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Special Issue "Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors: From Bench-Top to Point-of-Care"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2015).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Kagan Kerman

Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto at Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, ON, M1C 1A4, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Interests: electrochemical sensors; biosensors; immunosensors; DNA; nanomaterials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A biosensor is a device that contains a biological, or bioinspired recognition layer with unique specificity toward target analytes, which can be DNA, proteins, and small molecules like glucose, chemical warfare agents or environmental pollutants. The focus on electrochemical sensors and biosensors is growing exponentially, as these detection systems can be easily miniaturized and mass-produced for point-of-care applications. This Special Issue, entitled “Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors: From Benchtop to Point-of-Care”, aims to highlight the most recent and promising technologies in the field of electrochemical sensors and biosensors. In particular, the development of an electrochemical biosensor may require collaboration between the disciplines of chemistry, biomedical engineering, electronic engineering and medicine. This special issue is intended to be a timely and comprehensive issue on new emerging technologies that are currently being developed by research laboratories world-wide on electrochemical biosensors and biomicrodevices (e.g. DNA sensors, paper-based biosensors, microfluidic biochips, bioMEMS) with emphasis on, but not limited to, point-of-care applications. Research papers, short communications and reviews are all welcome. If the author is interested in submitting a review, it would be helpful to discuss this with the guest-editor before your submission.

Prof. Dr. Kagan Kerman
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • Electrochemical sensor
  • biosensor, biochip
  • lab-on-a-chip
  • bioMEMS
  • electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
  • voltammetry
  • amperometry
  • nanomaterials
  • DNA
  • enzyme
  • immunosensor

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

Open AccessCommunication
Highly Sensitive Measurement of Bio-Electric Potentials by Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) Electrodes for Plant Monitoring
Sensors 2015, 15(10), 26921-26928; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151026921
Received: 12 August 2015 / Revised: 15 October 2015 / Accepted: 19 October 2015 / Published: 23 October 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2312 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We describe a sensitive plant monitoring system by the detection of the bioelectric potentials in plants with boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. For sensor electrodes, we used commercially available BDD, Ag, and Pt plate electrodes. We tested this approach on a hybrid species in [...] Read more.
We describe a sensitive plant monitoring system by the detection of the bioelectric potentials in plants with boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. For sensor electrodes, we used commercially available BDD, Ag, and Pt plate electrodes. We tested this approach on a hybrid species in the genus Opuntia (potted) and three different trees (ground-planted) at different places in Japan. For the Opuntia, we artificially induced bioelectric potential changes by the surface potential using the fingers. We detected substantial changes in bioelectric potentials through all electrodes during finger touches on the surface of potted Opuntia hybrid plants, although the BDD electrodes were several times more sensitive to bioelectric potential change compared to the other electrodes. Similarly for ground-planted trees, we found that both BDD and Pt electrodes detected bioelectric potential change induced by changing environmental factors (temperature and humidity) for months without replacing/removing/changing electrodes, BDD electrodes were 5–10 times more sensitive in this detection than Pt electrodes. Given these results, we conclude that BDD electrodes on live plant tissue were able to consistently detect bioelectrical potential changes in plants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Integration of a Miniature Quartz Crystal Microbalance with a Microfluidic Chip for Amyloid Beta-Aβ42 Quantitation
Sensors 2015, 15(10), 25746-25760; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151025746
Received: 24 June 2015 / Revised: 18 September 2015 / Accepted: 22 September 2015 / Published: 12 October 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A miniature quartz crystal microbalance (mQCM) was integrated with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device for on-chip determination of amyloid polypeptide–Aβ42. The integration techniques included photolithography and plasma coupling. Aβ42 antibody was immobilized on the mQCM surface using a cross-linker method, [...] Read more.
A miniature quartz crystal microbalance (mQCM) was integrated with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device for on-chip determination of amyloid polypeptide–Aβ42. The integration techniques included photolithography and plasma coupling. Aβ42 antibody was immobilized on the mQCM surface using a cross-linker method, and the resonance frequency of mQCM shifted negatively due to antibody-antigen binding. A linear range from 0.1 µM to 3.2 µM was achieved. By using matrix elimination buffer, i.e., matrix phosphate buffer containing 500 µg/mL dextran and 0.5% Tween 20, Aβ42 could be successfully detected in the presence of 75% human serum. Additionally, high temperature treatments at 150 °C provided a valid method to recover mQCM, and PDMS-mQCM microfluidic device could be reused to some extent. Since the detectable Aβ42 concentration could be as low as 0.1 µM, which is close to cut-off value for Alzheimer patients, the PDMS-mQCM device could be applied in early Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimisation and Characterisation of Anti-Fouling Ternary SAM Layers for Impedance-Based Aptasensors
Sensors 2015, 15(10), 25015-25032; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151025015
Received: 30 July 2015 / Revised: 15 September 2015 / Accepted: 18 September 2015 / Published: 29 September 2015
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (895 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An aptasensor with enhanced anti-fouling properties has been developed. As a case study, the aptasensor was designed with specificity for human thrombin. The sensing platform was developed on screen printed electrodes and is composed of a self-assembled monolayer made from a ternary mixture [...] Read more.
