurations of splitter/combiner microstrip sections loaded with stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) are analyzed. Such structures are useful as sensors and comparators, and the main aim of the paper is to show that the proposed configurations are useful for the [...] Read more.
In this paper, several configurations of splitter/combiner microstrip sections loaded with stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) are analyzed. Such structures are useful as sensors and comparators, and the main aim of the paper is to show that the proposed configurations are useful for the optimization of sensitivity and discrimination. Specifically, for comparison purposes, i.e., to determine anomalies, abnormalities or defects of a sample under test (SUT) in comparison to a reference sample, it is shown that up to three samples can be simultaneously tested. Simple models of the proposed structures are presented, and these models are validated through electromagnetic simulation and experiment. Finally, the principle of operation is validated through a proof-of-concept demonstrator. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mitigating RF Front-End Nonlinearity of Sensor Nodes to Enhance Spectrum Sensing
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 1999; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16121999 - 25 Nov 2016
Cited by 1
Abstract
The cognitive radio wireless sensor network (CR-WSN) has gained worldwide attention in recent years for its potential applications. Reliable spectrum sensing is the premise for opportunistic access to sensor nodes. However, as a result of the radio frequency (RF) front-end nonlinearity of sensor [...] Read more.
The cognitive radio wireless sensor network (CR-WSN) has gained worldwide attention in recent years for its potential applications. Reliable spectrum sensing is the premise for opportunistic access to sensor nodes. However, as a result of the radio frequency (RF) front-end nonlinearity of sensor nodes, distortion products can easily degrade the spectrum sensing performance by causing false alarms and degrading the detection probability. Given the limitations of the widely-used adaptive interference cancellation (AIC) algorithm, this paper develops several details to avoid these limitations and form a new mitigation architecture to alleviate nonlinear distortions. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, verification tests for both simulations and actual RF front-end measurements are presented and discussed. The obtained results show that distortions can be suppressed significantly, thus improving the reliability of spectrum sensing. Moreover, compared to AIC, the proposed algorithm clearly shows better performance, especially at the band edges of the interferer signal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simultaneous Life Detection and Localization Using a Wideband Chaotic Signal with an Embedded Tone
Sensors 2016, 16(11), 1866; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16111866 - 06 Nov 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
A hybrid life detection radar system which transmits a wideband chaotic signal containing an embedded single-tone is proposed. The chaotic signal is used for target localization by the time-domain correlation method and synthetic aperture technique, and the single-tone signal is used to measure [...] Read more.
A hybrid life detection radar system which transmits a wideband chaotic signal containing an embedded single-tone is proposed. The chaotic signal is used for target localization by the time-domain correlation method and synthetic aperture technique, and the single-tone signal is used to measure the frequencies of breathing and heartbeat based on an on-chip split-ring integrated sensor and Michelson interference principle. Experimental results in free space and in through-wall scenarios demonstrate that the system can realize human detection and localization simultaneously with high range resolution, high sensitivity, and large dynamic range without complex signal processing. The range resolution is about 10 cm, and the dynamic range is 35 dB for the respiration signal detection and 25 dB for the heartbeat signal detection. Due to its good immunity to interference/jamming and high spectrum efficiency, the proposed system is suitable for post-disaster rescue, elder/infant/patient vitality monitoring, and anti-terrorism enforcement applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microwave-Based Microfluidic Sensor for Non-Destructive and Quantitative Glucose Monitoring in Aqueous Solution
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1733; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16101733 - 19 Oct 2016
Cited by 20
Abstract
This paper presents a reliable microwave and microfluidic miniature sensor dedicated to the measurement of glucose concentration in aqueous solution. The device; which is integrated with microtechnologies; is made of a bandstop filter implemented in a thin film microstrip technology combined with a [...] Read more.
This paper presents a reliable microwave and microfluidic miniature sensor dedicated to the measurement of glucose concentration in aqueous solution. The device; which is integrated with microtechnologies; is made of a bandstop filter implemented in a thin film microstrip technology combined with a fluidic microchannel. Glucose aqueous solutions have been characterized for concentration ranging from 80 g/L down to 0.3 g/L and are identified with the normalized insertion loss at optimal frequency. The sensitivity of the sensor has consequently been estimated at 7.6 × 10−3 dB/(g/L); together with the experimental uncertainty; the resolution of the sensor comes to 0.4 g/L. These results demonstrate the potentialities of such a sensor for the quantitative analysis of glucose in aqueous solution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancement of Frequency Stability Using Synchronization of a Cantilever Array for MEMS-Based Sensors
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1690; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16101690 - 13 Oct 2016
Cited by 7
Abstract
Micro and nano electromechanical resonators have been widely used as single or multiple-mass detection sensors. Smaller devices with higher resonance frequencies and lower masses offer higher mass responsivities but suffer from lower frequency stability. Synchronization phenomena in multiple MEMS resonators have become an [...] Read more.