An aptasensor with enhanced anti-fouling properties has been developed. As a case study, the aptasensor was designed with specificity for human thrombin. The sensing platform was developed on screen printed electrodes and is composed of a self-assembled monolayer made from a ternary mixture of 15-base thiolated DNA aptamers specific for human thrombin co-immobilised with 1,6-hexanedithiol (HDT) and further passivated with 1-mercapto-6-hexanol (MCH). HDT binds to the surface by two of its thiol groups forming alkyl chain bridges and this architecture protects from non-specific attachment of molecules to the electrode surface. Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), the aptasensor is able to detect human thrombin as variations in charge transfer resistance (Rct) upon protein binding. After exposure to a high concentration of non-specific Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) solution, no changes in the Rct value were observed, highlighting the bio-fouling resistance of the surface generated. In this paper, we present the optimisation and characterisation of the aptasensor based on the ternary self-assembled monolayer (SAM) layer. We show that anti-fouling properties depend on the type of gold surface used for biosensor construction, which was also confirmed by contact angle measurements. We further studied the ratio between aptamers and HDT, which can determine the specificity and selectivity of the sensing layer. We also report the influence of buffer pH and temperature used for incubation of electrodes with proteins on detection and anti-fouling properties. Finally, the stability of the aptasensor was studied by storage of modified electrodes for up to 28 days in different buffers and atmospheric conditions. Aptasensors based on ternary SAM layers are highly promising for clinical applications for detection of a range of proteins in real biological samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Palladium-Tin Modified Microband Electrode Array for Nitrate Determination
Sensors 2015, 15(9), 23249-23261; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150923249
Received: 29 June 2015 / Revised: 16 August 2015 / Accepted: 4 September 2015 / Published: 15 September 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3581 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A microband electrode array modified with palladium-tin bimetallic composite has been developed for nitrate determination. The microband electrode array was fabricated by Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technique. Palladium and tin were electrodeposited successively on the electrode, forming a double-layer structure. The effect of [...] Read more.
A microband electrode array modified with palladium-tin bimetallic composite has been developed for nitrate determination. The microband electrode array was fabricated by Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technique. Palladium and tin were electrodeposited successively on the electrode, forming a double-layer structure. The effect of the Pd-Sn composite was investigated and its enhancement of catalytic activity and lifetime was revealed. The Pd-Sn modified electrode showed good linearity (R2 = 0.998) from 1 mg/L to 20 mg/L for nitrate determination with a sensitivity of 398 μA/(mg∙L−1∙cm2). The electrode exhibited a satisfying analytical performance after 60 days of storage, indicating a long lifetime. Good repeatability was also displayed by the Pd-Sn modified electrodes. The results provided an option for nitrate determination in water. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Ionic Liquid Modified Disposable Graphite Electrodes for Label-Free Electrochemical Detection of DNA Hybridization Related to Microcystis spp.
Sensors 2015, 15(9), 22737-22749; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150922737
Received: 19 June 2015 / Revised: 20 August 2015 / Accepted: 31 August 2015 / Published: 9 September 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1472 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this present study, ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (IL)) modified pencil graphite electrode (IL-PGEs) was developed for electrochemical monitoring of DNA hybridization related to Microcystis spp. (MYC). The characterization of IL-PGEs was performed using microscopic and electrochemical techniques. DNA hybridization related to MYC [...] Read more.
In this present study, ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (IL)) modified pencil graphite electrode (IL-PGEs) was developed for electrochemical monitoring of DNA hybridization related to Microcystis spp. (MYC). The characterization of IL-PGEs was performed using microscopic and electrochemical techniques. DNA hybridization related to MYC was then explored at the surface of IL-PGEs using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique. After the experimental parameters were optimized, the sequence-selective DNA hybridization related to MYC was performed in the case of hybridization between MYC probe and its complementary DNA target, noncomplementary (NC) or mismatched DNA sequence (MM), or and in the presence of mixture of DNA target: NC (1:1) and DNA target: MM (1:1). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Carbon Nanomaterials Based Electrochemical Sensors/Biosensors for the Sensitive Detection of Pharmaceutical and Biological Compounds
Sensors 2015, 15(9), 22490-22508; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150922490
Received: 26 July 2015 / Revised: 23 August 2015 / Accepted: 30 August 2015 / Published: 4 September 2015
Cited by 44 | PDF Full-text (1645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electrochemical sensors and biosensors have attracted considerable attention for the sensitive detection of a variety of biological and pharmaceutical compounds. Since the discovery of carbon-based nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, C60 and graphene, they have garnered tremendous interest for their potential in the [...] Read more.
Electrochemical sensors and biosensors have attracted considerable attention for the sensitive detection of a variety of biological and pharmaceutical compounds. Since the discovery of carbon-based nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, C60 and graphene, they have garnered tremendous interest for their potential in the design of high-performance electrochemical sensor platforms due to their exceptional thermal, mechanical, electronic, and catalytic properties. Carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors have been employed for the detection of various analytes with rapid electron transfer kinetics. This feature article focuses on the recent design and use of carbon nanomaterials, primarily single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), SWCNTs-rGO, Au nanoparticle-rGO nanocomposites, and buckypaper as sensing materials for the electrochemical detection of some representative biological and pharmaceutical compounds such as methylglyoxal, acetaminophen, valacyclovir, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH), and glucose. Furthermore, the electrochemical performance of SWCNTs, rGO, and SWCNT-rGO for the detection of acetaminophen and valacyclovir was comparatively studied, revealing that SWCNT-rGO nanocomposites possess excellent electrocatalytic activity in comparison to individual SWCNT and rGO platforms. The sensitive, reliable and rapid analysis of critical disease biomarkers and globally emerging pharmaceutical compounds at carbon nanomaterials based electrochemical sensor platforms may enable an extensive range of applications in preemptive medical diagnostics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Nanowire Length and Surface Roughness on the Electrochemical Sensor Properties of Nafion-Free, Vertically Aligned Pt Nanowire Array Electrodes
Sensors 2015, 15(9), 22473-22489; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150922473
Received: 13 July 2015 / Revised: 15 August 2015 / Accepted: 31 August 2015 / Published: 4 September 2015
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1802 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, vertically aligned Pt nanowire arrays (PtNWA) with different lengths and surface roughnesses were fabricated and their electrochemical performance toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection was studied. The nanowire arrays were synthesized by electroplating Pt in nanopores of [...] Read more.
In this paper, vertically aligned Pt nanowire arrays (PtNWA) with different lengths and surface roughnesses were fabricated and their electrochemical performance toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection was studied. The nanowire arrays were synthesized by electroplating Pt in nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. Different parameters, such as current density and deposition time, were precisely controlled to synthesize nanowires with different surface roughnesses and various lengths from 3 μm to 12 μm. The PtNWA electrodes showed better performance than the conventional electrodes modified by Pt nanowires randomly dispersed on the electrode surface. The results indicate that both the length and surface roughness can affect the sensing performance of vertically aligned Pt nanowire array electrodes. Generally, longer nanowires with rougher surfaces showed better electrochemical sensing performance. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA presented the largest sensitivity (654 μA·mM1·cm2) among all the nanowires studied, and showed a limit of detection of 2.4 μM. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA electrode also showed good anti-interference property from chemicals that are typically present in the biological samples such as ascorbic, uric acid, citric acid, and glucose. The sensing performance in real samples (river water) was tested and good recovery was observed. These Nafion-free, vertically aligned Pt nanowires with surface roughness control show great promise as versatile electrochemical sensors and biosensors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
DNA-Redox Cation Interaction Improves the Sensitivity of an Electrochemical Immunosensor for Protein Detection
Sensors 2015, 15(8), 20543-20556; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150820543
Received: 22 June 2015 / Revised: 31 July 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 20 August 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (657 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A simple DNA-redox cation interaction enhancement strategy has been developed to improve the sensitivity of electrochemical immunosensors for protein detection. Instead of labeling with fluorophores or redox-active groups, the detection antibodies were tethered with DNA single strands. Based on the electrostatic interaction between [...] Read more.