Micro and nano electromechanical resonators have been widely used as single or multiple-mass detection sensors. Smaller devices with higher resonance frequencies and lower masses offer higher mass responsivities but suffer from lower frequency stability. Synchronization phenomena in multiple MEMS resonators have become an important issue because they allow frequency stability improvement, thereby preserving mass responsivity. The authors present an array of five cantilevers (CMOS-MEMS system) that are forced to vibrate synchronously to enhance their frequency stability. The frequency stability has been determined in closed-loop configuration for long periods of time by calculating the Allan deviation. An Allan deviation of 0.013 ppm (@ 1 s averaging time) for a 1 MHz cantilever array MEMS system was obtained at the synchronized mode, which represents a 23-fold improvement in comparison with the non-synchronized operation mode (0.3 ppm). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stretchable Complementary Split Ring Resonator (CSRR)-Based Radio Frequency (RF) Sensor for Strain Direction and Level Detection
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1667; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16101667 - 11 Oct 2016
Cited by 9
Abstract
In this paper, we proposed a stretchable radio frequency (RF) sensor to detect strain direction and level. The stretchable sensor is composed of two complementary split ring resonators (CSRR) with microfluidic channels. In order to achieve stretchability, liquid metal (eutectic gallium-indium, EGaIn) and [...] Read more.
In this paper, we proposed a stretchable radio frequency (RF) sensor to detect strain direction and level. The stretchable sensor is composed of two complementary split ring resonators (CSRR) with microfluidic channels. In order to achieve stretchability, liquid metal (eutectic gallium-indium, EGaIn) and Ecoflex substrate are used. Microfluidic channels are built by Ecoflex elastomer and microfluidic channel frames. A three-dimensional (3D) printer is used for fabrication of microfluidic channel frames. Two CSRR resonators are designed to resonate 2.03 GHz and 3.68 GHz. When the proposed sensor is stretched from 0 to 8 mm along the +x direction, the resonant frequency is shifted from 3.68 GHz to 3.13 GHz. When the proposed sensor is stretched from 0 to 8 mm along the −x direction, the resonant frequency is shifted from 2.03 GHz to 1.78 GHz. Therefore, we can detect stretched length and direction from independent variation of two resonant frequencies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Passive Wireless Sensor for Concrete Humidity Monitoring
Sensors 2016, 16(9), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16091535 - 20 Sep 2016
Cited by 10
Abstract
This paper presents a passive wireless humidity sensor for concrete monitoring. After discussing the transmission of electromagnetic wave in concrete, a novel architecture of wireless humidity sensor, based on Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, is proposed for low-power application. The [...] Read more.
This paper presents a passive wireless humidity sensor for concrete monitoring. After discussing the transmission of electromagnetic wave in concrete, a novel architecture of wireless humidity sensor, based on Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, is proposed for low-power application. The humidity sensor utilizes the top metal layer to form the interdigitated electrodes, which were then filled with polyimide as the humidity sensing layer. The sensor interface converts the humidity capacitance into a digital signal in the frequency domain. A two-stage rectifier adopts a dynamic bias-voltage generator to boost the effective gate-source voltage of the switches in differential-drive architecture. The clock generator employs a novel structure to reduce the internal voltage swing. The measurement results show that our proposed wireless humidity can achieve a high linearity with a normalized sensitivity of 0.55% %RH at 20 °C. Despite the high losses of concrete, the proposed wireless humidity sensor achieves reliable communication performances in passive mode. The maximum operating distance is 0.52 m when the proposed wireless sensor is embedded into the concrete at the depth of 8 cm. The measured results are highly consistent with the results measured by traditional methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Planar Microwave Sensor for Theranostic Therapy of Organic Tissue Based on Oval Split Ring Resonators
Sensors 2016, 16(9), 1450; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16091450 - 08 Sep 2016
Cited by 12
Abstract
Microwave sensors in medical environments play a significant role due to the contact-less and non-invasive sensing mechanism to determine dielectric properties of tissue. In this work, a theranostic sensor based on Split Ring Resonators (SRRs) is presented that provides two operation modes to [...] Read more.