A simple DNA-redox cation interaction enhancement strategy has been developed to improve the sensitivity of electrochemical immunosensors for protein detection. Instead of labeling with fluorophores or redox-active groups, the detection antibodies were tethered with DNA single strands. Based on the electrostatic interaction between redox cations ([Ru(NH3)6]3+) and negatively charged DNA backbone, enhanced electrochemical signals were obtained. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) detection has been performed as a trial analysis. A linear response range up to the concentration of 25 mIU/mL and a detection limit of 1.25 mIU/mL have been achieved, both are comparable with the ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. The method also shows great selectivity towards hCG over other hormones such as thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). By and large, our approach bears the merits of cost effectiveness and simplicity of instrumentation in comparison with conventional optical detection methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical Characterization of Protein Adsorption onto YNGRT-Au and VLGXE-Au Surfaces
Sensors 2015, 15(8), 19429-19442; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150819429
Received: 27 June 2015 / Revised: 30 July 2015 / Accepted: 2 August 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The adsorption of the proteins CD13, mucin and bovine serum albumin on VLGXE-Au and YNGRT-Au interfaces was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of [Fe(CN)6]3−/4−. The hydrophobicity of the Au surface was tailored using specific peptides, blocking [...] Read more.
The adsorption of the proteins CD13, mucin and bovine serum albumin on VLGXE-Au and YNGRT-Au interfaces was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of [Fe(CN)6]3−/4−. The hydrophobicity of the Au surface was tailored using specific peptides, blocking agents and diluents. The combination of blocking agents (ethanolamine or n-butylamine) and diluents (hexanethiol or 2-mercaptoethanol) was used to prepare various peptide-modified Au surfaces. Protein adsorption onto the peptide-Au surfaces modified with the combination of n-butylamine and hexanethiol produced a dramatic decrease in the charge transfer resistance, Rct, for all three proteins. In contrast, polar peptide-surfaces induced a minimal change in Rct for all three proteins. Furthermore, an increase in Rct was observed with CD13 (an aminopeptidase overexpressed in certain cancers) in comparison to the other proteins when the VLGXE-Au surface was modified with n-butylamine as a blocking agent. The electrochemical data indicated that protein adsorption may be modulated by tailoring the peptide sequence on Au surfaces and that blocking agents and diluents play a key role in promoting or preventing protein adsorption. The peptide-Au platform may also be used for targeting cancer biomarkers with designer peptides. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Novel, Low-Cost, Disposable Wooden Pencil Graphite Electrode for Use in the Determination of Antioxidants and Other Biological Compounds
Sensors 2015, 15(8), 18887-18900; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150818887
Received: 26 June 2015 / Revised: 18 July 2015 / Accepted: 27 July 2015 / Published: 31 July 2015
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (847 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of portable sensors that can be used outside the lab is an active area of research in the electroanalytical field. A major focus of such research is the development of low-cost electrodes for use in these sensors. Current electrodes, such as [...] Read more.
The development of portable sensors that can be used outside the lab is an active area of research in the electroanalytical field. A major focus of such research is the development of low-cost electrodes for use in these sensors. Current electrodes, such as glassy-carbon electrodes (GCEs), are costly and require time-consuming preparation. Alternatives have been proposed, including mechanical pencil-lead electrodes (MPEs). However, MPEs themselves possess numerous drawbacks, particularly structural fragility. In this paper, we present a novel pencil-graphite electrode (PGE) fabricated from a regular HB#2 pencil. This PGE is a simple, disposable, extremely low-cost alternative to GCEs ($0.30 per PGE, vs. $190 + per GCE), and possesses the structural stability that MPEs lack. PGEs were characterized by square-wave voltammetry of ferricyanide, gallic acid, uric acid, dopamine, and several foodstuffs. In all cases, PGEs demonstrated sensitivities comparable or superior to those of the GCE and MPE (LOD = 5.62 × 104 M PGE, 4.80 × 104 M GCE, 2.93 × 104 M MPE). Signal areas and peak heights were typically four to ten times larger for the PGE relative to the GCE. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Electrochemical Glucose Sensor Based on Zinc Oxide Nanorods
Sensors 2015, 15(8), 18714-18723; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150818714
Received: 13 May 2015 / Revised: 29 June 2015 / Accepted: 22 July 2015 / Published: 30 July 2015
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (1445 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A glucose electrochemical sensor based on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods was investigated. The hydrothermal sol–gel growth method was utilized to grow ZnO nanorods on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates. The total active area of the working electrode was 0.3 × 0.3 cm2 [...] Read more.
A glucose electrochemical sensor based on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods was investigated. The hydrothermal sol–gel growth method was utilized to grow ZnO nanorods on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates. The total active area of the working electrode was 0.3 × 0.3 cm2 where titanium metal was deposited to enhance the contact. Well aligned hexagonal structured ZnO nanorods with a diameter from 68 to 116 nm were obtained. The excitonic peak obtained from the absorbance spectroscopy was observed at ~370 nm. The dominant peak of Raman spectroscopy measurement was at 440 cm−1, matching with the lattice vibration of ZnO. The uniform distribution of the GOx and Nafion membrane that has been done using spin coating technique at 4000 rotations per minute helps in enhancing the ion exchange and increasing the sensitivity of the fabricated electrochemical sensor. The amperometric response of the fabricated electrochemical sensor was 3 s. The obtained sensitivity of the fabricated ZnO electrochemical sensor was 10.911 mA/mM·cm2 and the lower limit of detection was 0.22 µM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Impedance Aptasensor with Microfluidic Chips for Specific Detection of H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus
Sensors 2015, 15(8), 18565-18578; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150818565
Received: 4 June 2015 / Revised: 17 July 2015 / Accepted: 21 July 2015 / Published: 29 July 2015
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (1078 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this research a DNA aptamer, which was selected through SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) to be specific against the H5N1 subtype of the avian influenza virus (AIV), was used as an alternative reagent to monoclonal antibodies in an impedance [...] Read more.
In this research a DNA aptamer, which was selected through SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) to be specific against the H5N1 subtype of the avian influenza virus (AIV), was used as an alternative reagent to monoclonal antibodies in an impedance biosensor utilizing a microfluidics flow cell and an interdigitated microelectrode for the specific detection of H5N1 AIV. The gold surface of the interdigitated microelectrode embedded in a microfluidics flow cell was modified using streptavidin. The biotinylated aptamer against H5N1 was then immobilized on the electrode surface using biotin–streptavidin binding. The target virus was captured on the microelectrode surface, causing an increase in impedance magnitude. The aptasensor had a detection time of 30 min with a detection limit of 0.0128 hemagglutinin units (HAU). Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the binding of the target virus onto the electrode surface. The DNA aptamer was specific to H5N1 and had no cross-reaction to other subtypes of AIV (e.g., H1N1, H2N2, H7N2). The newly developed aptasensor offers a portable, rapid, low-cost alternative to current methods with the same sensitivity and specificity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical Co-Reduction Synthesis of AuPt Bimetallic Nanoparticles-Graphene Nanocomposites for Selective Detection of Dopamine in the Presence of Ascorbic Acid and Uric Acid
Sensors 2015, 15(7), 16614-16631; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150716614
Received: 20 March 2015 / Revised: 5 June 2015 / Accepted: 16 June 2015 / Published: 9 July 2015
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (2626 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, AuPt bimetallic nanoparticles-graphene nanocomposites were obtained by electrochemical co-reduction of graphene oxide (GO), HAuCl4 and H2PtCl6. The as-prepared AuPt bimetallic nanoparticles-graphene nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and other [...] Read more.
In this paper, AuPt bimetallic nanoparticles-graphene nanocomposites were obtained by electrochemical co-reduction of graphene oxide (GO), HAuCl4 and H2PtCl6. The as-prepared AuPt bimetallic nanoparticles-graphene nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and other electrochemical methods. The morphology and composition of the nanocomposite could be easily controlled by adjusting the HAuCl4/H2PtCl6 concentration ratio. The electrochemical experiments showed that when the concentration ratio of HAuCl4/H2PtCl6 was 1:1, the obtained AuPt bimetallic nanoparticles-graphene nanocomposite (denoted as Au1Pt1NPs-GR) possessed the highest electrocatalytic activity toward dopamine (DA). As such, Au1Pt1NPs-GR nanocomposites were used to detect DA in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) using the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique and on the modified electrode, there were three separate DPV oxidation peaks with the peak potential separations of 177 mV, 130 mV and 307 mV for DA and AA, DA and UA, AA and UA, respectively. The linear range of the constructed DA sensor was from 1.6 μM to 39.7 μM with a detection limit of 0.1 μM (S/N = 3). The obtained DA sensor with good stability, high reproducibility and excellent selectivity made it possible to detect DA in human urine samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Colorimetric Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Detection Platform for a Point-of-Care Dengue Detection System on a Lab-on-Compact-Disc
Sensors 2015, 15(5), 11431-11441; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150511431
Received: 15 November 2014 / Accepted: 18 March 2015 / Published: 18 May 2015
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (1069 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is the gold standard clinical diagnostic tool for the detection and quantification of protein biomarkers. However, conventional ELISA tests have drawbacks in their requirement of time, expensive equipment and expertise for operation. Hence, for the purpose of rapid, [...] Read more.
The enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is the gold standard clinical diagnostic tool for the detection and quantification of protein biomarkers. However, conventional ELISA tests have drawbacks in their requirement of time, expensive equipment and expertise for operation. Hence, for the purpose of rapid, high throughput screening and point-of-care diagnosis, researchers are miniaturizing sandwich ELISA procedures on Lab-on-a-Chip and Lab-on-Compact Disc (LOCD) platforms. This paper presents a novel integrated device to detect and interpret the ELISA test results on a LOCD platform. The system applies absorption spectrophotometry to measure the absorbance (optical density) of the sample using a monochromatic light source and optical sensor. The device performs automated analysis of the results and presents absorbance values and diagnostic test results via a graphical display or via Bluetooth to a smartphone platform which also acts as controller of the device. The efficacy of the device was evaluated by performing dengue antibody IgG ELISA on 64 hospitalized patients suspected of dengue. The results demonstrate high accuracy of the device, with 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity in detection when compared with gold standard commercial ELISA microplate readers. This sensor platform represents a significant step towards establishing ELISA as a rapid, inexpensive and automatic testing method for the purpose of point-of-care-testing (POCT) in resource-limited settings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Improved Electrochemical Aptasensor for Chloramphenicol Detection Based on Aptamer Incorporated Gelatine
Sensors 2015, 15(4), 7605-7618; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150407605
Received: 13 January 2015 / Revised: 9 March 2015 / Accepted: 16 March 2015 / Published: 27 March 2015
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (3408 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Because of the biocompatible properties of gelatine and the good affinity of aptamers for their targets, the combination of aptamer and gelatine type B is reported as promising for the development of biosensing devices. Here, an aptamer for chloramphenicol (CAP) is mixed with [...] Read more.
Because of the biocompatible properties of gelatine and the good affinity of aptamers for their targets, the combination of aptamer and gelatine type B is reported as promising for the development of biosensing devices. Here, an aptamer for chloramphenicol (CAP) is mixed with different types of gelatine and dropped on the surface of disposable gold screen printed electrodes. The signal of the CAP reduction is investigated using differential pulse voltammetry. The diagnostic performance of the sensor is described and a detection limit of 1.83 × 10−10 M is found. The selectivity and the stability of the aptasensor are studied and compared to those of other CAP sensors described in literature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Low-Cost Photolithographic Fabrication of Nanowires and Microfilters for Advanced Bioassay Devices
Sensors 2015, 15(3), 6091-6104; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150306091
Received: 14 January 2015 / Revised: 21 February 2015 / Accepted: 2 March 2015 / Published: 12 March 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (8153 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Integrated microfluidic devices with nanosized array electrodes and microfiltration capabilities can greatly increase sensitivity and enhance automation in immunoassay devices. In this contribution, we utilize the edge-patterning method of thin aluminum (Al) films in order to form nano- to micron-sized gaps. Evaporation of [...] Read more.
Integrated microfluidic devices with nanosized array electrodes and microfiltration capabilities can greatly increase sensitivity and enhance automation in immunoassay devices. In this contribution, we utilize the edge-patterning method of thin aluminum (Al) films in order to form nano- to micron-sized gaps. Evaporation of high work-function metals (i.e., Au, Ag, etc.) on these gaps, followed by Al lift-off, enables the formation of electrical uniform nanowires from low-cost, plastic-based, photomasks. By replacing Al with chromium (Cr), the formation of high resolution, custom-made photomasks that are ideal for low-cost fabrication of a plurality of array devices were realized. To demonstrate the feasibility of such Cr photomasks, SU-8 micro-pillar masters were formed and replicated into PDMS to produce micron-sized filters with 3–4 µm gaps and an aspect ratio of 3. These microfilters were capable of retaining 6 µm beads within a localized site, while allowing solvent flow. The combination of nanowire arrays and micro-pillar filtration opens new perspectives for rapid R&D screening of various microfluidic-based immunoassay geometries, where analyte pre-concentration and highly sensitive, electrochemical detection can be readily co-localized. Full article
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