Microwave sensors in medical environments play a significant role due to the contact-less and non-invasive sensing mechanism to determine dielectric properties of tissue. In this work, a theranostic sensor based on Split Ring Resonators (SRRs) is presented that provides two operation modes to detect and treat tumor cells, exemplary in the liver. For the detection mode, resonance frequency changes due to abnormalities are evaluated, and in the treatment mode, microwave ablation is performed. The planar sensor structure can be integrated into a needle like a surgery tool that evokes challenges concerning size limitations and biocompatibility. To meet the size requirements and provide a reasonable operating frequency, properties of oval shaped SRRs are investigated. By elongating the radius of the SRR in one direction, the resonance frequency can be decreased significantly compared to circular SRR by a factor of two below 12 GHz. In order to validate the detection and treatment characteristics of the sensor, full wave simulations and measurements are examined. Clear resonance shifts are detected for loading the sensor structures with phantoms mimicking healthy and malignant tissue. For treatment mode evaluation, ex vivo beef liver tissue was ablated leading to a lesion zone 1.2 cm × 1 cm × 0.3 cm with a three minute exposure of maximum 2.1 W. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Dielectric-Filled Waveguide Antenna Element for 3D Imaging Radar in High Temperature and Excessive Dust Conditions
Sensors 2016, 16(8), 1339; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16081339 - 22 Aug 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
Three-dimensional information of the burden surface in high temperature and excessive dust industrial conditions has been previously hard to obtain. This paper presents a novel microstrip-fed dielectric-filled waveguide antenna element which is resistant to dust and high temperatures. A novel microstrip-to-dielectric-loaded waveguide transition [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional information of the burden surface in high temperature and excessive dust industrial conditions has been previously hard to obtain. This paper presents a novel microstrip-fed dielectric-filled waveguide antenna element which is resistant to dust and high temperatures. A novel microstrip-to-dielectric-loaded waveguide transition was developed. A cylinder and cuboid composite structure was employed at the terminal of the antenna element, which improved the return loss performance and reduced the size. The proposed antenna element was easily integrated into a T-shape multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) imaging radar system and tested in both the laboratory environment and real blast furnace environment. The measurement results show that the proposed antenna element works very well in industrial 3D imaging radar. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design of an HF-Band RFID System with Multiple Readers and Passive Tags for Indoor Mobile Robot Self-Localization
Sensors 2016, 16(8), 1200; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16081200 - 29 Jul 2016
Cited by 9
Abstract
Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has already been explored for efficient self-localization of indoor mobile robots. A mobile robot equipped with RFID readers detects passive RFID tags installed on the floor in order to locate itself. The Monte-Carlo localization (MCL) method enables the [...] Read more.
Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has already been explored for efficient self-localization of indoor mobile robots. A mobile robot equipped with RFID readers detects passive RFID tags installed on the floor in order to locate itself. The Monte-Carlo localization (MCL) method enables the localization of a mobile robot equipped with an RFID system with reasonable accuracy, sufficient robustness and low computational cost. The arrangements of RFID readers and tags and the size of antennas are important design parameters for realizing accurate and robust self-localization using a low-cost RFID system. The design of a likelihood model of RFID tag detection is also crucial for the accurate self-localization. This paper presents a novel design and arrangement of RFID readers and tags for indoor mobile robot self-localization. First, by considering small-sized and large-sized antennas of an RFID reader, we show how the design of the likelihood model affects the accuracy of self-localization. We also design a novel likelihood model by taking into consideration the characteristics of the communication range of an RFID system with a large antenna. Second, we propose a novel arrangement of RFID tags with eight RFID readers, which results in the RFID system configuration requiring much fewer readers and tags while retaining reasonable accuracy of self-localization. We verify the performances of MCL-based self-localization realized using the high-frequency (HF)-band RFID system with eight RFID readers and a lower density of RFID tags installed on the floor based on MCL in simulated and real environments. The results of simulations and real environment experiments demonstrate that our proposed low-cost HF-band RFID system realizes accurate and robust self-localization of an indoor mobile robot. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Distributed Crack Sensor Using Coaxial Cable
Sensors 2016, 16(8), 1198; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16081198 - 29 Jul 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
Cracks, the important factor of structure failure, reflect structural damage directly. Thus, it is significant to realize distributed, real-time crack monitoring. To overcome the shortages of traditional crack detectors, such as the inconvenience of installation, vulnerability, and low measurement range, etc., an improved [...] Read more.
Cracks, the important factor of structure failure, reflect structural damage directly. Thus, it is significant to realize distributed, real-time crack monitoring. To overcome the shortages of traditional crack detectors, such as the inconvenience of installation, vulnerability, and low measurement range, etc., an improved topology-based cable sensor with a shallow helical groove on the outside surface of a coaxial cable is proposed in this paper. The sensing mechanism, fabrication method, and performances are investigated both numerically and experimentally. Crack monitoring experiments of the reinforced beams are also presented in this paper, illustrating the utility of this sensor in practical applications. These studies show that the sensor can identify a minimum crack width of 0.02 mm and can measure multiple cracks with a spatial resolution of 3 mm. In addition, it is also proved that the sensor performs well to detect the initiation and development of cracks until structure failure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A High-Gain Passive UHF-RFID Tag with Increased Read Range
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1150; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071150 - 22 Jul 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this work, a passive ultra-high frequency radio-frequency identification UHF-RFID tag based on a 1.25 wavelengths thin dipole antenna is presented for the first time. The length of the antenna is properly chosen in order to maximize the tag read range, while maintaining [...] Read more.
In this work, a passive ultra-high frequency radio-frequency identification UHF-RFID tag based on a 1.25 wavelengths thin dipole antenna is presented for the first time. The length of the antenna is properly chosen in order to maximize the tag read range, while maintaining a reasonable tag size and radiation pattern. The antenna is matched to the RFID chip by means of a very simple matching network based on a shunt inductance. A tag prototype, based on the Alien Higgs-3 chip, is designed and fabricated. The overall dimensions are 400 mm × 14.6 mm, but the tag width for most of its length is delimited by the wire diameter (0.8 mm). The measured read range exhibits a maximum value of 17.5 m at the 902–928 MHz frequency band. This represents an important improvement over state-of-the-art passive UHF-RFID tags. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A 3D Model of the Thermoelectric Microwave Power Sensor by MEMS Technology
Sensors 2016, 16(6), 921; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16060921 - 21 Jun 2016
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this paper, a novel 3D model is proposed to describe the temperature distribution of the thermoelectric microwave power sensor. In this 3D model, the heat flux density decreases from the upper surface to the lower surface of the GaAs substrate while it [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel 3D model is proposed to describe the temperature distribution of the thermoelectric microwave power sensor. In this 3D model, the heat flux density decreases from the upper surface to the lower surface of the GaAs substrate while it was supposed to be a constant in the 2D model. The power sensor is fabricated by a GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) process and micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology. The microwave performance experiment shows that the S11 is less than −26 dB over the frequency band of 1–10 GHz. The power response experiment demonstrates that the output voltage increases from 0 mV to 27 mV, while the incident power varies from 1 mW to 100 mW. The measured sensitivity is about 0.27 mV/mW, and the calculated result from the 3D model is 0.28 mV/mW. The relative error has been reduced from 7.5% of the 2D model to 3.7% of the 3D model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Using the Fingerprinting Method to Customize RTLS Based on the AoA Ranging Technique
Sensors 2016, 16(6), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16060876 - 14 Jun 2016
Cited by 7
Abstract
Real-time Locating Systems (RTLSs) have the ability to precisely locate the position of things and people in real time. They are needed for security and emergency applications, but also for healthcare and home care appliances. The research aims for developing an analytical method [...] Read more.
Real-time Locating Systems (RTLSs) have the ability to precisely locate the position of things and people in real time. They are needed for security and emergency applications, but also for healthcare and home care appliances. The research aims for developing an analytical method to customize RTLSs, in order to improve localization performance in terms of precision. The proposed method is based on Angle of Arrival (AoA), a ranging technique and fingerprinting method along with an analytically defined uncertainty of AoA, and a localization uncertainty map. The presented solution includes three main concerns: geometry of indoor space, RTLS arrangement, and a statistical approach to localization precision of a pair of location sensors using an AoA signal. An evaluation of the implementation of the customized RTLS validates the analytical model of the fingerprinting map. The results of simulations and physical experiments verify the proposed method. The research confirms that the analytically established fingerprint map is the valid representation of RTLS’ performance in terms of precision. Furthermore, the research demonstrates an impact of workspace geometry and workspace layout onto the RTLS’ performance. Moreover, the studies show how the size and shape of a workspace and the placement of the calibration point affect the fingerprint map. Withal, the performance investigation defines the most effective arrangement of location sensors and its influence on localization precision. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reducing Sweeping Frequencies in Microwave NDT Employing Machine Learning Feature Selection
Sensors 2016, 16(4), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16040559 - 19 Apr 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
Nondestructive Testing (NDT) assessment of materials’ health condition is useful for classifying healthy from unhealthy structures or detecting flaws in metallic or dielectric structures. Performing structural health testing for coated/uncoated metallic or dielectric materials with the same testing equipment requires a testing method [...] Read more.
Nondestructive Testing (NDT) assessment of materials’ health condition is useful for classifying healthy from unhealthy structures or detecting flaws in metallic or dielectric structures. Performing structural health testing for coated/uncoated metallic or dielectric materials with the same testing equipment requires a testing method that can work on metallics and dielectrics such as microwave testing. Reducing complexity and expenses associated with current diagnostic practices of microwave NDT of structural health requires an effective and intelligent approach based on feature selection and classification techniques of machine learning. Current microwave NDT methods in general based on measuring variation in the S-matrix over the entire operating frequency ranges of the sensors. For instance, assessing the health of metallic structures using a microwave sensor depends on the reflection or/and transmission coefficient measurements as a function of the sweeping frequencies of the operating band. The aim of this work is reducing sweeping frequencies using machine learning feature selection techniques. By treating sweeping frequencies as features, the number of top important features can be identified, then only the most influential features (frequencies) are considered when building the microwave NDT equipment. The proposed method of reducing sweeping frequencies was validated experimentally using a waveguide sensor and a metallic plate with different cracks. Among the investigated feature selection techniques are information gain, gain ratio, relief, chi-squared. The effectiveness of the selected features were validated through performance evaluations of various classification models; namely, Nearest Neighbor, Neural Networks, Random Forest, and Support Vector Machine. Results showed good crack classification accuracy rates after employing feature selection algorithms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Compact Reconfigurable Antenna with an Omnidirectional Pattern and Four Directional Patterns for Wireless Sensor Systems
Sensors 2016, 16(4), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16040552 - 16 Apr 2016
Cited by 1
Abstract
A compact reconfigurable antenna with an omnidirectional mode and four directional modes is proposed. The antenna has a main radiator and four parasitic elements printed on a dielectric substrate. By changing the status of diodes soldered on the parasitic elements, the proposed antenna [...] Read more.
A compact reconfigurable antenna with an omnidirectional mode and four directional modes is proposed. The antenna has a main radiator and four parasitic elements printed on a dielectric substrate. By changing the status of diodes soldered on the parasitic elements, the proposed antenna can generate four directional radiation patterns and one omnidirectional radiation pattern. The main beam directions of the four directional modes are almost orthogonal and the four directional beams can jointly cover a 360° range in the horizontal plane, i.e., the main radiation plane of omnidirectional mode. The whole volume of the antenna and the control network is approximately 0.70 λ × 0.53 λ × 0.02 λ, where λ is the wavelength corresponding to the center frequency. The proposed antenna has a simple structure and small dimensions under the requirement that the directional radiation patterns can jointly cover the main radiation plane of the omnidirectional mode, therefore, it can be used in smart wireless sensor systems for different application scenarios. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stretchable Metamaterial Absorber Using Liquid Metal-Filled Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)
Sensors 2016, 16(4), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16040521 - 11 Apr 2016
Cited by 8
Abstract
A stretchable metamaterial absorber is proposed in this study. The stretchability was achieved by liquid metal and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). To inject liquid metal, microfluidic channels were fabricated using PDMS powers and microfluidic-channel frames, which were built using a three-dimensional printer. A top conductive [...] Read more.
A stretchable metamaterial absorber is proposed in this study. The stretchability was achieved by liquid metal and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). To inject liquid metal, microfluidic channels were fabricated using PDMS powers and microfluidic-channel frames, which were built using a three-dimensional printer. A top conductive pattern and ground plane were designed after considering the easy injection of liquid metal. The proposed metamaterial absorber comprises three layers of PDMS substrate. The top layer is for the top conductive pattern, and the bottom layer is for the meandered ground plane. Flat PDMS layers were inserted between the top and bottom PDMS layers. The measured absorptivity of the fabricated absorber was 97.8% at 18.5 GHz, and the absorption frequency increased from 18.5 to 18.65 GHz as the absorber was stretched from its original length (5.2 cm) to 6.4 cm. Full article
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